Battle of Valutino

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Battle of Valutino
Part of the French invasion of Russia
Battaglia di Valutino1.jpg
French infantry at the Battle of Valutino, by Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur
Date19 August 1812
Location54°49′23″N 32°14′28″E / 54.8231°N 32.2411°E / 54.8231; 32.2411
Result French victory
Belligerents
First French Empire French Empire Russian Empire Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
First French Empire Michel Ney
First French Empire Jean-Andoche Junot
First French Empire Charles Gudin (DOW)
Russian Empire Barclay de Tolly
Strength
35,000[1] 25,000[1]
Casualties and losses
7,000-8,800[1][2] 6,000[1][2]
  current battle
  Prussian corps
  Napoleon
  Austrian corps

The Battle of Valutino took place on 19 August 1812, between a corps of French and allied troops led by Marshal Ney, about 30,000 strong, and a strong rear-guard of General Barclay de Tolly's Russian army of about 35,000,[1] commanded by the general himself. The Russians were strongly posted in marshy ground, protected by a small stream, about 20 Kilometers east of Smolensk. The French, attacking resolutely, captured the Russian position in the face of considerable physical obstacles.[2][3]

Prelude[edit]

Napoleon's hopes of trapping General Barclay's army were dashed when he discovered that the Russian force awaiting the French was a rearguard under General Tutchkov. Barclay's main force of three infantry and one cavalry corps was strung out near Smolensk, trying to get away from the French after the Battle of Smolensk. They then turned around to fight the French on the Stragan river.[2][3]

Battle[edit]

After a heavy bombardment, Ney launched an assault against the Russians, crossing the Stragan but failing to capture the crest. Murat's cavalry attacks were bogged down in marshy ground and accomplished nothing. General Junot's force was close to the battlefield and was urged to attack the Russians by Murat. Junot did not engage, and the opportunity for a decisive victory passed.[2][3]

A few hours later, Ney launched the last French attack. General Gudin led the assault and was hit by a cannonball, which removed one leg. He died three days later from infection. The French managed to capture the crest after hard fighting. By that point the majority of Barclay's army had escaped and was heading towards Lubino.[2][3]

Aftermath[edit]

The French suffered around 7,000-8,800 casualties.[1][2] The Russians lost about 6,000.[1][2] Napoleon was furious after the battle, realizing that another good chance to trap and destroy the Russian army had been lost.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bodart 1908.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Palmer 1980, p. 81.
  3. ^ a b c d Riehn 1990, pp. 224–225.

References[edit]

  • Bodart, Gaston (1908). Militär-historisches Kriegs-Lexikon (1618-1905). Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  • Palmer, Alan Warwick (2003). A brief history of Napoleon in Russia. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  • Riehn, Richard K. (1990). 1812 : Napoleon's Russian campaign. Retrieved 7 April 2021.