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Battle of Sekigahara

Coordinates: 35°22′14″N 136°27′42″E / 35.3705°N 136.4616°E / 35.3705; 136.4616
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Battle of Sekigahara
Part of the Sengoku period

Edo-period screen depicting the battle
DateOctober 21, 1600
Location35°22′14″N 136°27′42″E / 35.3705°N 136.4616°E / 35.3705; 136.4616
Result Eastern army victory
Tokugawa clan gains nominal control of all Japan
Western Army: Forces loyal to Ishida Mitsunari, many clans from Western Japan Eastern Army: Forces loyal to Tokugawa Ieyasu, clans of Eastern Japan
Commanders and leaders
Ishida Mitsunari Executed
Ukita Hideie
Ōtani Yoshitsugu 
Shima Sakon 
Chōsokabe Morichika
Gamō Yorisato 
Shimazu Yoshihiro
Shimazu Toyohisa 
Akashi Takenori
Konishi Yukinaga Executed
Toda Katsushige 
Ankokuji Ekei Executed
Mōri Hidemoto
Natsuka Masaie 
Hiratsuka Tamehiro 
Kobayakawa Hideaki
Kikkawa Hiroie
Wakisaka Yasuharu
Kutsuki Mototsuna
Akaza Naoyasu
Ogawa Suketada
Tokugawa Ieyasu:Overall commander
Ii Naomasa: Supreme field commander[1]
Fukushima Masanori
Tōdō Takatora
Hosokawa Tadaoki
Ikeda Terumasa
Oda Urakusai
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
Kuroda Nagamasa
Takenaka Shigekado
Honda Tadakatsu
Furuta Shigekatsu
Katō Yoshiaki
Terazawa Hirotaka
Ikoma Kazumasa
Tsutsui Sadatsugu
Horio Tadauji
Kanamori Nagachika
Asano Yoshinaga
Yamauchi Katsutoyo
Kyōgoku Takatomo
120,000 initially,[2]
81,890 by the time of battle[3]
75,000 initially,[2]
88,888 by the time of battle[3]
Casualties and losses

Sekigahara Gunki Taisei: 8,000–32,000 killed[4]

Tokugawa Jikki; The Chronicles of Toshogu Shrine: 35,270 killed[5]

~23,000 defected[citation needed]

Sekigahara Gunki Taisei: 4,000–10,000 killed[6]

Tokugawa Jikki; The Chronicles of Toshogu Shrine: 8,000 killed[5]
Battle of Sekigahara is located in Gifu Prefecture
Battle of Sekigahara
Location within Gifu Prefecture
Battle of Sekigahara is located in Japan
Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara (Japan)

The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰い, Hepburn romanization: Sekigahara no Tatakai) was a historical battle in Japan which occurred on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month) in what is now Gifu Prefecture, Japan, at the end of the Sengoku period.

This battle was fought by the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu against a coalition led by Ishida Mitsunari, from which several commanders defected before or during the battle, leading to a Tokugawa victory. The Battle of Sekigahara was the largest battle of Japanese feudal history and is often regarded as the most important.

Mitsunari's defeat in the battle of Sekigahara is generally considered to be the beginning point of the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan for another two and a half centuries until 1868.[7]


The final years of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's reign were turbulent. At the time of Hideyoshi's death, his heir, Toyotomi Hideyori, was only 5 years old, causing a power vacuum in Japan.[8][9]

Feuding factions[edit]

In the years following the Imjin War and the death of Hideyoshi, factional disputes arose between Mitsunari and seven former Toyotomi generals including Katō Kiyomasa. Tokugawa Ieyasu gathered both Kiyomasa and Fukushima Masanori to his cause in a bid to challenge the opposition from Mitsunari, who claimed to fight on behalf of the Toyotomi clan.[10] At this time, political tensions were high in the capital; rumors circulated of assassination attempts towards Ieyasu, while a son of Maeda Toshiie, Toshinaga, was accused of being involved in such conspiracies and forced to submit to Ieyasu.[10] Uesugi Kagekatsu, one of Hideyoshi's regents, stood against Ieyasu by building up his army, which Ieyasu officially questioned, demanding answers from Kyoto about Kagekatsu's suspicious activity. Naoe Kanetsugu responded with a mocking letter highlighting Ieyasu's own violations of Hideyoshi's orders.[11]

