Battle of Vimy Ridge order of battle

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6-inch gun of the Royal Garrison Artillery firing over Vimy Ridge behind Canadian lines at night

The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement fought as part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War. The main combatants were the Canadian Corps against three divisions of the German Sixth Army. The battle was part of the opening phase of the Battle of Arras, part Nivelle Offensive and took place from 9–12 April 1917. The objective of the Canadian Corps was to take control of the German-held high ground, along an escarpment at the northernmost end of the Arras Offensive. This would ensure that the southern flank could advance without suffering German enfilade fire.

This listing covers Allied Powers and Central Powers formations and units involved in the battle. Although the Canadian side is well studied, historians have had trouble determining the exact dispositions of the German forces and even more trouble assessing the casualties it suffered in the battle. The Canadian Corps suffered 10,602 casualties; 3,598 killed and 7,004 wounded.[1] The German Sixth Army suffered an unknown number of casualties with an approximate 4,000 men becoming prisoners of war.[2]

The significance of the Battle of Vimy Ridge is most strongly felt in Canada. Elsewhere the battle is principally noted as part of the much larger British offensive known as the Battles of Arras 1917.[3] The historical reality of the battle has been reworked and reinterpreted, in a conscious attempt to give purpose and meaning to an event which came to symbolize Canada's coming of age as a nation.[4] The idea that Canada achieved nationhood as a direct result of the experiences of the First World War, is an opinion widely held in military histories of Canada and also regularly appears in general histories.[5] A 250-acre (100 ha) portion of the former battleground is preserved memorial park and site of the Canadian National Vimy Memorial.[6]

Allied Powers forces[edit]

Canadian Corps commander Lieutenant-General Sir Julian Byng had four attacking divisions, one division of reserves and numerous support units under his command. He was supported to the north by the 24th British Division of I Corps which advanced north of the Souchez river and by the advancing XVII Corps to the south.[7] The 4th Canadian Division was responsible for the northern portion of the advance which included the capture of the highest point of the ridge followed by the heavily defended knoll known as "the Pimple" just north of the town of Givenchy-en-Gohelle.[7] The 3rd Canadian Division was responsible for the narrow central section of the ridge, including the capture of La Folie Farm. The 2nd Canadian Division, which later included an additional brigade from the 5th British Division was directly south of 3rd Canadian Division and entrusted with the capture of the town of Thélus.[7] The 1st Canadian Division was responsible for the broad southern sector of the corps advance and was expected to make the greatest advance in terms distance. Byng also planned for a healthy reserve for contingencies in case additional troops were needed to relieve forward troops, help in consolidating positions or aiding the 4th Canadian Division with the capture of "the Pimple". As a result, the 9th Canadian Brigade, 15th British Brigade and 95th British Brigade were kept in a corps-level reserve.[7]


Canadian Corps[edit]

