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Military career of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

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Wellington at Waterloo, by Robert Alexander Hillingford
Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford
Map of Peninsular War battles, 1807–14
Map of Peninsular War battles, 1807–14

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was one of the leading British military and political figures of the 19th century. Often referred to only as "The Duke of Wellington", he led a successful military career in India during the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) and the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805), and in Europe during the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Starting his career in 1787 as a commissioned officer in the infantry, before seeing his first action in the Flanders Campaign, Wellesley rose in rank by purchasing his first four commissions, as was common practice in the British Army for wealthy officers.[1] His continued rise in status and fame thereafter was the result of his ability and success as an army commander.

Between 1794 and 1815, Wellesley participated in a number of military campaigns where he achieved tactical, strategic, and decisive victories in India and across six countries of western Europe.[2] He faced and defeated many of Napoleon's marshals as the commander in chief of the Anglo-Portuguese Army during the Peninsular War, but his best known battle was at Waterloo in 1815 where he led an Anglo-Allied force to a decisive victory over Napoleon I. It was to be his last battle.

Military career[edit]

There is speculation by historians and biographers about how many battles Wellington actually participated in during his career. Military historian, Ian Fletcher, identifies twenty-four major battles and sieges involving the British Army between 1808 and 1815 with Wellington in command of seventeen.[3] Military historian, Mark Adkin, comments that "Wellington had fought in some twenty-four battles and sieges prior to Waterloo".[4] Although this is easily contested, the precise number of battles may never be known. It can be established from records, dispatches and reports dating back to the events that he was present in at least fifty separate military actions, including an assortment of meeting engagements, pitched battles, sieges, skirmishes and minor engagements, throughout his career. He also ordered countless other remote engagements mostly whilst serving in the Napoleonic Wars, during which Britain played a major role in securing Europe against French occupation, between 1805 and 1815.[5]

Commissions and promotions[edit]

Wellesley was gazetted ensign on 7 March 1787, in the 73rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot, and became an aide-de-camp in October.[6] He purchased his commission to lieutenant on 25 December 1787, in the 76th Regiment.[6] As a junior officer he transferred to the 41st Regiment soon after to avoid duty in the East Indies,[6] and in June 1789 transferred again, to the 12th (Prince of Wales's) Light Dragoons cavalry regiment.[7] He obtained his commission to captain on 30 June 1791, in the 58th (Rutlandshire) Regiment, having served the regulation minimum of three years,[8] and again to major on 30 April 1793, in the 33rd (First Yorkshire West Riding) Regiment, having served six years.[9] He purchased his final commission to lieutenant-colonel on 30 September 1793,[10] at the age of 24.[11] From there on further promotion could only be attained through seniority, per Army Regulations.[12]

In September 1794, Wellesley experienced his first battle, against the French, at the Battle of Boxtel with the 33rd.[13] His promotion to colonel, on 3 May 1796, came by seniority, and in June he was sent with the 33rd to India.[14] In 1799 he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, commanding three victorious actions with the British East India Company.

In 1800, whilst serving as Governor of Mysore, Wellesley was tasked with putting down an insurgency led by Dhoondiah Waugh, formerly a Patan trooper for Tipu Sultan.[15] After the fall of Seringapatam he became a powerful brigand, having raised a sizeable force composed of disbanded Mysore soldiers, raiding villages along the Maratha–Mysore border region, captured small outposts and forts in Mysore, and was receiving the support of several Maratha killedars opposed to British occupation.[16] This drew the attention of the British administration, his threats to destabilise British authority increased.[17] Given independent command of a combined East India Company and British Army force,[18] Wellesley campaigned to destroy Waugh in June 1800, with an army of 8,000 infantry and cavalry, having learned that Waugh's forces numbered over 50,000, although the majority (around 30,000) were irregular light cavalry and unlikely to pose a serious threat to British infantry and artillery.[19] Throughout June–August 1800, Wellesley advanced through Waugh's territory, his troops escalading forts in turn and capturing each one with "trifling loss".[20] Dhoondiah continued to retreat, but his forces were rapidly deserting, he had no infantry and due to the monsoon weather flooding river crossings he could no longer outpace the British advance.[21] On 10 September, at the Battle of Conaghul, Wellesley personally led a charge of 1,400 British dragoons and Indian cavalry, in single line with no reserve, against Dhoondiah and his remaining 5,000 cavalry.[21] Dhoondiah was killed during the clash, his body was discovered and taken to the British camp tied to a cannon. With this victory Wellesley's campaign was concluded, British authority had been restored.[22]