Mitsunari met with Ōtani Yoshitsugu, Mashita Nagamori and Ankokuji Ekei, conspiring to raise an anti-Tokugawa army, of which Mōri Terumoto was appointed to be the overall commander. This coalition formed what came to be referred to as the Western Army. Terumoto immediately marched and captured Osaka Castle while the main army of the Tokugawa were still on their way to suppress Kagekatsu.[12]

At first, Mitsunari wanted to use Gifu Castle, which at that time was commanded by Oda Hidenobu (the grandson of Oda Nobunaga), and Ōgaki Castle as choke points to impede the advances of the Eastern Army (the Tokugawa-led coalition).[13] However, this plan was foiled by a number of campaign events:

Following these failures and the threat against Osaka Castle, Mitsunari changed his plan and prepared his army for an open battle on the field of Sekigahara against the main body of the Eastern Army, led by Ieyasu.[13] As preparation for this inevitable conflict, Ieyasu had purchased massive quantities of Tanegashima matchlocks.[22]

However, on September 14, one day before the beginning of the battle, Kikkawa Hiroie, vassal of the Western Army-allied Mōri clan, colluded with the Eastern Army and promised that the Mōri clan would change sides during the battle, on the condition they would be pardoned after the war. Kuroda Yoshitaka and Kuroda Nagamasa served as representatives of the Eastern Army in this correspondence with Hiroie.[23]

The battle[edit]

At dawn on October 21, 1600, the Tokugawa advance guard stumbled into Ishida's army; neither side saw each other because of dense fog caused by earlier rains. Both sides panicked and withdrew, but each was now aware of their adversary's presence.[22] Mitsunari placed his position in defensive formation, while Ieyasu deployed his forces south of the Western Army position. Last-minute orders were issued and the battle began. Traditional opinion has stated the battle began around 8:00 AM;[24] however, recent Japanese historians' research estimates that the battle actually began closer to 10:00 AM.[25][26][b]

The battle started when Ii Naomasa, previously heavily involved in the Battle of Gifu Castle, commanded his famed unit of 3,600 crimson-clad Ii no Akazoane ("Ii's red devils") to attack the center of the Western Army.[28][29] According to historian Watanabe Daimon, by many indications of the battle records, the assignment of Naomasa as ichiban-yari (the first unit to engage the enemy) suggests the armies may have already been settled before the battle. Fukushima Masanori concurred with Naomasa's intention to lead the first attack, as Naomasa was appointed by Ieyasu as the supreme field commander and was therefore responsible for all commands and strategies during the battle.[c]

Naomasa charged forward with 30 spearmen and clashed with the ranks of the Western Army.[30] Meanwhile, Fukushima Masanori advanced from his position, following Naomasa and immediately engaging with troops led by Ukita Hideie.[31]

At this point, the battle entered a deadlock. Ōta Gyūichi, who was present at the battle, wrote in his chronicle that "friends and foes are pushing each other" and "gunfire thunders while hails of arrows fly in the sky".[32][33] According to records from Spanish accounts, 19 cannons from the De Liefde [nl], a Dutch trading ship, were used by the Tokugawa army at this battle as well.[34][35]

Western Army defectors[edit]

Sekigahara battle's painting on folding screen
Site of Matsudaira Tadayoshi and Ii Naomasa's Positions during the battle

During the battle of Sekigahara, several commanders of the Western Army changed sides, allying with the Tokugawa and changing the course of the battle. Perhaps the most notable of these defectors was Kobayakawa Hideaki, the nephew of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, whose disgruntlement with his uncle was exploited by the Tokugawa to sway his loyalty. Two prevailing theories exist regarding the timeline of Hideaki's defection:

  • The conventional theory regarding Hideaki's defection suggests that the defection occurred partway through the battle. Although he had agreed to defect to the Tokugawa side beforehand, Hideaki was allegedly hesitant during the battle and remained neutral, reportedly only joining the battle around noon as a member of the Eastern Army. Some later historical accounts claim that as the battle grew more intense, Ieyasu finally ordered his arquebuses to fire at Kobayakawa's position on Mt. Matsuo to force a choice.[36] This version allegedly originated from an anecdote about Hideaki dating to the Edo period.[25]
  • Modern Japanese researchers of Sekigahara, such as Jun Shiramine and Junji Mitsunare, have advanced the theory that Hideaki had already defected to the side of Tokugawa by the start of the battle, based on correspondence documents between Hideaki and Kuroda Nagamasa before the battle, as well as Ōtani Yoshitsugu's army position at the start of the battle suggesting foreknowledge by the Western Army of Hideaki's betrayal.[25] Historian Stephen Turnbull also argues that the sheer distance between the Eastern Army positions and that of Kobayakawa, far out of range of arquebuses and likely too far for a shot to even be heard, makes the "story about Ieyasu ordering ‘cannon-shot’ into his ranks" to force Hideaki's hand very unlikely.[36] Furthermore, Yūichi Goza explains that the story of Ieyasu shooting at Hideaki's location comes from secondary sources from the Edo period, suggesting it may have been the result of dramatization and embellishment from pro-Tokugawa shogunate historiography to aggrandize Ieyasu's success in Sekigahara.[37]

