Baudouin of Belgium

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"Baudouin" redirects here. For other uses, see Baudouin (disambiguation).
Baudouin/Boudewijn
Anefo 911-3016 Tweede dag (cropped).jpg
Baudouin photographed in 1960
King of the Belgians
Reign 17 July 1951 – 31 July 1993
Predecessor Leopold III
Successor Albert II
Prime Ministers
Born (1930-09-07)7 September 1930
Château du Stuyvenberg, Laeken, Belgium
Died 31 July 1993(1993-07-31) (aged 62)
Villa Astrida, Motril, Spain
Burial Church of Our Lady of Laeken
Consort Fabiola de Mora y Aragón
Full name
Dutch: Boudewijn Albert Karel Leopold Axel Marie Gustaaf
French: Baudouin Albert Charles Léopold Axel Marie Gustave
German: Balduin Albrecht Karl Leopold Axel Marie Gustav
English: Baldwin Albert Charles Leopold Axel Mary Gustav
House Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Father Leopold III of the Belgians
Mother Astrid of Sweden
Religion Roman Catholic
Belgian Royalty
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Great coat of arms of Belgium.svg
Leopold I
Leopold II
Albert I
Leopold III
Baudouin
Albert II
Philippe

Baudouin or Boudewijn (7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as King of the Belgians, following his father's abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993. He was the elder son of King Leopold III (1901–83) and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden (1905–35).

Because he had no children with his wife, Queen Fabiola of Belgium, the Crown passed to his younger brother, King Albert II of the Belgians (formerly Prince of Liège), following his death.

He was a maternal first cousin of King Harald V of Norway, Princess Astrid of Norway, and Princess Ragnhild of Norway.

Baudouin is the French form of his name, the form most commonly used outside Belgium; his Dutch name is Boudewijn. (The English equivalent is Baldwin.)

Full name[edit]

Baudouin's full name was Baudouin Albert Charles Léopold Axel Marie Gustave de Belgique (pronounced: [bodwɛ̃ albɛʁ ʃaʁl leopɔld aksɛl maʁi ɡystav də bɛlʒik]) in French and Boudewijn Albert Karel Leopold Axel Marie Gustaaf van België (pronounced [ˈbʌudəˌʋɛin ˈɑlbərt ˈkaːrəl ˈleːjoːˌpɔlt ˈɑksəl maːˈri ɣɵsˈtaːf vɑn ˈbɛlɣijə]) in Dutch.

Ascent to the throne[edit]

Baudouin was a direct descendant of Joséphine de Beauharnais, wife of Napoleon. He was born in the Château du Stuyvenberg, near Laeken, Brussels, in Belgium, in 1930, the son of Prince Leopold, the then Duke of Brabant, and his wife, Astrid of Sweden. His father became King of the Belgians, as Leopold III, in 1934. Baudouin's mother died in 1935 in an automobile accident.

Part of Leopold III's unpopularity was the result of a second marriage in 1941 to Mary Lilian Baels, an English-born Belgian commoner, later known as Princess de Réthy. More controversial had been Leopold's decision to surrender to Nazi Germany during World War II, when Belgium was invaded in 1940; many Belgians questioned his loyalties, but a commission of inquiry exonerated him of treason after World War II. Though reinstated in a plebiscite, the controversy surrounding Leopold led to his abdication.

During the war the king was deported by command of Adolf Hitler to Hirschstein.

King Leopold III requested the Belgian Government and the Parliament to approve a law delegating his royal powers to his son, Prince Baudouin, who took the constitutional oath before the United Chambers of the Belgian Parliament as Prince Royal on 11 August 1950. He ascended the throne and became the fifth King of the Belgians upon taking the constitutional oath on 17 July 1951, one day following his father's abdication.

The Congolese called the young king Mwana Kitoko ("beautiful boy").