After winning the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, and serving as governor of Seringapatam and Mysore, Wellesley was promoted to major-general on 29 April 1802, although he did not receive the news until September.[23] Whilst in India he wrote of his regiment "I have commanded them for nearly ten years during which I have scarcely been away from them and I have always found them to be the quietest and best behaved body of men in the army."[24]

Wellesley gained further success in India during the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–05, and in 1806 Wellesley succeeded the Marquis Cornwallis as Colonel of the 33rd, which he held until 1813. By 1807, Napoleon's attempt to prevent continental Europe from trading with Britain had resulted in all but Sweden, Denmark and Portugal closing their ports. In June 1807, Napoleon pressured Denmark further, resulting in the British naval bombardment of Copenhagen and seizure of the Danish fleet to prevent it from falling into French hands.[25] Wellesley's brief role against Danish land forces at the Battle of Køge helped secure Denmark. Wellesley later disapproved of the bombardment, saying "we might have taken the capital with greater ease."[26]

He was promoted to lieutenant-general on 25 April 1808,[27] and in June was given command of 9,000 men set to invade revolutionary Spanish America.[28] But in 1807, Napoleon had invaded Portugal, via Spain, intent on preventing its continued trade with Britain. He replaced the Spanish royal family with his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, in May 1808.[29] In Madrid, the people attempted a rebellion against the French occupation which spread across Spain resulting in mass executions in reprisal, leading both the Portuguese and Spanish juntas (local administrations) to call on British support.[30][31]

On 31 July 1811, he was promoted to general, although it only applied in the Peninsula.[32] His final promotion to field marshal came on 21 June 1813, following his success at the Battle of Vitoria which had broken the remaining French hold in Spain.[33] Wellington was awarded with a Marshal's baton – partially designed by the Prince Regent himself – the first of its kind in the British Army.[32]

Allied commander[edit]

In August 1808, Wellesley entered the Peninsular War, landing at Mondego Bay, north of Lisbon, with 13,000–15,000 men.[34][35] Just three weeks after landing, Wellesley defeated the French at the Battle of Vimeiro. Aware of his weak position, French général de division (divisional general) Junot called for an armistice and negotiations began which lead to the Convention of Cintra and his army's withdrawal from Portugal.[36]

Wellesley returned to England, arriving on 4 October, but his victory at Vimeiro was overshadowed because of the controversial terms of the Convention of Cintra, a treaty that he had signed which arranged for French troops to be evacuated back to France on Royal Navy vessels, rather than kept as prisoners, along with all their equipment, weapons and personal possessions, which included anything they might have plundered from Portugal since its occupation in 1807.[37] The Convention was subject to ridicule by the newspapers,[38] as were the three officers who had signed it, namely Wellesley and two superior generals: Sir Harry Burrard and Sir Hew Dalrymple. A public inquiry was held in November to determine their roles in the Convention. Wellesley gave evidence stating that he and Burrard had played no part in negotiating terms with the French generals, that Dalrymple had discussed the contents of the treaty alone. He had approved of a French evacuation but felt the terms were too generous; though he considered the treaty "an extraordinary paper" his signature was a formality.[37] A Board of General Officers voted 4:3 in favour of the Convention and concluded proceedings on 22 December.[39] Furthermore, they commended Wellesley's role at Vimeiro and he later received the thanks of Parliament for his victory.[40]

When the head of the British forces in the Peninsula, Sir John Moore, was killed in the Battle of Corunna in January 1809,[41] the British Army having been driven from the Peninsula in disarray,[42] Wellesley sent the Secretary of War a memo insisting that a British force of no less than 30,000 British troops should be sent to defend and rebuild Portugal's military strength.[43] His proposal was approved and he re-embarked to Lisbon on 14 April 1809, having been appointed to head of all British forces in Portugal on the 6 April[44] – a motion supported by the government and King George III, as Wellesley did not hold seniority.[43]

Due to a second invasion of Portugal by the French he remained to continue the Peninsular War for a further five years, engaging the French armies across Portugal, Spain, and north into France until Napoleon's abdication in 1814.[45]