Regardless of what actually transpired, the turncoat Kobayakawa forces overwhelmed Yoshitsugu's position.[24] At the same time, Yoshitsugu's troops also engaged the units led by Tōdō Takatora and Oda Yūraku.[citation needed]

Following the defection of Hideaki, Western Army leaders Wakisaka Yasuharu, Ogawa Suketada, Akaza Naoyasu and Kutsuki Mototsuna also changed sides, further turning the battle in the Eastern Army's favor. These four commanders are recorded to have established contact and concluded deals with Tōdō Takatora, one of the main commanders of the Eastern Army, several days before the battle.[38]

Mōri Terumoto, then daimyō of the Mōri clan, also defected from the Western Army during the battle by keeping his forces entrenched at Osaka Castle rather than joining the battle, then sending his vassal Kikkawa Hiroie to quietly surrender to Ieyasu afterward.[39] Professor Yoshiji Yamasaki of Toho University states that any neutrality-for-territorial-preservation agreement was ineffective at best and badly backfired for the Mōri at worst, as their domains were greatly reduced by the Tokugawa following the battle, and some Mōri troops notably did fight with the Western Army at Sekigahara rather than maintaining their neutrality. Sentiments of defection were divided among the Mōri; Mōri Hidemoto, cousin of and commander under Terumoto, genuinely attempted to meet and aid the Western Army, though his efforts were sabotaged by Hiroie, who, under the pretense of being busy eating, stationed his troops in front of Hidemoto, obstructing them from advancing and relieving Mitsunari. Hiroie also obstructed another Western Army contingent led by daimyō Chōsokabe Morichika from marching and attacking the Tokugawa forces.[40]

Collapse of the Western Army[edit]

Map position of the opposing forces at Sekigahara from the first volume of Nihon Senshi (日本戦史), published by the Army General Staff in 1893. This depiction has since been deemed unreliable by historian Jun Shiramine.[d]

One of the first and most notable weak points within the Western Army forces developed on Ukita Hideie's front. During the engagement, Hideie's forces began to wane and were steadily overcome by the forces of Fukushima Masanori due to the latter's superior troop quality.[42] The disparity in combat effectiveness may have been attributable to the prior insurrection within the Ukita clan, which caused many senior samurai vassals of the Ukita to desert and join the Tokugawa faction.[43] Hideie was thereby forced to enter Sekigahara with fresh recruits of rōnin mercenaries to fill the gap left within his army. This proved fatal over the course of long-term combat against the Fukushima clan's more disciplined and trained regular troops; the Ukita clan ranks began to break and finally collapse under pressure despite outnumbering the Fukushima.[42]

To the south, Ōtani Yoshitsugu was outnumbered in a successful attack led by Kobayakawa Hideaki; Yoshitsugu committed suicide and his troops retreated shortly thereafter.[44] The Ōtani retreat left the Western Army's right flank wide open, which Masanori and Hideaki then exploited to roll the flank of the Western Army. Mitsunari, realizing the situation was desperate, also began retreating his troops.[24] Meanwhile, Western Army commander Shima Sakon was engaged by the troops of Kuroda Nagamasa, who had taken a detour on the north to flank the Mitsunari and Sakon positions.[45] In the end, Sakon was shot and fatally wounded by a round from an arquebus.[46]

Edo period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara – 160,000 men fought on 21 October 1600.