Canadian Corps
(Lieutenant-General Sir Julian Byng)
Corps level troops
Commander Formation Unit Notes
Lieutenant-Colonel E.I Leonard
(Cavalry)
Canadian Light Horse
Brigadier-General Edward Morrison
(General Officer Commanding Royal Artillery, Canadian Corps)
Brigadier-General Roger Henry Massie
(General Officer Commanding Corps Heavy Artillery)
1st Canadian Heavy Artillery Group, Canadian Garrison Artillery
  • 3rd Canadian Siege Battery
  • 5th Canadian Siege Battery
  • 11th Siege Battery RGA
  • 163rd Siege Battery RGA
  • 164th Siege Battery RGA
Support 4th Canadian Division
2nd Canadian Heavy Artillery Group, Canadian Garrison Artillery Counter-Battery Group #3
18th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 1st Canadian Siege Battery
  • 6th Canadian Siege Battery
  • 147th Siege Battery RGA
  • 180th Siege Battery RGA
  • 182nd Siege Battery RGA
Support 1st Canadian Division
30th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 4th Canadian Siege Battery
  • 6th Canadian Siege Battery
  • 228th Siege Battery RGA
  • 270th Siege Battery RGA
  • 72nd Siege Battery RGA
  • 181st Siege Battery RGA
Support 4th Canadian Division
44th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 7th Canadian Siege Battery
  • 161st Siege Battery RGA
  • 120th Siege Battery RGA
  • 41st Siege Battery RGA
  • 114th Siege Battery RGA
Support 1st Canadian Division
  • 9th Canadian Siege Battery
  • E (Canadian) Anti-Aircraft Battery
Brigadier-General William Bethune Lindsay
(Chief Engineer, Canadian Corps)
  • Corps Survey Section
  • 1st Tramway Company
  • 2nd Tramway Company
  • 1st Canadian Army Troops Company
  • 2nd Canadian Army Troops Company
  • 3rd Canadian Army Troops Company
  • 4th Canadian Army Troops Company
  • 1st Entrenching Battalion
  • 2nd Entrenching Battalion
  • 3rd Entrenching Battalion
  • 4th Entrenching Battalion
  • Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion
  • Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Company
Colonel Raymond Brutinel
(Machine guns)
1st Canadian Motor Machine-Gun Brigade
  • Eaton Battery
  • Borden Battery
  • Yukon Battery
British First Army troops attached to Canadian Corps
(Heavy Artillery) 13th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 47th Siege Battery RGA
  • 49th Siege Battery RGA
  • 101st Siege Battery RGA
  • 76th Siege Battery RGA
  • 27th Siege Battery RGA
Support 3rd Canadian Division
50th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 1/1st Essex Heavy Battery RGA
  • 145th Heavy Battery RGA
  • 58th Siege Battery RGA
  • 68th Siege Battery RGA
  • 69th Siege Battery RGA
  • 95th Siege Battery RGA
Counter-Battery Group #1
53rd Heavy Artillery Group
  • 206th Siege Battery RGA
  • 108th Siege Battery RGA
  • 148th Siege Battery RGA
  • 276th Siege Battery RGA
Support 3rd Canadian Division
64th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 121st Siege Battery RGA
  • 126th Siege Battery RGA
  • 258th Siege Battery RGA
  • 232nd Siege Battery RGA
  • 73rd Siege Battery RGA
Support 2nd Canadian Division
70th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 3rd Siege Battery RGA
  • 14th Siege Battery RGA
  • 162nd Siege Battery RGA
  • 144th Siege Battery RGA
Support 2nd Canadian Division
76th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 218th Siege Battery RGA
  • 31st Heavy Battery RGA
  • 128th Heavy Battery RGA
  • 129th Heavy Battery RGA
  • 142nd Heavy Battery RGA
  • 50th Heavy Battery RGA
Counter-Battery Group 3
26th Heavy Artillery Group
  • 1st Howitzer, Royal Marine Artillery
  • 11th Howitzer, Royal Marine Artillery
  • 12th Howitzer, Royal Marine Artillery
  • 44th Siege Battery RGA
  • 52nd Siege Battery RGA
  • 89th Siege Battery RGA
Royal Engineers
Royal Flying Corps
  • No. 16 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps
  • No. 1 Balloon Company, Royal Flying Corps
  • No. 2 Balloon Company, Royal Flying Corps
1st Canadian Division
(Major-General Arthur Currie)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
(Divisional Troops)
  • 13th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
Brigadier-General Herbert Cyril Thacker
(1st Canadian Divisional Artillery)
1st Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 1st Field Battery
  • 3rd Field Battery
  • 4th Field Battery
  • 2nd Howitzer Battery
2nd Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 5th Field Battery
  • 6th Field Battery
  • 7th Field Battery
  • 48th Howitzer Battery
3rd Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 10th Field Battery
  • 11th Field Battery
  • 12th Field Battery
  • 9th Howitzer Battery
1st Division Trench Mortar Group
  • V Canadian Heavy Trench Mortar Battery
  • X Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Y Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Z Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • 1st Division Ammunition Column
  • 1st Division Train
Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Macphail 1st Canadian Divisional Engineers