Marriage[edit]

On 15 December 1960, Baudouin was married in Brussels to Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón. The King and Queen had no children; all of the Queen's five pregnancies ended in miscarriage.[1]

Notable events[edit]

Baudouin and Fabiola with US President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon in May 1969

During Baudouin's reign the colony of Belgian Congo became independent. During the last ceremonial inspection of the Force Publique , the royal Sabre of the king was stolen during a parade by Ambroise Boimbo. This act was considerent a humiliation for the king.[2] The famous picture made by Robert Lebeck, travelled the world news papers.[3][4] The next day the king attended the official reception; he gave a speech that received a blistering response by Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba.[5] However the second humiliation by Lumumba was formal, the image of the humiliation of the king during the parade was the symbol of the independence of Kongo.

Baudouin attended the State funeral of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, as the head of state of Belgium, and one of many dignitaries at that state funeral, along with Paul-Henri Spaak, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and former three-time Prime Minister of Belgium.

In 1990, when Baudouin refused to sign into law a bill permitting abortion, the cabinet assumed the power to promulgate the law while he was treated as "unable to govern" for twenty-four hours.[6]

In 1976, on the 25th anniversary of Baudouin's accession, the King Baudouin Foundation was formed, with the aim of improving the living conditions of the Belgian people.

He was the 1,176th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1960 and the 930th Knight of the Order of the Garter.[citation needed]

Religious influences[edit]

Baudouin was a devout Roman Catholic. Through the influence of Leo Cardinal Suenens, Baudouin participated in the growing Renewal Movement and regularly went on pilgrimages to the French shrine of Paray-le-Monial.

In 1990, when a law submitted by Roger Lallemand and Lucienne Herman-Michielsens that liberalised Belgium's abortion laws was approved by Parliament, he refused to give Royal Assent to the bill. This was unprecedented; although Baudouin was nominally Belgium's chief executive, Royal Assent has long been a formality (as is the case in most constitutional and popular monarchies). However, due to his religious convictions, Baudouin asked the Government to declare him temporarily unable to reign so that he could avoid signing the measure into law.[7] The Government under Wilfried Martens complied with his request on 4 April 1990. According to the provisions of the Belgian Constitution, in the event the King is temporarily unable to reign, the Government as a whole fulfills the role of Head of State. All members of the Government signed the bill, and the next day (5 April 1990) the Government declared that Baudouin was capable of reigning again.

Death, succession, and legacy[edit]

Baudouin reigned for 42 years. He died of heart failure on 31 July 1993 in the Villa Astrida in Motril, in the south of Spain.[8] Although in March 1992 the King had been operated for a Mitral valve prolapse in Paris, his death still came unexpectedly, and sent much of Belgium into a period of deep mourning. Within hours the Royal Palace gates and enclosure were covered with flowers that people brought spontaneously. A viewing of the body was held at the Royal Palace in central Brussels; 500,000 people (5% of the population) came to pay their respects. Many waited in line up to 14 hours in sweltering heat to see their King one last time. Along with other members of European royalty, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom attended the funeral.

King Baudouin was interred in the royal vault at the Church of Our Lady of Laeken, Brussels, Belgium. He was succeeded by his younger brother, who became King Albert II.

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Monogram
Monogram

Titles[edit]

  • 7 September 1930 - 17 February 1934: His Royal Highness Prince Baudouin of Belgium, Count of Hainaut
  • 17 February 1934 - 10 August 1950: His Royal Highness Prince Baudouin of Belgium, Duke of Brabant
  • 10 August 1950 - 17 July 1951: His Royal Highness Prince Baudouin, Prince Royal, Duke of Brabant
  • 17 July 1951 - 31 July 1993: His Majesty King Baudouin of the Belgians

Honours[edit]

National honours[edit]

