Bauhaus (band)

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Bauhaus
Bauhaus August 2006 UK.jpg
Bauhaus performing live in August 2006.
Background information
Also known as Bauhaus 1919
Origin Northampton, England
Genres
Years active 1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008
Labels
Associated acts
Past members Peter Murphy
Daniel Ash
Kevin Haskins
David J

Bauhaus were an English post-punk band, formed in Northampton, England in 1978. The group consisted of Peter Murphy (vocals, occasional instruments), Daniel Ash (guitar), Kevin Haskins (drums) and David J (bass). The band was originally named Bauhaus 1919 in reference to the first operating year of the art school Bauhaus, although they shortened the name within a year of formation. Generally considered one of the first gothic rock groups, Bauhaus were known for their gloomy sound and dark image. However, musically the band was quite diverse. Throughout their career, they incorporated a variety of genres, ranging from reggae to funk.[1]

Bauhaus broke up in 1983. Peter Murphy began a solo career while Ash and Haskins continued as Tones on Tail and, later, reunited with David J to form Love and Rockets. Both enjoyed greater commercial success in the United States than Bauhaus had, but disappeared from the charts in their homeland. Bauhaus eventually reunited for a 1998 tour and again from 2005 to 2008.

History[edit]

Ash, his friend David J. Haskins, and Haskins' younger brother Kevin, had played together in various bands since childhood. One of the longer-lived of these was a band called the Craze, which performed a few times around Northampton in 1978. However, The Craze still split up fairly quickly, and Ash once again tried to convince his old school friend Murphy to join him, simply because Ash thought he had the right look for a band.[2] Murphy, who was working in a printing factory, decided to give it a try, despite never having written any lyrics or music. During their first rehearsal, he co-wrote the song "In the Flat Field".[3]

Ash's old bandmate Kevin Haskins joined as the drummer. Ash made a point of not inviting David J, the driving force in their previous bands, because he wanted a band he could control.[4] Instead, Chris Barber was brought in to play bass, and together the four musicians formed the band S.R. However, within a few weeks S.R. had dissolved, and Ash, Murphy and Haskins teamed up with David J. under the new name Bauhaus 1919. David J. had already agreed to tour American airbases with another band, but decided that joining his friends' group was "the right thing to do". With their lineup complete, the unnamed band played their first gig at the Cromwell pub in Wellingborough on New Year's Eve 1978.[5]

The band had chosen the name Bauhaus 1919, a reference to the German Bauhaus art movement of the 1920s, because of its "stylistic implications and associations", according to David J.[6] The band also chose the same typeface used on the Bauhaus college building in Dessau, Germany. Bauhaus associate Graham Bentley said that the group was unlike any Northampton band of the time, most of which played predominantly cover songs.[7] Bentley videotaped a performance by the group, which was sent to several record labels, in the hope of obtaining a contract. This approach was hindered partly because many record companies at the time did not have home video equipment, so the group decided to record a demo.[8]

"Bela Lugosi's Dead" and 4AD[edit]

After only six weeks as a band, Bauhaus entered the studio for the first time at Beck Studios in Wellingborough to record a demo.[9] One of the five tracks recorded during the session, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", more than nine minutes long, was released as the group's debut single in August 1979 on Small Wonder Records. The band was listed simply as Bauhaus, with the "1919" abandoned.[10][11] The single received a positive review in Sounds, and stayed on the British independent charts for two years. The song received crucial airplay on BBC Radio 1 and DJ John Peel's evening show, and Bauhaus were subsequently asked to record a session for Peel's show, which was broadcast on 3 January 1980.[12]

Signing with the 4AD label, the band released two more singles, "Dark Entries" in January 1980 and "Terror Couple Kill Colonel" in June 1980, before issuing their first album In the Flat Field in October 1980. NME described it as "Gothick-Romantick pseudo-decadence".[13] Despite negative reviews, In the Flat Field topped the indie charts, and made headway on the British pop charts, peaking for one week at No. 72.[14] In December 1980 Bauhaus released a cover of "Telegram Sam", a hit by glam rock pioneers T. Rex), as a single.