  • 1st Field Company
  • 2nd Field Company
  • 3rd Field Company
  • 107th Canadian Pioneer Battalion
  • 1st Canadian Divisional Signal Company
Colonel F.S.C Ford Assistant Medical Director, 1st Division
  • 1st Field Ambulance
  • 2nd Field Ambulance
  • 3rd Field Ambulance
  • 1st Canadian Sanitary Section
  • 1st Canadian Mobile Veterinarian Section
Brigadier-General William Antrobus Griesbach 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade
  • 1st (Western Ontario) Battalion
  • 2nd (Eastern Ontario) Battalion
  • 3rd (Toronto regiment) Battalion
  • 4th (Central Ontario) Battalion
  • 1st Light Trench Mortar Battery
  • 1st Canadian Machine-Gun Company
Brigadier-General Frederick Oscar Warren Loomis 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General George Stuart Tuxford 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade
Troops attached to 1st Canadian Division
N/A
(31st Divisional Artillery)
165th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
170th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
  • 31st Divisional Ammunition Column
72nd (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
26th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • 116th Field Battery
  • 117th Field Battery
5th (Army) Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery
  • G Field Battery
  • N Field Battery
  • O Field Battery
  • Z Field Battery
  • No.2 Special Company, Royal Engineers
2nd Canadian Division
(Major-General Henry Edward Burstall)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
(Divisional Troops)
  • 14th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
  • 12 Company, D Battalion, Heavy Machine-Gun Corps
includes 8 x Mk II Tanks
Brigadier-General Henri Alexandre Panet
(2nd Canadian Divisional Artillery)
4th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
5th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 17th Field Battery
  • 18th Field Battery
  • 20th Field Battery
  • 23rd Howitzer Battery
6th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 15th Field Battery
  • 16th Field Battery
  • 25th Field Battery
  • 22nd Howitzer Battery
2nd Division Trench Mortar Group
  • V Canadian Heavy Trench Mortar Battery
  • X Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Y Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Z Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • 2nd Division Ammunition Column
  • 2nd Division Train
Lieutenant-Colonel S.H. Osler 2nd Canadian Divisional Engineers
  • 4th Field Company
  • 5th Field Company
  • 6th Field Company
  • 2nd Canadian Divisional Signal Company
  • 2nd Canadian Pioneer Battalion
Colonel H.M Jacques Assistant Medical Director, 2nd Division
  • No. 2 Canadian Casualty Clearing Station
  • 4th Field Ambulance
  • 5th Field Ambulance
  • 6th Field Ambulance
  • 2nd Canadian Sanitary Section
  • 2nd Canadian Mobile Veterinarian Section
Brigadier-General Robert Rennie 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General Archibald Hayes Macdonell 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade
  • 22nd (Canadien Francais) Battalion
  • 24th (Victoria Rifles of Canada) Battalion
  • 25th (Nova Scotia Rifles) Battalion
  • 26th (New Brunswick) Battalion
  • 5th Light Trench Mortar Battery
  • 5th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
Brigadier-General Huntly Ketchen 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Troops attached to 2nd Canadian Division
28th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 65th (Howitzer) Battery
  • 122nd Battery
  • 123rd Battery
  • 124th Battery
93rd (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Special Company, Royal Engineers
3rd Canadian Division
(Major-General Louis Lipsett)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
(Divisional Troops)
  • 15th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
Brigadier-General J.H. Mitchell
(3rd Canadian Divisional Artillery)
8th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 24th Field Battery
  • 30th Field Battery
  • 32nd Field Battery
  • 43rd Howitzer Battery
9th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 31st Field Battery
  • 33rd Field Battery
  • 45th Field Battery
  • 36th Howitzer Battery
10th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery
  • 38th Field Battery
  • 39th Field Battery
  • 40th Field Battery
3rd Division Trench Mortar Group
  • V Canadian Heavy Trench Mortar Battery
  • X Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Y Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Z Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • 3rd Division Ammunition Column
  • 3rd Divisional Train
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Victor Anderson 3rd Canadian Divisional Engineers
  • 7th Field Company
  • 8th Field Company
  • 9th Field Company
  • 3rd Canadian Pioneer Battalion
  • 123rd Canadian Pioneer Battalion
  • 3rd Canadian Divisional Signal Company
Colonel A.E Snell Assistant Director Medical Services, 3rd Division