After his victory at the Battle of Talavera, in July 1809, Wellesley was made a peer and bestowed the titles baron and viscount. As he was unavailable, his elder brother William was consulted by the College of Heralds to decide on a suitable name for the title. William chose "Wellington", Viscount Wellington of Talavera, which became Wellesley's new name, one that he said was "exactly right".[46][47] On 26 August 1809, The London Gazette reported: "The King has been pleased to grant the Dignities of Baron and Viscount of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland unto the Right Honourable Sir Arthur Wellesley, Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and Lieutenant-General of His Majesty's Forces, and to the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten, by the Names, Styles, and Titles of Baron Douro of Wellesley, in the County of Somerset, and Viscount Wellington of Talavera, and of Wellington, in the said County."[48]

He returned to Europe in 1815 appointed overall commander of the Anglo-Allied forces of the Seventh Coalition, better known as the Hundred Days, following Napoleon's escape from exile and attempt to retain power.[49]

Despite many battles to his name over twenty-one years of duty, it would be shortly after the battle at Waterloo upon hearing of approximately 50,000 casualties dead or dying that he wept, saying "I hope to God I have fought my last battle."[50] It had been a close victory at such great cost that it broke his fighting spirit, and marked the end of his long service overseas with a notable military career.[51] He returned to British politics and became a leading statesman.[52] He was appointed Master-General of the Ordnance (1819–27)[53] and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (1827–28/1842–52),[54] but Wellington did not fight again.

Generalship[edit]

Portrait of Wellesley, by Sir Thomas Lawrence
"Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington" by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1814

Wellesley's understanding of logistics was to prove valuable in leading an expeditionary force against the French invasion of Portugal and Spain.[55] He was adept at planning long marches through unknown territory, understanding that he not only had thousands of men to manage efficiently, but that a huge amount of supplies were required to adequately feed and sustain his army. Secure supply lines to the Portuguese coast were of vital importance if he was to maintain his ability to fight the French.[56]

In April 1809, Wellesley returned to Portugal with 28,000 British and 16,000 Portuguese troops under his command – the French Army of Spain numbered 360,000.[57] Despite many French troops having been dispersed to garrisons across Spain or located to protect supply and communication lines,[57] even with the Portuguese Army and militia, and remnants of the Spanish Army and guerrillas to support him, Wellington faced overwhelming odds. Before its retreat at Corunna in January 1809, the number of British soldiers in the Peninsula did not exceed 40,000 men under Lieutenant-General Moore, though Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army increased to around 72,000 infantry and cavalry under his command at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.[58] The King's German Legion (KGL) and the British-trained Portuguese Army were also under his command throughout the Peninsular War.[56] Many British politicians were opposed to the war in Europe and favoured withdrawal,[59] which hampered its will to muster a larger force to defeat Napoleon. This served in sharpening Wellington's awareness that a defensive strategy was essential, initially, to ensure the British Army survived.[59] At Waterloo, of his roughly 73,000 strong army, around 26,000 (36 percent) were British,[60] though this relatively low number was due to the majority of his Peninsular veterans being shipped elsewhere after Napoleon's first abdication, many being sent to North America to serve in the final months of the War of 1812 against the United States.

Wellington faced armies formed from the disbanded French Grande Armée, once an overpowering force, which having conquered Europe and expanded the French Empire had been led by Napoleon and his marshals since 1804.[61] It had been reformed into multiple smaller and more mobile armies from October 1808. In the Peninsula the French were grouped into multiple armies, each operating chiefly in its own area, in order to secure Portugal and Spain.[62] These forces were commanded by French marshals, senior generals chosen for elevation by Napoleon himself. Though these armies were under the nomiminal command of Napoleon's brother, King Joseph Bonaparte, the marshals commanded their armies with a high degree of independence. Wellington arrived in Lisbon in 1809 with an army composed mostly of volunteers.[63][64] British troops were better trained than their French counterparts and were required to repeatedly practice firing with live rounds before encountering combat.[65] Napoleon only personally campaigned in Spain once, between October 1808 and January 1809,[66] taking most of his Guard and many élite troops with him when he left. After the disastrous failure of the invasion of Russia, Napoleon weakened his forces in Spain in early 1813 by redeploying many veteran troops from the Peninsula to Germany to shore up his losses. Subsequently, many of the remaining troops became a second line in quality, experience and equipment – some new recruits were often not French.[67]