Beggars Banquet and breakup[edit]

Bauhaus' growing success outstripped 4AD's resources, so the band moved to 4AD's parent label, Beggars Banquet Records.[15] Bauhaus released "Kick in the Eye" in March 1981 as its debut release on the label. The single reached No. 59 on the charts.[16] The following single, "The Passion of Lovers", peaked at No. 56 in July 1981.[17] Bauhaus released their second album, Mask, in October 1981. The band employed more keyboards, and a variety of other instruments, to add to the diversity of the record. In an unconventional move, the group shot a video for the album's title track as a promotional tool for the band as a whole, rather than any specific song from the record.[18]

In July 1982 Bauhaus released the single "Spirit", produced by Hugh Jones. It was intended to break into the Top 30, but only reached No. 42. The band was displeased with the single, and re-recorded it later in 1982 for their third album The Sky's Gone Out.[19] In the same year, Bauhaus scored their biggest hit with a cover of David Bowie's "Ziggy Stardust", which was recorded during a BBC session. The song reached No. 15 on the British charts, and earned the band an appearance on the television show Top of the Pops. [20] Due to the success of the single, the album also became the band's biggest hit, peaking at No. 4.[21] That same year, Bauhaus made an appearance in the horror film The Hunger, where they performed "Bela Lugosi's Dead" during the opening credits. The final cut of the scene focused on Murphy; this, coupled with the singer's modelling work in a popular ad campaign for Maxell, caused resentment among the rest of the group.[22]

Prior to the recording of their fourth album, Burning from the Inside (1983), Murphy was stricken with pneumonia, which prevented him from contributing much to the album. Ash and David J took the reins, becoming the driving forces behind the record and even performing lead vocals on several tracks.[23] The album's lead single, "She's in Parties", reached No. 26 on the charts and earned Bauhaus their third and final Top of the Pops appearance.[24] Bauhaus then embarked on an international promotional tour for the album, with dates in Europe and the Far East.[25] David J recalled that the night before they were supposed to perform two shows at Hammersmith Palais in London, the group decided to disband.

The band played their farewell show on 5 July 1983 at the Hammersmith Palais; dedicated fans had been warned by the band's crew not to miss the show, without telling them it was the last. After a long encore, consisting of some of their early songs, David J left the stage with the words "rest in peace".[25] Burning from the Inside was released a week later. The album received largely positive reviews and reached No. 13 on the charts.[26] Bauhaus released the single "Sanity Assassin" in limited quantities as a farewell gift for those who joined the group's fan club.[27]

Post-breakup[edit]

After Bauhaus disbanded, the members of the band moved on to various solo work. Murphy worked briefly with bassist Mick Karn of Japan in the band Dalis Car, before going solo with such albums as 1986's Should the World Fail to Fall Apart, 1988's Love Hysteria and 1989's Deep. Ash had already started Tones on Tail with Bauhaus roadie Glen Campling as a side project in 1981; after Bauhaus broke up, Kevin Haskins joined the group, and the trio released an album and several EPs before breaking up after a 1984 American tour.[28] During this time, David J released two solo albums and collaborated with other musicians, recording two albums with the Jazz Butcher, and also with comics writer/spoken-word artist Alan Moore in the short-lived band the Sinister Ducks.

During a discussion about the state of their projects at the time, Ash and David J began talking about reforming Bauhaus. All four band members arranged a rehearsal, but Murphy failed to show up on the scheduled day. The other three band members rehearsed regardless, and were inspired by the chemistry they had as a trio. As a result, Ash and the Haskins brothers formed Love and Rockets in 1985.[29] Love and Rockets scored a US hit four years later with "So Alive". The band broke up in 1999 after seven albums. Both Ash and David J released solo albums during the Love and Rockets years; Murphy contributed backing vocals to David J's 1992 single "Candy on the Cross".

