Battle of Zhongdu
|Battle of Zhongdu|
|Part of the Mongol–Jin War|
The siege of Zhongdu (modern Beijing), as depicted in the Persian Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
|Mongol Empire||Jin Dynasty|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Zhongdu (present-day Beijing) was a battle in 1215 between the Mongols and the Jurchen Jin dynasty, which controlled northern China. The Mongols won and continued their conquest of China.
The year 1211 marked the beginning of the war between the Mongols and the Jin Dynasty. The Jin Dynasty was able to hold Genghis Khan (Temüjin) and his Mongol army at bay for the first two years of the war.
Throughout this time, however, Temüjin continued to build his forces and by 1213 had an army so powerful that it conquered all Jin territory up to the Great Wall of China. From this strategic location Temüjin made the decision to split his forces into three smaller armies in an attempt to break through the wall and finish his conquest of northern China. He sent his brother, Kasar, at the head of one of these armies east into Manchuria. He sent another army south toward Shanxi under command of his three oldest sons. He himself led the third army, along with his son Tuli, towards Shandong. The plan was a success, as all three armies broke through the wall in different places.
According to Ivar Lissner, the besieged inhabitants resorted to firing gold and silver cannon shot on the Mongols with their muzzle-loading cannons when their supply of metal for ammunition ran out.
The battle for Beijing was long and tiresome but the Mongols proved to be more powerful, as they finally took the city on 1 June 1215, massacring its inhabitants. This forced Jin Emperor Xuanzong to move his capital south to Kaifeng, and opened the Yellow River valley to further Mongol ravages. Kaifeng also fell to the Mongols after a siege in 1232.
- Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-313-33537-2.
- Ivar Lissner (1957). The living past. Original from the University of California Digitized 27 Jan 2009 Length 444 pages (4 ed.). Putnam's. p. 193. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Ivar Lissner (1961). The living past. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 31 Aug 2007 Length 444 pages. Capricorn. p. 193. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Wolter J. Fabrycky; Paul E. Torgersen (1966). Operations economy: industrial applications of operations research. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 28 Nov 2007 Length 486 pages (2 ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 254. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Wolter J. Fabrycky; P. M. Ghare; Paul E. Torgersen (1972). Industrial operations research. Original from the University of Wisconsin – Madison Digitized 4 Jan 2008 ISBN 0-13-464263-5, ISBN 978-0-13-464263-5 Length 578 pages (illustrated ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 313. ISBN 0-13-464263-5. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- "What happened on June 1". Dates in History. Retrieved 2014-05-17.