Bauhaus performing live in August 2006.
|Also known as||Bauhaus 1919|
|Years active||1978–1983, 1998, 2005–2008|
|Past members||Peter Murphy
Bauhaus were an English post-punk band, formed in Northampton, England in 1978. The group consisted of Peter Murphy (vocals, occasional instruments), Daniel Ash (guitar), Kevin Haskins (drums) and David J (bass). The band was originally named Bauhaus 1919 in reference to the first operating year of the German art school Bauhaus, although they shortened the name within a year of formation. Generally considered one of the first gothic rock groups, Bauhaus were known for their gloomy sound and dark image, which drew on styles from dub and glam rock to psychedelia and funk.
Bauhaus broke up in 1983. Peter Murphy began a solo career while Ash and Haskins continued as Tones on Tail and, later, reunited with David J to form Love and Rockets. Both enjoyed greater commercial success in the United States than Bauhaus had, but disappeared from the charts in their homeland. Bauhaus eventually reunited for a 1998 tour and again from 2005 to 2008.
Ash, his friend David J. Haskins, and Haskins' younger brother Kevin, had played together in various bands since childhood. One of the longer-lived of these was a band called the Craze, which performed a few times around Northampton in 1978. However, The Craze still split up fairly quickly, and Ash once again tried to convince his old school friend Murphy to join him, simply because Ash thought he had the right look for a band. Murphy, who was working in a printing factory, decided to give it a try, despite never having written any lyrics or music. During their first rehearsal, he co-wrote the song "In the Flat Field".
Ash's old bandmate Kevin Haskins joined as the drummer. Ash made a point of not inviting David J, the driving force in their previous bands, because he wanted a band he could control. Instead, Chris Barber was brought in to play bass, and together the four musicians formed the band S.R. However, within a few weeks S.R. had dissolved, and Ash, Murphy and Haskins teamed up with David J. under the new name Bauhaus 1919. David J. had already agreed to tour American airbases with another band, but decided that joining his friends' group was "the right thing to do". With their lineup complete, the unnamed band played their first gig at the Cromwell pub in Wellingborough on New Year's Eve 1978.
The band had chosen the name Bauhaus 1919, a reference to the German Bauhaus art movement of the 1920s, because of its "stylistic implications and associations", according to David J. The band also chose the same typeface used on the Bauhaus college building in Dessau, Germany. Bauhaus associate Graham Bentley said that the group was unlike any Northampton band of the time, most of which played predominantly cover songs. Bentley videotaped a performance by the group, which was sent to several record labels, in the hope of obtaining a contract. This approach was hindered partly because many record companies at the time did not have home video equipment, so the group decided to record a demo.
"Bela Lugosi's Dead" and 4AD
After only six weeks as a band, Bauhaus entered the studio for the first time at Beck Studios in Wellingborough to record a demo. One of the five tracks recorded during the session, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", more than nine minutes long, was released as the group's debut single in August 1979 on Small Wonder Records. The band was listed simply as Bauhaus, with the "1919" abandoned. The single received a positive review in Sounds, and stayed on the British independent charts for two years. The song received crucial airplay on BBC Radio 1 and DJ John Peel's evening show, and Bauhaus were subsequently asked to record a session for Peel's show, which was broadcast on 3 January 1980.
Signing with the 4AD label, the band released two more singles, "Dark Entries" in January 1980 and "Terror Couple Kill Colonel" in June 1980, before issuing their first album In the Flat Field in October 1980. NME described it as "Gothick-Romantick pseudo-decadence". Despite negative reviews, In the Flat Field topped the indie charts, and made headway on the UK Albums Chart, peaking for one week at No. 72. In December 1980 Bauhaus released a cover of "Telegram Sam", a hit by glam rock pioneers T. Rex), as a single.
Beggars Banquet and breakup
Bauhaus' growing success outstripped 4AD's resources, so the band moved to 4AD's parent label, Beggars Banquet Records. Bauhaus released "Kick in the Eye" in March 1981 as its debut release on the label. The single reached No. 59 on the charts. The following single, "The Passion of Lovers", peaked at No. 56 in July 1981. Bauhaus released their second album, Mask, in October 1981. The band employed more keyboards, and a variety of other instruments, to add to the diversity of the record. In an unconventional move, the group shot a video for the album's title track as a promotional tool for the band as a whole, rather than any specific song from the record.