Reunions[edit]

Daniel Ash in 2006

Bauhaus reunited for the "Resurrection Tour" in 1998, which featured a new song, "The Dog's a Vapour", which was also included in the Heavy Metal 2000 film soundtrack. A live album was recorded during the tour, Gotham, which was released the following year. It included a studio recording of Bauhaus' cover of the Dead Can Dance song "Severance".[30]

Bauhaus reunited again in 2005, playing that year's Coachella Festival in Indio, California. They opened their set with Murphy being lowered upside-down to the stage, singing "Bela Lugosi's Dead". Following Murphy's 2005 tour, Bauhaus embarked on a full tour beginning in North America and Mexico in autumn 2005, ending in Europe in February 2006. The band also mentioned that they hoped to record new music following the tour. In May the band performed as opening act for Nine Inch Nails on the summer leg of the latter's US tour.[31]

In 2008, Bauhaus released their first new studio album since 1983, Go Away White (Cooking Vinyl). It marked the band's end and the album had no promotional tour. In late 2007, Kevin Haskins said "We were getting along really well, but there was an incident that occurred", and added that as a result, "Some of us just felt that we didn't want to carry on as a working unit".[32] In early 2008, Murphy claimed that he "was most satisfied with the bonding on an emotional level. It was good to be working together and to put the past behind us and it was very positive. The result was coming out really fast, so it was exciting and it was very enjoyable", but in the end, "that rocky character worked and I think it was a bit right to finish it, really".[33] The same year, David J commented on the breakup: "You have a test tube, and you pour in one chemical, and you pour in another chemical, and something happens. It starts to bubble. Pour in another chemical, and it starts to bubble a bit more. You pour in a fourth chemical, and it bubbles really violently, and then explodes. That's my answer".[34]

Musical style[edit]

Vocalist Peter Murphy.
Brixton Academy in London, England, February 3, 2006

Bauhaus' influences included punk rock (e.g. Devo, the Stooges and Sex Pistols), glam rock (e.g. David Bowie, T. Rex and Gary Glitter), art rock/experimental music (e.g. Brian Eno, Pere Ubu, Roxy Music, Suicide and the Velvet Underground), krautrock (e.g. Kraftwerk, Can and Neu!), funk (e.g. James Brown, Bobby Byrd, Sly and the Family Stone) and dub reggae (e.g. Lee Scratch Perry, Errol Thompson and King Tubby).[1][35] During their 2006 reunion tour, Bauhaus covered Joy Division's "Transmission", one of their contemporary influences.[36]

Bauhaus combined these influences to create a gloomy, earnest and introspective version of post-punk,[37] which appealed to many music fans who felt disillusioned in the wake of punk's collapse.[38] Its crucial elements included Murphy's deep and sonorous voice, Ash's jagged guitar playing and David J's dub-influenced bass. Their sound and gloomy style would eventually come to be known as gothic rock.[39]

Legacy and influence[edit]

Although the band were short-lived, their music was influential upon many bands and artists that followed. They had a significant impact on gothic and deathrock groups including Christian Death,[40] Type O Negative[41] and Glenn Danzig.[42] The Mission's Wayne Hussey sang with Murphy on stage in 2013.[43]

Bauhaus inspired many industrial rock groups like Marilyn Manson,[44] Nine Inch Nails,[45] Nitzer Ebb[46] and Skinny Puppy.[47] The band has been cited as an influence by electronic act Carl Craig,[48] the crust punk band Amebix,[49] and the extreme metal band Celtic Frost.[50] Bauhaus were also hailed by several alternative/indie rock groups including Jane's Addiction,[51] Soundgarden,[52] A Neon Rome,[53] AFI,[54] Hole,[55] Interpol,[56] My Chemical Romance,[57] She Wants Revenge,[58] Elliott Smith,[59] The Dresden Dolls,[60] The Flaming Lips[61] and The Horrors.[62] Bauhaus influenced Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys in the writing of that band's 1982 album Plastic Surgery Disasters.[63] According to Courtney Love's technically unauthorized biography, Courtney Love: The Real Story, Kurt Cobain was a "closet deathrocker" and his Bauhaus records were "scratched up".[64]