  • No. 3 Canadian Casualty Clearing Station
  • 8th Field Ambulance
  • 9th Field Ambulance
  • 10th Field Ambulance
  • 3rd Canadian Sanitary Section
  • 3rd Canadian Mobile Veterinarian Section
Brigadier-General Archibald Cameron Macdonell 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General James H. Elmsley 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade
  • 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles
  • 2nd Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles
  • 4th Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles
  • 5th Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles
  • 8th Light Trench Mortar Battery
  • 8th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
Brigadier-General Frederick William Hill 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Troops attached to 3rd Canadian Division
Brigadier-General Cecil Henry De Rougemont
(63rd (Royal Naval) Division Artillery)
223rd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
317th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
  • 63rd Divisional Ammunition Column
  • No.4 Special Company, Royal Engineers
4th Canadian Division
(Major-General David Watson)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
(Divisional Troops)
  • 16th Canadian Machine-Gun Company
N/A
(British (Lahore) Reserve Divisional Artillery)
5th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 64th Field Battery
  • 73rd Field Battery
  • 81st Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
11th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 83rd Field Battery
  • 84th Field Battery
  • 85th Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
Reserve Divisional Trench Mortar Group
  • V Heavy Trench Mortar Battery
  • X Trench Mortar Battery
  • Y Trench Mortar Battery
  • Z Trench Mortar Battery
  • 4th Division Ammunition Column
  • 4th Division Train
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Irving 4th Canadian Divisional Engineers
  • 10th Field Company
  • 11th Field Company
  • 12th Field Company
  • 67th Canadian Pioneers Battalion
  • 124th Canadian Pioneers Battalion
  • 4th Canadian Divisional Signal Company
Major J.S. Jenkins Assistant Director Medical Services, 4th Division
  • No. 4 Canadian Casualty Clearing Station
  • 11th Field Ambulance
  • 12th Field Ambulance
  • 13th Field Ambulance
  • 4th Canadian Sanitary Section
  • 4th Canadian Mobile Veterinarian Section
Brigadier-General Edward Hilliam 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General Victor Odlum 11th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General James Howden MacBrien 12th Canadian Infantry Brigade
Troops attached to 4th Canadian Division
Brigadier-General GH Sanders
(2nd Divisional Artillery)
41st Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 9th Field Battery
  • 16th Field Battery
  • 17th Field Battery
  • 47th Howitzer Battery
36th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 36th Field Battery
  • 48th Field Battery
  • 71st Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
18th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • 59th Field Battery
  • 91st Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
76th (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
242nd (III South Midland) (Army) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • A Field Battery
  • B Field Battery
  • C Field Battery
  • D Howitzer Battery
  • F Special Company, Royal Engineers
  • M Special Company, Royal Engineers
  • N Special Company, Royal Engineers
British 5th Division (attached from I Corps)
(Major-General R.B. Stephen)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
(Divisional Troops)
  • 205th Machine-Gun Company
Attached to 4th Canadian Division
N/A
(5th Divisional Artillery)
15th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • D (Howitzer) Battery
  • 52nd Battery
  • 81st Battery
  • A Battery
Attached to 2nd Canadian Division
27th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery
  • 37th (Howitzer) Battery
  • 119th Battery
  • 120th Battery
  • 121st Battery
Attached to 2nd Canadian Division
  • 5th Divisional Ammunition Column
Attached to 2nd Canadian Division
5th Division Trench Mortar
  • V Canadian Heavy Trench Mortar Battery
  • X Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Y Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • Z Canadian Trench Mortar Battery
  • 5th Divisional Train
N/A 5th Divisional Engineers
  • 59th Field Company, Royal Engineers
  • 491st (2nd Home Counties) Field Company, Royal Engineers
  • 527th (2nd Durham) Field Company, Royal Engineers
  • 5th Division Signal Company
  • 1st/6th (Renfrewshire) Battalion, Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders (Pioneers)
Brigadier-General L.O.W. Jones 13th Infantry Brigade Attached to 2nd Canadian Division
Brigadier-General Lord Esme Charles Gordon-Lennox 95th Infantry Brigade
Brigadier-General M.N. Turner 15th Infantry Brigade