In July 1982 Bauhaus released the single "Spirit", produced by Hugh Jones. It was intended to break into the Top 30, but only reached No. 42. The band was displeased with the single, and re-recorded it later in 1982 for their third album The Sky's Gone Out. In the same year, Bauhaus scored their biggest hit with a cover of David Bowie's "Ziggy Stardust", which was recorded during a BBC session. The song reached No. 15 on the British charts, and earned the band an appearance on the television show Top of the Pops.  Due to the success of the single, the album also became the band's biggest hit, peaking at No. 4. That same year, Bauhaus made an appearance in the horror film The Hunger, where they performed "Bela Lugosi's Dead" during the opening credits. The final cut of the scene focused on Murphy; this, coupled with the singer's modelling work in a popular ad campaign for Maxell, caused resentment among the rest of the group.
Prior to the recording of their fourth album, Burning from the Inside (1983), Murphy was stricken with pneumonia, which prevented him from contributing much to the album. Ash and David J took the reins, becoming the driving forces behind the record and even performing lead vocals on several tracks. The album's lead single, "She's in Parties", reached No. 26 on the charts and earned Bauhaus their third and final Top of the Pops appearance. Bauhaus then embarked on an international promotional tour for the album, with dates in Europe and the Far East. David J recalled that the night before they were supposed to perform two shows at Hammersmith Palais in London, the group decided to disband.
The band played their farewell show on 5 July 1983 at the Hammersmith Palais; dedicated fans had been warned by the band's crew not to miss the show, without telling them it was the last. After a long encore, consisting of some of their early songs, David J left the stage with the words "rest in peace". Burning from the Inside was released a week later. The album received largely positive reviews and reached No. 13 on the charts. Bauhaus released the single "Sanity Assassin" in limited quantities as a farewell gift for those who joined the group's fan club.
After Bauhaus disbanded, the members of the band moved on to various solo work. Murphy worked briefly with bassist Mick Karn of Japan in the band Dalis Car, before going solo with such albums as 1986's Should the World Fail to Fall Apart, 1988's Love Hysteria and 1989's Deep. Ash had already started Tones on Tail with Bauhaus roadie Glen Campling as a side project in 1981; after Bauhaus broke up, Kevin Haskins joined the group, and the trio released an album and several EPs before breaking up after a 1984 American tour. During this time, David J released two solo albums and collaborated with other musicians, recording two albums with the Jazz Butcher, and also with comics writer/spoken-word artist Alan Moore in the short-lived band the Sinister Ducks.
During a discussion about the state of their projects at the time, Ash and David J began talking about reforming Bauhaus. All four band members arranged a rehearsal, but Murphy failed to show up on the scheduled day. The other three band members rehearsed regardless, and were inspired by the chemistry they had as a trio. As a result, Ash and the Haskins brothers formed Love and Rockets in 1985. Love and Rockets scored a US hit four years later with "So Alive". The band broke up in 1999 after seven albums. Both Ash and David J released solo albums during the Love and Rockets years; Murphy contributed backing vocals to David J's 1992 single "Candy on the Cross".
Bauhaus reunited for the "Resurrection Tour" in 1998, which featured a new song, "The Dog's a Vapour", which was also included in the Heavy Metal 2000 film soundtrack. A live album was recorded during the tour, Gotham, which was released the following year. It included a studio recording of Bauhaus' cover of the Dead Can Dance song "Severance".
Bauhaus reunited again in 2005, playing that year's Coachella Festival in Indio, California. They opened their set with Murphy being lowered upside-down to the stage, singing "Bela Lugosi's Dead". Following Murphy's 2005 tour, Bauhaus embarked on a full tour beginning in North America and Mexico in autumn 2005, ending in Europe in February 2006. The band also mentioned that they hoped to record new music following the tour. In May the band performed as opening act for Nine Inch Nails on the summer leg of the latter's US tour.
In 2008, Bauhaus released their first new studio album since 1983, Go Away White (Cooking Vinyl). It marked the band's end and the album had no promotional tour. In late 2007, Kevin Haskins said "We were getting along really well, but there was an incident that occurred", and added that as a result, "Some of us just felt that we didn't want to carry on as a working unit". In early 2008, Murphy claimed that he "was most satisfied with the bonding on an emotional level. It was good to be working together and to put the past behind us and it was very positive. The result was coming out really fast, so it was exciting and it was very enjoyable", but in the end, "that rocky character worked and I think it was a bit right to finish it, really". The same year, David J commented on the breakup: "You have a test tube, and you pour in one chemical, and you pour in another chemical, and something happens. It starts to bubble. Pour in another chemical, and it starts to bubble a bit more. You pour in a fourth chemical, and it bubbles really violently, and then explodes. That's my answer".