Wellington's army consisted of four combat arms: Infantry, cavalry and artillery. Engineers also played a valuable role in the Peninsula, such as the building of the Lines of Torres Vedras – a defensive line of forts built to protect Lisbon[68] – and making preparations for any sieges throughout the war.[69] Wellington's main combat arm was his well-trained infantry. He never had more than 2,000 cavalry before 1812,[70] and his cannons, although highly competent, were inferior to French guns in both number and quality.[70] It was with this force that Wellington aimed to defend Portugal until he took to an offensive strategy in 1812, beating the French at the Battle of Salamanca. He advanced on to Madrid, arriving on 12 August 1812 – Joseph Bonaparte had abandoned the capital after the defeat at Salamanca.[71]

Detail of a bronze relief panel, depicting the Battle of Waterloo, beneath Carlo Marochetti's statue of the Duke of Wellington, Glasgow

The Spanish government made Wellington commander-in-chief of all allied armies, providing an extra 21,000 Spanish troops after Salamanca.[71] Although not completely undefeated he never lost a major battle.[72] His greatest defeat came at the Siege of Burgos in 1812, where he had hoped to prevent French forces concentrating.[73] After losing 2,000 men and causing only 600 French casualties he was forced to raise the siege and retreat, calling it "the worst scrape I was ever in."[74] Retiring to winter quarters, where he received reinforcements that brought his regular army up to 75,000 men,[71] Wellington began his final offensive in June 1813. He advanced north, through the Pyrenees, and into France itself. The French were no longer fighting to keep Spain but to defend their own border.[71]

Ultimately, between the battles of Roliça (August 1808) and Toulouse (April 1814), the war against the French lasted for six years, with Wellington finally managing to drive the French from the Iberian Peninsula.[75] Shortly thereafter, on 12 April 1814, word reached Wellington that Napoleon had abdicated on 6 April.[76] The war on the Peninsula was over. Wellington and his army had marched over an estimated 6,000 miles (9,656 km)[77] and fought in many engagements through Portugal and Spain, the consequences of which helped bring the downfall of Napoleon, resulting in peace across Europe.[77]

Battle record[edit]

There are a large number of battles attributed to Wellington. Although many leave the impression that he was present or in command at those actions, it was sometimes the case that he entrusted other officers to engage the enemy, such as at remote locations, and that he could not have attended them all in person. Similarly, Wellington was not usually in command of rear guard actions, during advances or retreats, despite his army engaging in them often. Engagements where the lack of his presence is absolutely certain, or where his position is unconfirmed by records and accounts, are not included in his battle record.

Key to opponent flags
France
French First Republic
(1792–1804)
France
First French Empire
(1804–1814; 1815)
Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
Denmark
Denmark
Key to outcome

