Battle of Tabouk
|Battle of Tabouk|
|Part of the Arab–Byzantine Wars|
|Muslim Arabs||Byzantine Empire|
|Casualties and losses|
|Part of a series on|
The Battle of Tabouk (also called the Battle of Tabuk) was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630,8 AH. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000 north to Tabouk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, and managed to capture Tabouk from the Byzantines.
Reasons for war
According to Tabari: After consolidating his grip over south and east Mohammad planned this war for two main reasons: One it was a strategic place of transportation city and second reason which "later on was clear" to demolish the largest temple of Lat, Uzza, and Manat the 3 idols (false gods) which he later on demanded.
Preparations for war
All the Muslims as well as allies of Muhammad, received an urgent call to join the campaign. But the Arabs of the desert showed little interest. Many came up with excuses not to participate. Muhammad provided incentives to persuade the Arabs to join, and provided many with gifts.[better source needed]
The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir mentions in his tafsir that the Quran verse [Quran 9:49] was revealed about the people who make excuses not to participate in the Jihad. In this case Al-Jadd bin Qays made an excuse not participate in the Battle of Tabuk, and Ibn Kathir says that [Quran 9:49] verse was revealed because of his excuse.  The verse states: "Among them is (many) a man who says: "Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial." Have they not fallen into trial already? and indeed Hell surrounds the Unbelievers (on all sides)"
Ibn Kathir also mentions that verse [Quran 9:29] which called for fighting against the people of the book till they pay Jizyah was revealed while Muhammad was preparing for the Battle of Tabuk. The verse states:
|“||Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. [Quran 9:29]||”|
Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse is as follows:
|“||The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah
(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture,) This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah's religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims' control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat. The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources.
Muhammad and his forces marched northwards to Tabouk in Rajab 9 AH. After arriving at Tabouk and camping there, the Muhammad's army was prepared to face the Byzantine Roman invasion. However the Byzantines were not at Tabouk. They stayed there for a ten days and scouted the area but they never came to attack and seize the Hejaz. Eventually, the Prophet decided not to advance into Syria but to return to Medina. Nevertheless, this expedition brought, in itself, credit to the Muslim forces that had gained military reputation in the remote lands of the Arabian Peninsula.
Islamic primary sources
According to Saif ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, many verses of Surah Tawbah (chapter 9 of the Quran) are related to the Battle of Tabuk.[dubious ] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir mentions that verses 9:42-48, 9:49, 9:81, and 9:29 are all related to the Battle of Tabuk or where revealed during the Battle of Tabuk.
- Muir, William (10 August 2003). Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing Co. p. 454. ISBN 978-0766177413.
- Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861796509.
- Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:49, Text Version
- Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur'an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 137. ISBN 978-1861796509.
- Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:81, Text Version
- Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:29, Text Version
- "The Expedition of Tabuk". Al-Islam. Retrieved 7 August 2016.