Bauhaus' influences included punk rock (e.g. Devo, the Stooges and Sex Pistols), glam rock (e.g. David Bowie, T. Rex and Gary Glitter), art rock/experimental music (e.g. Brian Eno, Pere Ubu, Roxy Music, Suicide and the Velvet Underground), krautrock (e.g. Kraftwerk, Can and Neu!), funk (e.g. James Brown, Bobby Byrd, Sly and the Family Stone) and dub reggae (e.g. Lee Scratch Perry, Errol Thompson and King Tubby). During their 2006 reunion tour, Bauhaus covered Joy Division's "Transmission", one of their contemporary influences.
Bauhaus combined these influences to create a gloomy, earnest and introspective version of post-punk, which appealed to many music fans who felt disillusioned in the wake of punk's collapse. Its crucial elements included Murphy's deep and sonorous voice, Ash's jagged guitar playing and David J's dub-influenced bass. Their sound and gloomy style would eventually come to be known as gothic rock.
Legacy and influence
Although the band were short-lived, their music was influential upon many bands and artists that followed. They had a significant impact on gothic and deathrock artists including Christian Death, Type O Negative and Glenn Danzig. The Mission's Wayne Hussey sang with Murphy on stage in 2013. According to Courtney Love's technically unauthorized biography, Courtney Love: The Real Story, Kurt Cobain was a "closet deathrocker" and his Bauhaus records were "scratched up".
Bauhaus inspired many industrial rock groups, like Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Nitzer Ebb and Skinny Puppy. The band has been cited as an influence by electronic act Carl Craig, the crust punk band Amebix and the extreme metal band Celtic Frost. Bauhaus were also hailed by several alternative/indie rock groups including Jane's Addiction, Soundgarden, A Neon Rome, AFI, Hole, Interpol, My Chemical Romance, She Wants Revenge, Elliott Smith, the Dresden Dolls, the Flaming Lips and the Horrors. Bauhaus influenced Jello Biafra of Dead Kennedys in the writing of that band's 1982 album Plastic Surgery Disasters. Duff McKagan of Guns N' Roses listed the Bauhaus compilation Bauhaus 1979–1983 in his 100 favorite albums list.
The group have been namechecked by several other prominent musicians, including Steve Albini (of Big Black), Ian Curtis (of Joy Division), Jello Biafra of Dead Kennedys, Al Jourgensen of Ministry, Fred Durst (of Limp Bizkit), Jonathan Davis (of Korn), Duff McKagan (of Guns N' Roses), Stuart Braithwaite (of Mogwai), Stephen Malkmus (of Pavement), Colin Greenwood (of Radiohead), Anthony Gonzalez (of M83) and Jarvis Cocker (of Pulp). Blink-182 namedropped Bauhaus on their song "She's Out of Her Mind" on their California album.
The Bauhaus song "All We Ever Wanted Was Everything" (from the album The Sky's Gone Out) was covered by several artists and bands, including John Frusciante (former guitarist of Red Hot Chili Peppers), MGMT  and Xiu Xiu (who recorded it in 2006 for their Tu Mi Piaci EP). Billy Corgan of Smashing Pumpkins sang T. Rex's "Telegram Sam" and "All We Ever Wanted Was Everything" live on stage with Bauhaus in 1998. Bauhaus' signature song, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", was covered by several acts, including Massive Attack, Trent Reznor and Chris Cornell (former singer of Soundgarden).
Their fanbase extends beyond music; comic book writer Alan Moore wrote the sleeve notes of Mask and contributed an anonymous Bauhaus review called "Phantoms of the Teenage Opera" to the UK music paper Sounds.
Bauhaus's influence on popular culture is visible.
In the 1984 music video of the song, "You're the Inspiration" from the American band Chicago, lead singer Peter Cetera is seen wearing a Bauhaus T-shirt. In the Beavis and Butt-head season 3 episode "Meet God, Part II" (1993), they view and comment on a music video for Bauhaus' Bowie cover, "Ziggy Stardust". In the South Park episode "Raisins", Henrietta Biggle (one of the "goth kids") had a bedroom poster of "Blauhaus", a parody version of the band.
In James O'Barr's comic book The Crow, the main character, Eric Draven, was heavily based on Peter Murphy when O'Barr saw the band in Berlin, Germany. In Neil Gaiman's series The Sandman, Dream's face and appearance were based on Murphy. In fact, Gaiman explained that Murphy was the original model for Dream, also known as Morpheus. Gaiman also stated that Sandman artist Dave McKean based Dream's face, as depicted on the cover of the first issue of Sandman, on Murphy.