  *   Indicates a decisive victory

Date Conflict Action Opponent Type Country Rank[78] Outcome Notes
15 Sep 1794 Flanders Campaign Battle of Boxtel France Battle Dutch Republic Lieutenant-Colonel Defeat [79][80]
27 Mar 1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Battle of Mallavelly Kingdom of Mysore Battle Kingdom of Mysore, India Colonel Victory [81]
5 Apr – 4 May 1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Siege of Seringapatam Kingdom of Mysore Siege Kingdom of Mysore, India Colonel Victory* [82]
5–6 Apr 1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Battle of Sultanpet Tope Kingdom of Mysore Battle Kingdom of Mysore, India Colonel Victory[a] [84][85]
27 Jun 1800 Waugh Insurgency Siege of Rannee Bednore Siege India Colonel Victory [86][87]
14 Jul 1800 Waugh Insurgency Siege of Koongdul Siege India Colonel Victory [88][89]
26 Jul 1800 Waugh Insurgency Siege of Dummul Siege India Colonel Victory [90][91]
31 Jul 1800 Waugh Insurgency Action at Manowly Skirmish India Colonel Victory [92][93]
10 Sep 1800 Waugh Insurgency Battle of Conaghul Battle India Colonel Victory* [94][95][96]
8–12 Aug 1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War Siege of Ahmednagar Maratha Empire Siege Maratha Empire, India Major-General Victory [97][98]
23 Sep 1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War Battle of Assaye Maratha Empire Battle Maratha Empire, India Major-General Victory* [99]
28 Nov 1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War Battle of Argaon Maratha Empire Battle Maratha Empire, India Major-General Victory [100]
15 Dec 1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War Siege of Gawilghur Maratha Empire Siege Maratha Empire, India Major-General Victory [101]
29 Aug 1807 English Wars Battle of Køge[b] Denmark Battle Denmark Major-General Victory* [26][102]
17 Aug 1808 Peninsular War Battle of Roliça France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [103][104][105]
21 Aug 1808 Peninsular War Battle of Vimeiro France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory* [106][107][108]
10–11 May 1809 Peninsular War Battle of Grijó France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [109]
12 May 1809 Peninsular War Second Battle of Porto[c] France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [111]
27 Jul 1809 Peninsular War Combat of Casa de Salinas[d][112] France Skirmish Portugal Lieutenant-General Indecisive [113]
27–28 Jul 1809 Peninsular War Battle of Talavera France Battle Spain Lieutenant-General Victory [114][115]
27 Sep 1810 Peninsular War Battle of Bussaco France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [116][117][118]
11 Mar 1811 Peninsular War Battle of Pombal France Skirmish Portugal Lieutenant-General Defeat [119]
12 Mar 1811 Peninsular War Battle of Redinha France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Defeat [120]
15 Mar 1811 Peninsular War Combat of Foz de Arouce France Skirmish Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [121][122]
29 Mar 1811 Peninsular War Combat of Guarda France Skirmish Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [123]
3 Apr 1811 Peninsular War Battle of Sabugal France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Victory [124][125]
3–5 May 1811 Peninsular War Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro France Battle Portugal Lieutenant-General Indecisive [126][127][128]
5 May – 16 Jun 1811 Peninsular War Second Siege of Badajoz[e] France Siege Spain General Defeat [130][131]
25 Sep 1811 Peninsular War Combat of El Bodón France Skirmish Spain General Defeat [132][133]
27 Sep 1811 Peninsular War Combat of Aldea da Ponte France Skirmish Spain General Indecisive [134]
7–20 Jan 1812 Peninsular War Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo France Siege Spain General Victory [135][136][137]
16 Mar – 6 Apr 1812 Peninsular War Third Siege of Badajoz France Siege Spain General Victory [138][139][140]
17–27 Jun 1812 Peninsular War Siege of the Salamanca Forts France Siege Spain General Victory [141]
18 Jul 1812 Peninsular War Combat of Castrillo France Skirmish Spain General Victory [142]
22 Jul 1812 Peninsular War Battle of Salamanca France Battle Spain General Victory* [143][144]
19 Sep – 21 Oct 1812 Peninsular War Siege of Burgos France Siege Spain General Defeat [145][146]
25–29 Oct 1812 Peninsular War Battle of Tordesillas France Skirmish Spain General Defeat [147]
