Battle of Tabouk

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Battle of Tabouk
Part of the Arab–Byzantine Wars
Date October 630
Location Mu'tah in Kerak Governorate, Jordan
Result Muslims capture Tabouk from the Byzantines.
Muslim Arabs Byzantine Empire
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
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The Battle of Tabouk (also called the Battle of Tabuk) was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630,8 AH. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000[citation needed] north to Tabouk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, and managed to capture Tabouk from the Byzantines.

Reasons for war[edit]

According to Tabari: After consolidating his grip over south and east Mohammad planned this war for two main reasons: One it was a strategic place of transportation city and second reason which "later on was clear" to demolish the largest temple of Lat, Uzza, and Manat the 3 idols (false gods) which he later on demanded.[citation needed]

Preparations for war[edit]

All the Muslims as well as allies of Muhammad, received an urgent call to join the campaign. But the Arabs of the desert showed little interest. Many came up with excuses not to participate. Muhammad provided incentives to persuade the Arabs to join, and provided many with gifts.[1][better source needed]

The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir mentions in his tafsir that the Quran verse [Quran 9:49] was revealed about the people who make excuses not to participate in the Jihad. In this case Al-Jadd bin Qays made an excuse not participate in the Battle of Tabuk, and Ibn Kathir says that [Quran 9:49] verse was revealed because of his excuse. [2][3] The verse states: "Among them is (many) a man who says: "Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial." Have they not fallen into trial already? and indeed Hell surrounds the Unbelievers (on all sides)"

Ibn Kathir stated that verse 9:81 was also revealed about the Battle of Tabuk, regarding those who made excuses[4][5]

Ibn Kathir also mentions that verse [Quran 9:29] which called for fighting against the people of the book till they pay Jizyah was revealed while Muhammad was preparing for the Battle of Tabuk. The verse states:

Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse is as follows:


Muhammad and his forces marched northwards to Tabouk in Rajab 9 AH.[citation needed] After arriving at Tabouk and camping there, the Muhammad's army was prepared to face the Byzantine Roman invasion.[7] However the Byzantines were not at Tabouk. They stayed there for a ten days and scouted the area but they never came to attack and seize the Hejaz. Eventually, the Prophet decided not to advance into Syria but to return to Medina. Nevertheless, this expedition brought, in itself, credit to the Muslim forces that had gained military reputation in the remote lands of the Arabian Peninsula.[citation needed]

Islamic primary sources[edit]


According to Saif ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, many verses of Surah Tawbah (chapter 9 of the Quran) are related to the Battle of Tabuk.[citation needed][dubious ] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir mentions that verses 9:42-48, 9:49,[2][3] 9:81,[4][5] and 9:29 are all related to the Battle of Tabuk or where revealed during the Battle of Tabuk.[2][6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Muir, William (10 August 2003). Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing Co. p. 454. ISBN 978-0766177413. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861796509. 
  3. ^ a b Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:49, Text Version
  4. ^ a b Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 137. ISBN 978-1861796509. 
  5. ^ a b Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:81, Text Version
  6. ^ a b c Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:29, Text Version
  7. ^ "The Expedition of Tabuk". Al-Islam. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 

Coordinates: 28°23′N 36°35′E / 28.383°N 36.583°E / 28.383; 36.583