Batujaya is an archeological site located in the village of Batujaya, Karawang in West Java, Indonesia. The site is five square kilometers in area and comprises at least 30 structural in what Sundanese call hunyur or unur (high mounds of earth consisting of artifacts). Unur is similar to the manapo found at the Muara Jambi archaeological site.
The site was first found and examined by archaeologists from the University of Indonesia in 1984. Excavations have since uncovered 17 unur, of which three are in the form of pools. The structures found are made of bricks composed of a mixtures of clay and rice husks (vajra-lepa), not volcanic rock which is difficult to find in Batujaya. Two structures recovered are in the form of temples, one of which, known as Jiwa Temple, has been restored. According to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archeology Agency, Jiwa was built in the 2nd century.
The discovery of this archaeological site was important as although it was the location of Tarumanagara, the oldest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Indonesia, West Java lacks ancient temple remains. Before the discovery, only four temple sites have been found in West Java, namely they are Cangkuang temple (in Garut), Ronggeng Temple, Pamarican Temple, and Pananjung Temple (in Ciamis).
Preliminary research at Jiwa found that the temple was built between the fifth and sixth centuries. This is based on the inscriptions found on numerous votive tablets discovered in the area, small clay tablets with inscriptions and pictures of Buddha used in prayer. Prof. Dr. Budihartono (a senior anthropologist from University of Indonesia) proposed carrying out pollen analysis for examining both the paleoenvironment and also cultural records, including evidence of diet and food processing.
In and around the site is also discovered the fragments of Buni culture clay pottery, which suggests Buni prehistoric clay culture spread across West Java northern coast was the predecessor of Batujaya site.
Advance technology has been applied for the construction with some of the floor and other parts of the temple which require hardening made of unreinforced concrete with marble size stones and some of the temple is also coated with a thick enough of stucco.
- "Candi Batujaya Dibangun dengan Teknologi Canggih". Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- The Jakarta Post
- "Wah, Teknologi Beton Dikenal Sejak Zaman Tarumanegara". June 3, 2012.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Batujaya.|
- The Spice Islands History
- Bambang Budi Utomo. 2004. Arsitektur Bangunan Suci Masa Hindu-Budha di Jawa Barat. Kementrian Kebudayaan dan pariwisata, Jakarta. ISBN 979-8041-35-6
- Percandian Batujaya, from Indonesian Wikipedia on 19 September 2005.