|Nickname(s): Pearl of Tourism|
Location of Bauchi State in Nigeria
|Date created||3 February 1976|
|• Governor||Mohammed Abdullahi Abubakar (APC)|
|• Total||49,119 km2 (18,965 sq mi)|
|Area rank||5th of 36|
|Population (2006 census)|
|• Rank||7th of 36|
|• Density||95/km2 (250/sq mi)|
|• Total||$4.71 billion|
|• Per capita||$983|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+01)|
|ISO 3166 code||NG-BA|
Bauchi, usually referred to as Bauchi State to distinguish it from the city of Bauchi, is a state in northern Nigeria. Its capital is the city of Bauchi. The state was formed in 1976 when the former North-Eastern State was broken up. It originally included the area now in Gombe State, which became a distinct state in 1996.
The Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University is located in the capital city Bauchi.
What is now known as Bauchi was until 1976 a province in the then North-Eastern State of Nigeria. According to the 2006 census, the state has a population of 4,653,066.
During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the Bauchi Plateau of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State.
With the creation of Bauchi State in 1976, then comprising present Bauchi and Gombe States, it included 16 local government areas. The number of local government areas in the then Bauchi State was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1997 when Gombe State was created out of Bauchi and additional local governments were created in the country, Bauchi State was left with 20 local government areas as shown below.
Sharia law was adopted in June 2001.
Local Government Areas
Bauchi State consists of twenty (20) Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:
|LGA||Area (km2)||Census 2006
|Southern region totals||33,161||2,497,782|
|Northern region totals||15,035||2,178,683|
Bauchi State occupies a total land area of 49,119 km² representing about 5.3% of Nigeria’s total land mass and is located between latitudes 9° 3' and 12° 3' north and longitudes 8° 50' and 11° east.
Bauchi state is one of the states in the northern part of Nigeria that span two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan savannah and the Sahel savannah. The Sudan savannah type of vegetation covers the southern part of the state. Here, the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers, but generally the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt.
The Sahel type of savannah, also known as semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state as one moves from the state's south to its north. This type of vegetation comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs.
The vegetation types as described above are conditioned by the climatic factors, which in turn determine the amount of rainfall received in the area. For instance, the rainfall in Bauchi state ranges between 1300 mm per annum in the south and only 700 mm per annum in the extreme north. This pattern is because in the West Africa sub-region, rains generally come from the south as they are carried by the southwesterlies. There is therefore a progressive dryness towards the north, culminating in the desert condition in the far north. So also is the case in Bauchi state.
Consequently, rains start earlier in the southern part of the state, where rain is heaviest and lasts longer. Here the rains start in April with the highest record amount of 1300 mm per annum. In contrast, the northern part of the state receives the rains late, usually around June or July, and records the highest amount of 700 mm per annum.
In the same vein, the weather experienced in the south and the north varies considerably. While it is humidly hot during the early part of the rainy season in the south, the hot, dry and dusty weather lingers up north.
The Gongola River crosses Bauchi state in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area in the south and in Kirfi and Alkaleri Local Government Areas in the eastern part of the state, while the Jama’are River cuts across a number of Local Government Areas in the northern part of the state. Moreover, a substantial part of the Hadeja-Jama'are River basin lies in Bauchi state, which along with various fadama (floodplain) areas in the state provides suitable land for agricultural activities. These are further supported by the number of dams meant for irrigation and other purposes. These include the Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams. There also lakes such as the Maladumba Lake in Misau Local Government Area that further provide the necessary conditions to support agriculture.
Bauchi State has a total of 55 tribal groups in which Hausa, Fulani, Gerawa, Sayawa, Jarawa, Kirfawa, Turawa Bolewa, Karekare, Kanuri, Fa'awa, Butawa, Warjawa, Zulawa, and Badawa are the main tribes. This means that they have backgrounds, occupational patterns, beliefs and many other things that form part of the existence of the people of the state.
There are cultural similarities in the people's language, occupational practices, festivals, dress and there is a high degree of ethnic interaction especially in marriage and economic existence. Some of the ethnic groups have joking relationships that exist between them, e.g. Fulani and Kanuri, Jarawa and Sayawa, etc.
According to tradition, it was named for a hunter known as Baushe, who settled in the region before the arrival of Yakubu, the first traditional ruler of Bauchi emirate (founded 1800–10).
- See List of Governors of Bauchi State for a list of prior governors
- "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- Ajawa language at Ethnologue
- "Issue Paper:Nigéria / Protection offerte par l’état". www.irb-cisr.gc.ca. Research Directorate of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, April 2003. Archived from the original on 20 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
- Johnston, Hugh A.S. (1967). The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford University Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.
- Johnston, Hugh A.S. (1967). The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.