Following the capitulation of Sakon's unit, Shimazu Yoshihiro found his troops completely surrounded by Masanori and Honda Tadakatsu from the front, while Hideaki troops attacked his rear.[47][48] The Shimazu troops only managed to break their encirclement after devastating casualties, escaping with only 200 soldiers remaining; even then, they were pursued by Ii Naomasa until the latter was incapacitated by a shot from a rifleman.[49]

The Western Army forces continued to crumble without the arrival of reinforcements, further complicated by the waves of defections, until the battle had finally concluded.[24] Historian Andō Yūichirō estimated that the battle in Sekigahara took place in its entirety over a mere 2 hours - from 10 AM to noon - contrary to the Edo-period accepted theory of the battle lasting twice as long.[26]

Late arrivals[edit]

The combined Eastern Army forces of Tokugawa Hidetada and Sakakibara Yasumasa, who commanded as many as 38,000 soldiers, were at the time of the battle bogged down in the Siege of Ueda against Sanada Masayuki. [50] At the same time, 15,000 Western Army soldiers were being held up by 500 troops under Hosokawa Yūsai in the Siege of Tanabe in Maizuru, many of the former refusing to advance out of their respect for the Hosokawa.[51] Due to these incidents, large proportions of both armies' forces ultimately never participated in the clash at Sekigahara.[52]

Another Western Army contingent that failed to reach the Sekigahara battlefield was led by Tachibana Muneshige, who had been stalled by Kyōgoku Takatsugu in the Siege of Ōtsu.[53] As result, Muneshige was forced to remain at Osaka Castle after learning of the Western Army's annihilation at Sekigahara. However, when Mōri Terumoto (also at Osaka Castle) offered his surrender to the Eastern Army, Muneshige departed with his army and returned to his homeland in Kyushu.[54]


As soon as the news of the Eastern Army's victory at Sekigahara reached Ogaki Castle, which at the time was still besieged by Mizuno Katsunari, Western Army-affiliated garrison commander Akizuki Tanenaga immediately surrendered and opened the castle for Katsunari.[55] In response, Katsunari immediately wrote to Ii Naomasa asking that Ieyasu pardon Tanenaga, which Ieyasu accepted.[56]

The most prominent political effect of the Eastern Army victory in Sekigahara was the shifting of land management and redistribution authority from the Toyotomi clan to Tokugawa Ieyasu.[57] Immediately following the battle, Ieyasu redistributed domains worth 6.8 million koku,[58] primarily as recompense for the allies instrumental in his victory:[59][60]

Notably, Kobayakawa Hideaki, whose defection from the Western Army contributed greatly to Ieyasu's victory, was bestowed a domain which covered parts of Bizen Province and Mimasaka Province and which was worth 520,000 koku.[64] Perhaps surprisingly, Ieyasu bestowed only meager domain increases to the three remaining Shitennō (Ii Naomasa, Honda Tadakatsu, and Sakakibara Yasumasa), his closest high-ranking generals, as compared to those he offered to newer commanders and vassals.[65][61] However, it is possible this perceived disparity was the result of those generals choosing to decline Ieyasu's offers of extensive compensation.[66][67][68]

As for the generals of the defeated Western Army, roughly 87 daimyō had their domains confiscated and their power stripped due to their support of Mitsunari in the battle.[69] The long-standing Chōsokabe clan, headed by Chōsokabe Morichika, was stripped of its title and domain of Tosa Province, which was consequently given to Yamauchi Kazutoyo in recognition of his service to the Tokugawa.[70] Several former Chōsokabe retainers resisted the forcible takeover by the Tokugawa and Yamauchi; in response, Ii Naomasa sent military reinforcements to assist Kazutoyo in suppressing the rebellion of Chōsokabe vassals in Tosa.[71] Suzuki Hyōe, vassal of Naomasa, relieved Kazutoyo with an army transported by 8 ships, ultimately pacifying the region in 5 weeks after killing about 273 enemies.[72][73]

On September 17, Ieyasu dispatched his army, led by Kobayakawa Hideaki, to attack Sawayama Castle in Ōmi Province, the home base of Mitsunari. Most of the castle's troops had been sent to Sekigahara, leaving the castle's garrison with only 2,800 men. Despite Mitsunari's absence, the defense of the castle was initially successful under the leadership of Mitsunari's father Ishida Masatsugu and brother Masazumi. Following the defection of retainer Moritomo Hasegawa and other defenders, the castle was opened to the besieging army; most of Mitsunari's relatives, including Masatsugu, Masazumi, and Mitsunari's wife Kagetsuin, were killed in battle or committed suicide.[74][e]

In response to Shimazu Yoshihiro's support of the Western Army, Ieyasu prepared a massive punitive expedition to Kyushu, to be led by his son Tokugawa Hidetada. This force was to be composed of Eastern Army forces thereupon engaged in the West, including the armies of Katō Kiyomasa, Kuroda Yoshitaka, Nabeshima Naoshige, and the Tachibana clan. However, this operation was aborted once Shimazu Yoshihisa, the head of the Shimazu clan, entered negotiations with Ieyasu. Shimazu-Tokugawa deliberations continued until 1602 and were aided by the intercession of Kiyomasa, Yoshitaka, and Tachibana Muneshige; ultimately, the Shimazu clan avoided punishment, becoming the only Western Army-aligned clan to avoid losing territory after the defeat at Sekigahara.[77]