Foreign honours[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Koningin Fabiola had vijf miskramen
  2. ^ http://www.mbokamosika.com/article-la-photo-du-sabre-du-roi-baudouin-le-30-juin-1960-41525491.html
  3. ^ Glasenapp, Jörn (2008) '"Der Degendieb von Léopoldville. Robert Lebecks Schlüsselbild der Dekolonisation Afrikas" In Paul, Gerhard (ed.) (2008) Das Jahrhundert der Bilder: 1949 bis heute Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, pp. 242-249, ISBN 978-3-525-30012-1, in German
  4. ^ http://www.alterinfo.net/Ambroise-Boimbo-l-homme-qui-a-humilier-le-Roi-de-Belge-au-du-Congo_a112920.html
  5. ^ Suzanne McIntire and William E. Burns, Speeches in World History, Infobase Publishing, 2009, pp. 438-40
  6. ^ New York Times, 5 April 1990
  7. ^ "Belgium: Commoner for A Day, or Two". Time. 16 April 1990. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  8. ^ Lyons, Richard D. "Baudouin I, King of Belgium, Dies at 62," New York Times. August 1, 1993.
  9. ^ http://c7.alamy.com/comp/E0M2XA/queen-juliana-escorted-by-king-baudouin-E0M2XA.jpg
  10. ^ https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4003/4484042224_700971a8dc_b.jpg
  11. ^ Baudoin wearing the orders of the Garter and Leopold
  12. ^ http://ls.rosselcdn.net/sites/default/files/imagecache/cciinlineobjects_600/2015/05/17/210574998_B975561996Z.1_20150517171840_000_G9D4GV2JI.1-0.jpg
  13. ^ http://rf.llb.be/image/1f/51f8d80935705d93419a101f.gif
  14. ^ http://www.lavdc.net/portail/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/baudouin-kasavubu-lumumba.jpg
  15. ^ http://images.delcampe.com/img_large/auction/000/124/267/454_001.jpg
  16. ^ http://tranb300.ulb.ac.be/exemples/groupe202/archive/fullsize/01f3e900620a58c50e841062ca9c7e79.jpg
  17. ^ http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03129/Fabiolaandkingtwo_3129806c.jpg
  18. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 53. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  19. ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/84/9a/7c/849a7c9ac28b8a4260be33ab7219bfab.jpg
  20. ^ https://www.granger.com/wmpix/age/rue/0148193-JOSEPH-DESIRE-MOBUTU-THE-ROI-BAUDOUIN-AND-THE-REINE-FABIOLA-OF-BELGIQUE-General-Joseph-Desire-Mobutu-president-of-Congo-Kinshasa-with-belgium-king-Baudouin-Ist-and-queen-Fabiola-at-Bruxelles-royal-palace-on.jpg
  21. ^ https://c2.staticflickr.com/2/1424/5110069989_20b7e1e6fe_b.jpg
  22. ^ http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9TPGuYdia9U/UQV3Kpqu2YI/AAAAAAAAHMU/AbSGjRmi1hM/s1600/394863_548212448522834_375985201_n.jpg
  23. ^ https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6234/6299069181_1f755daa35.jpg
  24. ^ a b Baudoin wearing German honours
  25. ^ http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/HU056105/king-baudouin-and-queen-fabiola-of-belgium
  26. ^ Iceland Presidency Website, Baudoin, konungur Belgíu - Belgía - 1979-10-16 - Stórkross með keðju (= Baudouin, King of Belgians, Belgium, 16th October 1979, Grand Cross with Collar)
  27. ^ http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-nWIINtRGHnQ/UF4blcl7iBI/AAAAAAAACaA/CHek6yk6rDY/s1600/PAR278052.jpg
  28. ^ http://static.skynetblogs.be/media/21181/114_Iran3.jpg
  29. ^ http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/queen-fabiola-of-belgium-mohammad-reza-shah-pahlavi-empress-news-photo/111347972
  30. ^ Badraie
  31. ^ Badraie