10–11 Nov 1812 Peninsular War Combat of Alba de Tormes France Skirmish Spain General Indecisive [148][149]
17 Nov 1812 Peninsular War Combat of Huebra, San Muñoz France Skirmish Spain General Indecisive [150]
21 Jun 1813 Peninsular War Battle of Vitoria France Battle Spain General Victory* [151][152][153]
7 Jul – 8 Sep 1813 Peninsular War Siege of San Sebastian[f] France Siege Spain Field Marshal Victory [156][157][158][159]
26–28 Jul 1813 Peninsular War First Battle of Sorauren[g] France Battle Spain Field Marshal Victory [160]
28–30 Jul 1813 Peninsular War Second Battle of Sorauren France Battle Spain Field Marshal Victory [161][162]
2 Aug 1813 Peninsular War Combat of Echalar France Skirmish Spain Field Marshal Victory [163][164]
7 Oct 1813 Peninsular War Battle of the Bidassoa France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [165]
10 Nov 1813 Peninsular War Battle of Nivelle France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [166][167]
9–12 Dec 1813 Peninsular War Battle of the Nive France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [168][169]
15 Feb 1814 Peninsular War Battle of Garris France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [170]
27 Feb 1814 Peninsular War Battle of Orthez France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [171][172]
20 Mar 1814 Peninsular War Battle of Tarbes France Battle France Field Marshal Victory [173][174][175][176]
8 Apr 1814 Peninsular War Combat of Croix d'Orade France Skirmish France Field Marshal Victory [177][178]
10 Apr 1814 Peninsular War Battle of Toulouse France Battle France Field Marshal Indecisive [179][180]
16 Jun 1815 Hundred Days Battle of Quatre Bras France Battle United Kingdom of the Netherlands Field Marshal Indecisive [181][182][183]
18 Jun 1815 Hundred Days Battle of Waterloo France Battle United Kingdom of the Netherlands Field Marshal Victory* [184][185][186][187][188]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Although the Battle of Sultanpet Tope was an overall British victory, Wellesley's initial night attack on 5 April was poorly coordinated and repelled; he was wounded. The engagement was won the next day in a renewed daylight attack.[83]
  2. ^ Part of the Battle of Copenhagen.[102]
  3. ^ The First Battle of Porto took place on 28 March 1809 when the French initially seized the city from Anglo-Portuguese forces.[110]
  4. ^ The skirmish at Casa de Salinas was a preliminary combat action fought prior to the Battle of Talavera.
  5. ^ The First Siege of Badajoz took place on 26 January – 11 March 1811 when the French initially besieged the Spanish town.[129]
  6. ^ Two attempts were made to storm San Sebastian, in 1813. The first, on 25 July, Wellington was present at to oversee this attempt,[154] but he did not attend the second attempt on 31 August – evident from his dispatches.[155]
  7. ^ Part of the Battle of the Pyrenees.[160]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Holmes, pp. 17–19, 21.
  2. ^ Morgan, pp. 95–116. See: Timeline of Wellington & British Campaigns.
  3. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 17–117.
  4. ^ Adkin, p. 92.
  5. ^ Smith, pp. 201–560.
  6. ^ a b c Holmes, p. 21.
  7. ^ Holmes, p. 22.
  8. ^ Holmes, p. 18, 24.
  9. ^ Holmes, p. 18, 25.
  10. ^ Holmes, p. 28.
  11. ^ Savoury & Isles, p. 4.
  12. ^ Holmes, p. 19.
  13. ^ Holmes, p. 30.
  14. ^ Holmes, p. 34.
  15. ^ Weller, p. 88
  16. ^ Davies, p. 22.
  17. ^ Weller, pp. 94–96.
  18. ^ Weller, p. 97.
  19. ^ Davies, pp. 33, 38.
  20. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, pp. 181, 190.
  21. ^ a b Weller, p. 99.
  22. ^ Davies, pp. 37–38.
  23. ^ Holmes, p. 69.
  24. ^ Savoury & Isles, p. 5.
  25. ^ Rothenberg, pp. 114–115.
  26. ^ a b Holmes, pp. 100–101.
  27. ^ Holmes, p. 102.
  28. ^ Longford, p. 138.
  29. ^ Rothenberg, pp. 113–114.
  30. ^ Holmes, pp. 105–106.
  31. ^ Hibbert, pp. 67–68.
  32. ^ a b Holmes, p. 189.
  33. ^ Holmes, p. 187.
  34. ^ Holmes, pp. 112–121.
  35. ^ Hibbert, p. 70.
  36. ^ Holmes, pp. 120–121.
  37. ^ a b Holmes, p. 121.
  38. ^ Holmes, pp. 122–123.
  39. ^ Hibbert, pp. 78–79.
  40. ^ Holmes, p. 124.
  41. ^ Holmes, p. 125.
  42. ^ Fletcher (2005), p. 30.
  43. ^ a b Holmes, pp. 125–126.
  44. ^ Holmes, pp. 129–130.
  45. ^ Holmes, pp. 193–194.
  46. ^ Holmes, p. 142.
  47. ^ Hibbert, p. 91.
  48. ^ "Whitehall, August 26, 1809". The London Gazette. 26 August 1809. Retrieved 23 April 2017. 