On November 6, Ishida Mitsunari, Konishi Yukinaga and Ankokuji Ekei were captured and executed.[78]

In 1603, Ieyasu was officially appointed as shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei;[79][78][8] as such, the conclusion of the Battle of Sekigahara has served as the de facto beginning of the Edo period, and more generally, of the return of stability to Japan. In 1664, Hayashi Gahō, Tokugawa historian and rector of Yushima Seidō, wrote:

Evil-doers and bandits were vanquished and the entire realm submitted to Lord Ieyasu, praising the establishment of peace and extolling his martial virtue. That this glorious era that he founded may continue for ten thousands upon ten thousands of generations, coeval with heaven and earth.[80]

In 1931, the location of the battle was registered as a Monument of Japan. The positions of Ieyasu and Mitsunari's armies, and that of the death of Ōtani Yoshitsugu, are commemorated therein.[81]

Statistics & chronology[edit]

Battle of Sekigahara monument.
Commanders of Eastern Army (Tokugawa Force)
Tokugawa Ieyasu (head of the alliance): 30,000 men
Maeda Toshinaga
Date Masamune
Katō Kiyomasa: 3,000 men
Fukushima Masanori: 6,000 men
Hosokawa Tadaoki: 5,000 men
Numata Jakō
Asano Yoshinaga: 6,510 men
Ikeda Terumasa: 4,560 men
Kuroda Nagamasa: 5,400 men
Katō Yoshiaki: 3,000 men
Tanaka Yoshimasa: 3,000 men
Tōdō Takatora: 2,490 men
Sanada Nobuyuki
Mogami Yoshiaki
Yamauchi Katsutoyo: 2,058 men
Hachisuka Iemasa
Honda Tadakatsu: 500 men
Terazawa Hirotaka: 2,400 men
Ikoma Kazumasa: 1,830 men
Ii Naomasa: 3,600 men
Matsudaira Tadayoshi: 3,000 men
Oda Nagamasu: 450 men
Tsutsui Sadatsugu: 2,850 men
Kanamori Nagachika: 1,140 men
Tomita Nobutaka: 1,300 men
Yuki no Kata
Okaji no Kata
Furuta Shigekatsu: 1,200 men
Wakebe Mitsuyoshi
Horio Tadauji
Nakamura Kazutada
Arima Toyouji: 900 men
Kyōgoku Takatomo: 3,000 men
Kuki Moritaka
Commanders of Western Army (Ishida Force)
Mōri Terumoto (official head of the alliance) (not present)
Ishida Mitsunari (de facto head of the alliance): 4,000 men
Niwa Nagashige
Uesugi Kagekatsu
Maeda Toshimasa (Brother of Maeda Toshinaga)
Ukita Hideie: 17,000 men
Shimazu Yoshihiro: 1,500 men
Kobayakawa Hideaki (defected): 15,600 men
Konishi Yukinaga: 4,000 men
Mashita Nagamori
Ogawa Suketada (defected): 2,100 men
Ōtani Yoshitsugu: 600 men
Ōtani Yoshikatsu: 3,500 men
Wakisaka Yasuharu (defected): 990 men
Ankokuji Ekei: 1,800 men
Satake Yoshinobu
Oda Hidenobu
Chōsokabe Morichika: 6,600 men
Kutsuki Mototsuna (defected): 600 men
Akaza Naoyasu (defected): 600 men
Kikkawa Hiroie (defected): 3,000 men
Natsuka Masaie: 1,500 men
Mōri Hidemoto: 15,000 men
Tachibana Ginchiyo
Toda Katsushige: 1,500 men
Sanada Masayuki
Sanada Yukimura: 40
Shima Sakon: 1,000 men
Gamo Yorisato: 1,000 men
Shimazu Toyohisa: 750 men
Kuki Yoshitaka
Vassals of the Toyotomi: 2,000 men

The participants of the Battle of Sekigahara are listed below, with corresponding troop count estimates (in tens of thousands): ○ = Main daimyō who participated in the Battle of Sekigahara