Central Powers forces[edit]

German Sixth Army commander General Ludwig von Falkenhausen had 20 divisions (plus reserves) responsible for the Cambrai–Lille sector.[8] Vimy Ridge itself was principally defended by the ad hoc Gruppe Vimy formation under the I Bavarian Reserve Corps commander General der Infanterie Karl von Fasbender.[9] A division of Gruppe Souchez, under the VIII Reserve Corps commander General Georg Karl Wichura, was also involved in the front-line defence along the northernmost portion of the ridge.[10]

Three divisions were ultimately responsible for manning the front-line defences opposite the Canadian Corps. The 16th Bavarian Infantry Division was located opposite the town of Souchez and responsible for the defence of the northernmost section of the ridge. The division had been created in January 1917 from existing Bavarian formations and had so far only opposed the Canadian Corps.[8] The 79th Reserve Division was responsible for the defence of the central section, including the highest point of the ridge, Hill 145.[11] The 79th Reserve Division had fought for two years on the Eastern Front and was transferred to the Vimy sector at the end of February 1917. The 1st Bavarian Reserve Division had been in the Arras area since October 1914 and was holding the villages of Thélus, Bailleul and the southern slope of the ridge.[8]

I Bavarian Reserve Corps[edit]

Gruppe Vimy – I Bavarian Reserve Corps
(General der Infanterie Karl Ritter von Fasbender)
Corps level troops
Commander Formation Unit Notes
9th Field Artillery Regiment
69th Field Artillery Regiment
25th Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
66th Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
79th Reserve Division
(Lieutenant-General Ernst August Marx von Bacmeister)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
Colonel Bleidorn
(79th Reserve Field Artillery Brigade)
63rd Reserve Field Artillery Regiment[15]
N/A
(Cavalry Squadron)
N/A
(Engineers)
N/A
(Medical)
Lieutenant-General Alfred Dieterich
(79th Reserve Brigade)
261st Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
262nd Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
263rd Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
Troops attached to 79th Reserve Division
(56th Infantry Division) 118th Reserve Infantry Regiment[16] Battle reinforcement, sent on 9 April
(80th Infantry Division) 34th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment[17] Battle reinforcement, sent on 9 April
1st Bavarian Reserve Division
(Major-General Friedrich Freiherr von Pechmann)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
Colonel Graf von Zech auf Neuhofen
(13th Bavarian Artillery Command)
1st Bavarian Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
N/A
(Cavalry Squadron)
3rd Chevauxleger Regiment
  • 3rd Squadron
N/A
(Engineers)
  • 17th Bavarian Pioneer Battalion
  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
  • 3rd Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
  • 7th Bavarian Reserve Pioneer Company
  • 201 Trench Mortar Company
  • 1st Bavarian Reserve Searchlight Section
  • 401st Bavarian Telephone Detachment
N/A
(Medical)
  • 15th Bavarian Ambulance Company
  • 45th Bavarian Field Hospital
  • 48th Bavarian Field Hospital
  • 49th Bavarian Field Hospital
  • Veterinary Hospital
Major-General Lamprecht
(1st Bavarian Reserve Infantry Brigade)
1st Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
3rd Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
Troops attached to 1st Bavarian Reserve Division
(17th Division) 225th Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
Battle reinforcement, sent on 9 April

VIII Reserve Corps[edit]

Gruppe Souchez – VIII Reserve Corps
(General der Infanterie Georg Karl Wichura)
Corps level troops
Commander Formation Unit Notes
16th Bavarian Infantry Division
(Major-General Arnold Ritter von Mohl)
Commander Formation Unit Notes
Major-General Treutlein-Mordes
(16th Bavarian Artillery Command)
8th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment
N/A
(Cavalry Squadron)
N/A
(Engineers)
N/A
(Medical)
Major-General Lamprecht
(9th Bavarian Infantry Brigade)
11th Bavarian Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion
14th Bavarian Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion[18]
  • 3rd Battalion[19]
1st Battalion used as battle reinforcements, 2nd Battalion kept in reserve[18]
21st Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion
Battle reinforcements, remainder of regiment not committed
Troops attached to 16th Bavarian Infantry Division
(4th Guards Division) 5th Grenadier Guard Regiment[18]
  • Fusilier Battalion
Battle reinforcements
93rd Reserve Infantry Regiment[18] Battle reinforcements

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Moran p. 139
  2. ^ Gibbs, Philip. All of Vimy Ridge Cleared of Germans New York Times 11 April 1917
  3. ^ Inglis p. 1
  4. ^ Pierce p. 5
  5. ^ Inglis p. 2
  6. ^ Treaty E102661
  7. ^ a b c d Turner p. 39
  8. ^ a b c Nicholson, 1962, p. 246
  9. ^ Williams p. 149
  10. ^ Godefroy pp. 228–229
  11. ^ Hopkins p. 157
  12. ^ a b Sheldon p. 301
  13. ^ a b Sheldon p. 310
  14. ^ a b c Sheldon p. 300
  15. ^ a b c Sheldon p. 299
  16. ^ a b Sheldon p. 308
  17. ^ a b Sheldon pp. 291
  18. ^ a b c d e Sheldon p. 316
  19. ^ Sheldon p. 317

References[edit]