Battle of Shizugatake
|Battle of Shizugatake|
|Part of the Sengoku period|
Ukiyo-e print of the Battle of Shizugatake by Utagawa Toyonobu
|forces of Hashiba Hideyoshi||forces loyal to Oda Nobutaka|
|Commanders and leaders|
|50,000 men||27,000 men|
The Battle of Shizugatake (賤ヶ岳の戦い Shizugatake no Tatakai) was a battle in Sengoku period Japan between supporters of Hashiba Hideyoshi and Oda Nobutaka. George Sansom states it "must be regarded as one of the decisive battles in Japanese history."
In May 1583, a former general of Nobunaga's named Shibata Katsuie coordinated a number of simultaneous attacks on Shizugatake, a series of forts held by Hideyoshi's generals, Iwasaki-yama, Tagami, and Shizugatake, the latter held by Nakagawa Kiyohide. Takayama Ukon was another defender. Sakuma Morimasa attacked these forts on orders from Shibata Katsuie, Iwasaki-yama fell and Nakagawa was killed, but Shizugatake's defenses held. On hearing that Hideyoshi had made camp at Ōgaki with a large mounted force of 20,000, Shibata Katsuie ordered Sakuma Morimasa to withdraw his troops to Ōiwa. Sakuma, however, did not heed his lord's orders, calculating the castle would have fallen before Hideyoshi's army could arrive.
Hideyoshi was assumed to be at least a three days away. However, Hideyoshi led his men on a forced march through the night, covering nearly 50 miles in 6 hours, and linked up with the defenders of Tagami. Sakuma ordered his men to break the siege lines and prepare to defend themselves.
Pursuit and victory
Hideyoshi's army pushed Sakuma's forces into a rout and pursued them back to Shibata Katsuie's fortress at Kitanosho Castle (Fukui) in Echizen Province. They seized the castle after 3 days, but not before Shibata set the keep on fire and died along with his family, committing seppuku.
Hideyoshi's chief seven generals in the battle at Shizugatake earned a great degree of fame and honor, and came to be known as the shichi-hon yari or "Seven Spears" of Shizugatake. Among these generals were men who would later become some of Hideyoshi's closest retainers, such as Katō Kiyomasa.
- Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 311-313. ISBN 0804705259.
- Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. p. 234. ISBN 9781854095237.
- Turnbull, S.R. (1977). The Samurai. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 168–171. ISBN 0026205408.
- Black, Jeremy (2008). Great Military Leaders and their Campaigns Thamsen & Hudson Ltd, London