Battle of Thermopylae (1941)
|Battle of Thermopylae (1941)|
|Part of German invasion of Greece|
German soldiers at Thermopylae after the Allied retreat
| New Zealand
|Commanders and leaders|
| Bernard Freyberg
|Casualties and losses|
|about 100 killed and wounded
The Battle of Thermopylae as part of the German invasion of Greece during World War II occurred in 1941 following the retreat from the Olympus and Servia passes. British Commonwealth forces began to set up defensive position at the pass at Thermopylae, famous for the Battle of Thermopylae in 480BC. General Bernard Freyberg was given the task of defending the coastal pass with Mackay defending the village of Brallos. In the New Zealand sector, the 5th Brigade was deployed along the coastal road, the foothills south of Lamia, and the Spercheios River. The 4th Brigade was on the right where it had established coast-watching patrols, and the 6th was in reserve. In the Australian sector, the 19th Brigade, comprising the 2/4th and 2/8th Battalions, defended Brallos. On 19 April, the 2/1st and 2/5th Battalions were placed under the command of Maj Gen George Vasey, and that day and during the early hours of the next, 2/11th Battalion rejoined the brigade. Generals Freyberg and Mackay had been informing their subordinates that there would be no more withdrawals, both unaware of the higher level discussions on the evacuation. After the battle, Mackay was quoted as saying.
|“||I thought that we'd hang on for about a fortnight and be beaten by weight of numbers||”|
When the order to retreat was received on the morning of the 23rd, it was decided that each of the two positions was to be held by one brigade each. These brigades, the Australian 19th and 6th New Zealand were to hold the passes as long as possible, allowing the other units to withdraw. General Vasey, commander of the 19th Brigade said:
|“||Here we bloody well are and here we bloody well stay||”|
This was interpreted by his brigade major as the "Brigade will hold its present defensive positions come what may". The Germans attacked on 24 April, met fierce resistance, lost 15 tanks and sustained considerable casualties. The Australians and New Zealanders held out the entire day. With the delaying action accomplished, they retreated in the direction of the evacuation beaches and set up another rearguard at Thebes.
The absence of the Greek army caused a reaction among a large number of Greek soldiers. After the liberation of Greece from the Axis powers, Aris Velouchiotis during one of his speeches supported that this was an eternal "shame" for the Greek regime that commanded the war.
- Official Histories – Second World War Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army Volume II – Greece, Crete and Syria (1st edition, 1953) accessed 13 October 2006.
- Bailey, p. 33.