The group have been namechecked by several other prominent musicians, including Steve Albini (of Big Black),[65] Ian Curtis (of Joy Division),[66] Jello Biafra of Dead Kennedys,[67] Al Jourgensen of Ministry,[68] Fred Durst (of Limp Bizkit),[69] Jonathan Davis (of Korn),[70] Duff McKagan (of Guns N' Roses),[71] Stuart Braithwaite (of Mogwai),[72] Stephen Malkmus (of Pavement),[73] Colin Greenwood (of Radiohead)[74] and Jarvis Cocker (of Pulp).[75] Blink-182 namedropped Bauhaus on their song "She’s Out of Her Mind" on their California album.[76]

The Bauhaus song "All We Ever Wanted Was Everything" (from the album The Sky's Gone Out) was covered by several artists and bands, including John Frusciante (former guitarist of Red Hot Chili Peppers),[77] MGMT [78] and Xiu Xiu (who recorded it in 2006 for their Tu Mi Piaci EP). Billy Corgan of Smashing Pumpkins sang T. Rex's "Telegram Sam" and "All We Ever Wanted Was Everything" live on stage with Bauhaus in 1998.[79] Bauhaus' signature song, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", was covered by several acts, including Massive Attack,[80] Trent Reznor[81] and Chris Cornell (former singer of Soundgarden).[82]

On 31 October 2013 (Halloween), David J and Jill Tracy released "Bela Lugosi's Dead (Undead Is Forever)", a cinematic piano-led rework of "Bela Lugosi's Dead".

Their fanbase extends beyond music; comic book writer Alan Moore wrote the sleeve notes of Mask and contributed an anonymous Bauhaus review called "Phantoms of the Teenage Opera" to the UK music paper Sounds.[83][84][85]

The American novelist Chuck Palahniuk was influenced by Bauhaus's song, Bela Lugosi's Dead when writing his novel, Haunted.[86]

Popular culture[edit]

Bauhaus's influence on popular culture is visible.

In the 1984 music video of the song, "You're the Inspiration" from the American band Chicago, lead singer Peter Cetera is seen wearing a Bauhaus T-shirt.[87] In the Beavis and Butt-head season 3 episode "Meet God, Part II" (1993), they view and comment on a music video for Bauhaus' Bowie cover, "Ziggy Stardust".[88][89] In the South Park episode "Raisins", Henrietta Biggle (one of the "goth kids") had a bedroom poster of "Blauhaus", a parody version of the band.[90]

In James O'Barr's comic book The Crow, the main character, Eric Draven, was heavily based on Peter Murphy when O'Barr saw the band in Berlin, Germany.[91][92] In Neil Gaiman's series The Sandman, Dream's face and appearance were based on Murphy.[93][94] In fact, Gaiman explained that Murphy was the original model for Dream, also known as Morpheus.[95] Gaiman also stated that Sandman artist Dave McKean based Dream's face, as depicted on the cover of the first issue of Sandman, on Murphy.[96][97]

Members[edit]

  • Peter Murphy – vocals, occasional guitar, other instruments
  • Daniel Ash – guitar, 12-string acoustic guitar, saxophone, vocals
  • Kevin Haskins – drums, congas, keyboard, piano, backing vocals
  • David J (David John Haskins) – bass, acoustic bass guitar, piano, harpsichord, claves, vocals

Discography[edit]

Main article: Bauhaus discography
Studio albums

References[edit]