  32. ^ http://www.gettyimages.ch/detail/nachrichtenfoto/1930könig-seit-1951mit-königin-fabiola-bei-ihrem-nachrichtenfoto/545663653#[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/4b/be/6b/4bbe6b36b025984e100376596cf98c5f.jpg
  34. ^ http://wpmedia.o.canada.com/2014/06/111348071.jpg
  35. ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/3d/e5/c0/3de5c0000b2015db00368c15003ac6f6.jpg
  36. ^ http://belgiumjapan150.jp/assets/img/timeline/40-salle-de-banquet.jpg
  37. ^ http://static1.purepeople.com/articles/7/15/17/77/@/1669968-le-roi-baudouin-et-la-reine-fabiola-950x0-1.jpg
  38. ^ http://www.deutschlandradiokultur.de/media/thumbs/6/6fbb0ccca87d47ee2dcaf53ece6d60aav1_max_635x357_b3535db83dc50e27c1bb1392364c95a2.jpg
  39. ^ http://www.anp-archief.nl/attachment/246013
  40. ^ https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Anefo_911-3015_Tweede_dag.jpg
  41. ^ https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Huwelijk_prinses_Beatrix_en_prins_Claus_%281966%29.jpg
  42. ^ http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/le-roi-baudouin-de-belgique-et-sa-cousine-la-princesse-news-photo/558631153
  43. ^ a b Baudoin wearing Spanish honours
  44. ^ https://36.media.tumblr.com/607b4e63c8e2ff9daf2ec33984ab0163/tumblr_nhzvqxqe1P1spqo4go1_r1_500.png
  45. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  46. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  47. ^ http://u-f.ru/sites/default/files/fabiola1.jpg
  48. ^ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-vy_15LqXwis/Th2vzyWqavI/AAAAAAAAC9Y/4YVv2YRuSRE/s1600/KingBaudouinQueenFabiolaWedding.jpg
  49. ^ http://cdn-parismatch.ladmedia.fr/var/news/storage/images/paris-match/royal-blog/monde/en-photos-l-ancienne-reine-des-belges-fabiola-est-decedee-vendredi-soir-a-bruxelles-a-l-age-de-86-ans-664208/fabiola-et-baudoin-en-1978/6655882-1-fre-FR/Fabiola-et-Baudoin-en-1978.jpg
  50. ^ http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-84FSKw0NXrQ/RlcScFhmW1I/AAAAAAAAAdE/r68LKwNjHEg/s640/1976.06.19+silvia_carl+gustav_.jp
  51. ^ http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/king-bhumibol-queen-sirikit-and-king-baudouin-i-of-belgium-news-photo/106506359
  52. ^ http://c7.alamy.com/comp/BR45K8/princess-margaret-king-baudouin-royal-family-10-june-1974-tristar-BR45K8.jpg
  53. ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/a0/80/e0/a080e0f2e7a2f997dc1ce200f3eaadb3.jpg
  54. ^ http://www.dw.com/image/0,,4275211_4,00.jpg

Bibliography[edit]

  • Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 25-31.

Other languages[edit]

  • A. Molitor, La fonction royale en Belgique, Brussels, 1979
  • J.Stengers, De koningen der Belgen. Van Leopold I tot Albert II, Leuven, 1997.
  • Kardinaal Suenens, Koning Boudewijn. Het getuigenis van een leven, Leuven, 1995.
  • Kerstrede 18.12.1975, (ed.V.Neels), Wij Boudewijn, Koning der Belgen. Het politiek, sociaal en moreel testament van een nobel vorst, deel II, Gent, 1996.
  • H. le Paige (dir.), Questions royales, Réflexions à propos de la mort d'un roi et sur la médiatisation de l'évènement, Brussels, 1994.

External links[edit]

Baudouin of Belgium
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 7 September 1930 Died: 31 July 1993
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold III
King of the Belgians
1951–1993
Succeeded by
Albert II
Royal titles
Preceded by
Leopold
Duke of Brabant
1934–1951
Succeeded by
Philippe