● = Daimyō who defected

Daimyō Kokudaka (ten thousands) Daimyō Kokudaka (ten thousands)
Western Army Mōri Terumoto 121.0 Eastern Army Tokugawa Ieyasu 256.0
Uesugi Kagekatsu 120.0 Maeda Toshinaga 84.0
Satake Yoshinobu 54.0 Date Masamune 58.0
Shimazu Yoshihiro 73.0 Katō Kiyomasa 20.0
Ukita Hideie 57.0 Fukushima Masanori 24.0
Ishida Mitsunari 19.4 Hosokawa Tadaoki 18.0
Konishi Yukinaga 20.0 Asano Yoshinaga 16.0
Mashita Nagamori 20.0 Ikeda Terumasa 15.0
Ogawa Suketada 7.0 Kuroda Nagamasa 18.0
Ōtani Yoshitsugu 5.0 Katō Yoshiaki 10.0
Wakisaka Yasuharu 3.0 Tanaka Yoshimasa ○ 10.0
Ankokuji Ekei 6.0 Tōdō Takatora 11.0
Kobayakawa Hideaki 37.0 Mogami Yoshiaki 24.0
Oda Hidenobu 13.5 Yamauchi Kazutoyo 6.0
Chōsokabe Morichika 22.0 Hachisuka Yoshishige 17.7
Kutsuki Mototsuna 2.0 Honda Tadakatsu (10.0)
Akaza Naoyasu 2.0 Terazawa Hirotaka 8.0
Kikkawa Hiroie (14.2) Ikoma Kazumasa 15.0
Natsuka Masaie 5.0 Ii Naomasa (12.0)
Mōri Hidemoto (20.0) Matsudaira Tadayoshi 13.0
Toda Katsushige 1.0 Tsutsui Sadatsugu 20.0
Sanada Masayuki 4.0 Kyōgoku Takatomo 10.0

Below is a chronology of the events leading up to and shortly following the Battle of Sekigahara:

Cultural depictions[edit]

Owing to its pivotal status as the climax of the Sengoku period, the Battle of Sekigahara is a common subject of modern depictions and retellings:



  1. ^ the memorandum about Sekigahara campaign has theorized that the castle was still not fallen at that moment. However, Yoshihiro saw the smoke soared high from the direction of Ōgaki castle and though the castle was already fallen, as Yoshihiro position at that moment were far from Ogaki castle after being beaten by Katsunari's forces before.[21]
  2. ^ Primary source material from a letter signed by Ishikawa Yasumichi and Motomasa Hikosaka to Matsudaira Ienori which informing the battle started at 10:00 am.[27]
  3. ^ If the theory was true, Professor Watanabe Daimon surmised that this means Ii Naomasa acted as both supreme commander and the Ichiban-Yari unit (vanguard unit which was expected to draw first blood in medieval Japanese warfare).[1]
  4. ^ professor Jun Shiramine argued this kind of map were relied solely on "Kuroda clan chronicles" record without considering other source materials.[41]
  5. ^ After the castle fell in 1601, Naomasa appointed to take control to Sawayama Castle,[58] However, as Naomasa has no intention to keep the castle, he immediately dismantle the structures of Sawayama Castle, while its materials were moved to renovate and expand Hikone Castle, the traditional castle belonged to the Ii clan.[75][76]


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  2. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 204.
  3. ^ a b Bryant 1995.
  4. ^ 『関原軍記大成』
  5. ^ a b Tsunoda Akio (2023). "【どうする家康 予習】関ヶ原合戦…江戸幕府の公式記録『徳川実紀』が伝える当日の様子を紹介:2ページ目". mag.japaaan.com (in Japanese). Japaaan Magazine. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 17 June 2024. The Chronicles of Toshogu Shrine" Volume 4, Year 5 of the Keicho Era "The Battle of Sekihara
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  7. ^ "Battle of Sekigahara | Summary, Facts, & Outcome | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-06-22.
  8. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 205.
  9. ^ Bryant 1995, p. 8.
  10. ^ a b Bryant 1995, p. 10.
  11. ^ Bryant 1995, pp. 12, 89.
  12. ^ Bryant 1995, pp. 12, 90.
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Paul Davis references[edit]

Paul Davis used the following sources to compile the chapter "Sekigahara, 21 October 1600" in 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present "Sekigahara, 21 October 1600."

  • De Lange, William. Samurai Battles: The Long Road to Unification Groningen: Toyo Press, 2020
  • Sadler, A.L. The Maker of Modern Japan: The Life of Tokugawa Ieyasu London: George Allen & Unwin, 1937
  • Sansom, George. A History of Japan from 1334–1615 Stanford University Press, 1961
  • Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai: A Military History New York: Macmillan, 1977

External links[edit]