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  86. ^ Douglas Keesey (2016). Understanding Chuck Palahniuk. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781611176988. It is not only these literary traditions that have informed and inspired Palahniuk's fiction; there are significant cinematic and musical influences as well. ...When it comes to music, Palahniuk has said that “the punk esthetic shaped my work: Start loud, run short, end abruptly.”93 Punk, industrial rock, and other edgy, confrontational styles tend to be the major influences.... ....To get into the right mood to create his damaged and sometimes dangerous characters, Palahniuk will often listen to the same song on repeat while he is writing. These have included Radiohead's “Creep” for Choke, Depeche Mode's “Little 15” for Diary, and Bauhaus's “Bela Lugosi's Dead” for Haunted. 
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  91. ^ Smith, Evans; Brown, Nathan (2008). "22: Comparative Mythology in Pop Culture". The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Mythology. Penguin Books. p. 287. ISBN 9781436268103. The physical appearance of Eric Draven was based heavily on the face of Peter Murphy of the band Bauhaus, who O'Barr also saw while in Germany, and the body of rock icon Iggy Pop. 
  92. ^ Voger, Mark (2006). "As the Crow Flies". The Dark Age. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 9781893905535. Q: How did the Crow character of Eric come to you? O'Barr: Basically, I was just playing around with the makeup on the face. I was in England. On the side of a building was painted the three faces of the English theater, which were Pain, Irony and Despair. The smiling face was Irony. So that's basically where the makeup came from. Physically, Eric is kind of a mixture of Iggy Pop and Peter Murphy. 
  93. ^ McKean, Dave; Gaiman, Neil (1997). The collected Sandman covers, 1989-1997. Watson-Guptill. p. 1. ISBN 9780823046324. The Sandman image was inspired by Peter Murphy, the ex-Bauhaus singer and Maxell tape model, because when artist Mike Dringenberg saw the original sketches for the character he said "He looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus." 
  94. ^ McCabe, Joseph, ed. (2004). Hanging Out with the Dream King: Conversations with Neil Gaiman and His Collaborators. Quach, Sophia (photographer). Fantagraphics. p. 92. ISBN 9781560976172. ['Sandman' artist Kelly Jones talks about the inspiration behind Dream's appearance] I know Neil always said [the Sandman] was based on Robert Smith of the Cure, but I just hated the Cure. I didn't want to hear that. I was really into Peter Murphy at that time, the guy from Bauhaus. I didn't like Bauhaus, but I liked him on his own, and he had a song called "Cut You Up" or something; it was on the radio at the time. I bought the CD, and I said, 'You know, with that big poufy hair, he looks like that guy.' At that time, Murphy was very gestural. I don't think the guy ever had a picture taken of him that wasn't angled and in deep lighting. So I took that, too. I said, 'Whenever I do him, I'm gonna do that kind of thing. And get into his face, don't just keep him in deep shadow all the time. He will be in deep shadow all the time, but I want to put across a guy who's clueless. Not stupid, but he's not understanding things.' Because he's an immortal guy who... 
  95. ^ Gaiman, Neil (16 February 2013). "The Official Neil Gaiman Tumblr". Tumblr. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The original idea-model for Morpheus was Peter Murphy from Bauhaus. 
  96. ^ Gaiman, Neil. "Neil Gaiman – FAQ – Comics". Retrieved 22 September 2012. If I remember correctly Dave based the face on the cover of Sandman #1 on an image of Peter Murphy. 
  97. ^ Baddeley, Gavin; Woods, Paul A. (2006). Woods, Paul A., ed. Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture (2nd ed.). Plexus. p. 1941. ISBN 9780859653824. Sandman inker Mike Dringenberg observed, '"Hey, [he] looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus.'" Cover artist Dave McKean and Gaiman 'got some Bauhaus videos and immediately saw that Mike was right; and Dave ended up making the central image on the cover of Sandman [number one] a Peter Murphy-like face. 
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