  49. ^ Holmes, pp. 208–210.
  50. ^ Wellesley, Jane (2004). "The Duke of Wellington". Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  51. ^ Holmes, p. 254.
  52. ^ Holmes, pp. 270–292.
  53. ^ Holmes, pp. 157–158.
  54. ^ Holmes, pp. 268–269, 291.
  55. ^ Holmes, p. 88.
  56. ^ a b Rothenberg, p. 136.
  57. ^ a b Rothenberg, p. 139.
  58. ^ Gates, pp. 519–520.
  59. ^ a b Rothenberg, pp. 141–142.
  60. ^ Adkin, p. 37.
  61. ^ Rothenberg, pp. 70–74.
  62. ^ Barnett, pp. 148–149.
  63. ^ Fletcher (2005), p. 15.
  64. ^ Longford, pp. 312–322.
  65. ^ Holmes, p. 48.
  66. ^ Barnett, pp. 148–150.
  67. ^ Griffith, pp. 43–44.
  68. ^ Rothenberg, pp. 140–143.
  69. ^ Napier (1835–40), vol. XII, pp. 159–160.
  70. ^ a b Rothenberg, p. 137.
  71. ^ a b c d Rothenberg, pp. 141–147.
  72. ^ Holmes, p. xv.
  73. ^ Fletcher (2003), p. 4.
  74. ^ Holmes, pp. 170–171.
  75. ^ Rothenberg, p. 151.
  76. ^ Fletcher (2005), p. 106.
  77. ^ a b Fletcher (2005), p. 107.
  78. ^ Roberts, pp. xvi–xxvii. See: Timelines of Napoleon & Wellington.
  79. ^ Corrigan, pp. 30–31.
  80. ^ Smith, p. 90.
  81. ^ Burton, p. 15.
  82. ^ Burton, pp. 19–25.
  83. ^ Weller, pp. 61–66.
  84. ^ Burton, pp. 16–19.
  85. ^ Bowring, pp. 194–195.
  86. ^ Weller, p. 97.
  87. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, p. 168.
  88. ^ Davies, p. 35.
  89. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, p. 181.
  90. ^ Weller, p. 98.
  91. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, p. 190.
  92. ^ Davies, p. 36.
  93. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, p. 191.
  94. ^ Weller, p 99.
  95. ^ Davies, pp. 37–38.
  96. ^ Wellesley & Gurwood (ed), Vol. I, pp. 218–220.
  97. ^ Burton, p. 53–56.
  98. ^ Thornton, p. 15.
  99. ^ Millar (2006)
  100. ^ Burton, pp. 76–81.
  101. ^ Burton, pp. 81–86.
  102. ^ a b Smith, p. 254.
  103. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 16–19.
  104. ^ Smith, p. 266.
  105. ^ Sutherland, pp. 44–45.
  106. ^ Chartrand (2001a)
  107. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 19–24.
  108. ^ Sutherland, pp. 45–46.
  109. ^ Smith, p. 301.
  110. ^ Jaques, p. 754.
  111. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 32–34.
  112. ^ Smith, p. 327.
  113. ^ Rickard, J. (14 March 2008). "Combat of Casa de Salinas". historyofwar.org. Retrieved 14 April 2011. 
  114. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 34–39.
  115. ^ Sutherland, pp. 57–58.
  116. ^ Chartrand (2001b)
  117. ^ Fletcher (2005), pp. 39–44.
  118. ^ Sutherland, pp. 58–59.
  119. ^ Jaques, 807–808.
  120. ^ Jaques, p. 846.
  121. ^ Jaques, p. 370.
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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bluth, B.J. (2003). Marching With Sharpe. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0004145372.
  • Esdaile, Charles (2002). The Peninsular War: A New History. London: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0713992397.
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996) [First published 1987]. British Infantry of the Napoleonic Wars. London: Arms & Armour Press. ISBN 978-1854093264.
  • Holmes, Richard (2001). Redcoat. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0006531524.
  • Lachouque, Commandant Henry; Tranie, Jean; Carmigniani, J.C. (1982) [1st pub. 1978 in French]. Napoleon's War in Spain. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 978-1854092199.
  • Lipscombe, Colonel Nick (2010). The Peninsular War Atlas. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1849083645.
  • Parkinson, Roger (2000) [1st pub. 1973]. The Peninsular War. Ware, UK: Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1840222289.
  • Reid, Stuart (2004). Wellington's Army in the Peninsula 1809–14. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841765174.
  • Robertson, Ian C. (2003). Wellington Invades France: The Final Phase of the Peninsular War 1813–1814. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1853675348.
  • ——— (2008). A Commanding Presence – Wellington in the Peninsula 1808–1814 – Logistics, Strategy, Survival. Chalford Stroud, UK: Spellmount. ISBN 978-1862273740.
  • Sutherland, Jonathan (2003). Napoleonic Battles. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife. ISBN 978-1840374230.
  • Weller, Jac (1999) [First published 1963]. Wellington in the Peninsula. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1853673818.