- Peter Murphy – vocals, acoustic guitar, keyboard, melodica, congas
- Daniel Ash – electric and acoustic guitars, saxophone, vocals
- Kevin Haskins – drums, percussion, keyboards, piano, backing vocals
- David J (David John Haskins) – electric and acoustic bass guitar, piano, keyboards, percussion, vocals
- Studio albums
- In the Flat Field (1980)
- Mask (1981)
- The Sky's Gone Out (1982)
- Burning from the Inside (1983)
- Go Away White (2008)
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- "Peter Murphy Bauhaus Interview". The Quietus. Retrieved 27 November 2015."How big an influence was reggae on the development of Bauhaus’s music? PM: Massive. We were listening to toasting music all the time, and David brought in a lot of bass lines that were very lead riffs. You can see how those basslines really formed the basis of the music, especially on Mask. We were more aligned to The Clash than anything else that was going around. The Cure and those people really solidified what became goth, I suppose. We had no idea how to play reggae, but that was to our advantage because we expanded on that. It was successful on a very cult, underground level and that was very appropriate because our music was never going to be mainstream. It was seminal music. It was brilliant in its originality".
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It is Type O Negative's gothically tinged metal, reared on a steady diet of Bauhaus and Sisters Of Mercy, which never takes itself too seriously, that has garnered them critical and commercial success.
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Manson: Bauhaus is one of our absolute favorite bands.
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Having discovered the industrial-grade thumping and noise terrorism of UK bands such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, and the moodiness of Bauhaus, Joy Division, early New Order and Depeche Mode, Key and Ogre set about creating their own brand of electronic attack.
- Simon Reynolds (2012). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9781593764777.
Born in 1969 and brought up in Detroit's middle-class West Side, Craig took Detroit's Europhile tendencies even further than his mentor Derrick May. As a sensitive teenager, he was into bands like The Cure, Bauhaus and The Smiths.
- Ian Glasper (2014). The Day the Country Died: A History of Anarcho Punk 1980–1984. PM Press. p. 200. ISBN 9781604865165.
“Yeah, we were developing all these influences from people like Bauhaus and Joy Division...."
- Dayal Patterson (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. p. 48. ISBN 9781936239764.
All the same, Celtic Frost were clearly also utilizing a much wider spectrum of influence, including that of gothic rock acts such as Bauhaus and Christian Death, and were already beginning to demonstrate the decidedly innovative approach to songwriting (evident in the restrained but notable use of violin and female vocals) that would increasingly earn them the “avant-garde metal” tag.
- Brown, Jake (2010). Jane's Addiction: In the Studio. Rock N Roll Books. ISBN 0972614273.
Dave [Navarro] & I [Stephen Perkins] met those cats. They [Perry Farrell and Eric Avery] were more into Echo & The Bunnymen, Joy Division, Siouxsie & the Banshees and Bauhaus. I think that was the sound of Jane's Addiction
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'We were trying for something a little weirder,' Borra says. 'I was listening to hardcore, but we were more influenced by the British side of things – PiL, Bauhaus. By 1984 when A Neon Rome started, punk was considered dead.'
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By the age of 19 he still hadn't found a band to solo in, and had grown bored with the headbanging genre. "I lost the whole 'f--- society, f--- authority' thing that was driving it from the beginning, so I just stopped playing music in general, and my tastes shifted," he says. He started listening to music that he wasn't immediately inspired to play himself, like Wagner and Beethoven, or gothic groups such as Bauhaus and Sisters of Mercy.
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Their first EP from 1984, self-released and pressed in a run of 1,000 vinyl copies, was influenced by darker UK rock on the goth end of the spectrum, bands like Bauhaus and Echo and the Bunnymen.
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Interviewer: "Who else influenced you?" Jello Biafra: "...When I wrote Plastic Surgery Disasters, the main stuff I was listening to was Bauhaus, Les Baxture and The Groundhogs."
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[Starting from 1:22] "Lots of singles, I know so many works from this record shop, where I live and I'll go in there and he will play me..another single, single by...a group called...I think,...Bauhaus..."
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According to Durst, he endured childhood ridicule over his taste in music. "I loved the Cure and Bauhaus and the Smiths," he says.
- Furman, Leah (2000). Korn: Life in the Pit. Macmillan. p. 17. ISBN 9781466809291.
Still, in those days, it wasn't easy being Jonathan Davis. ..."I was into Bauhaus, Ministry, Depeche Mode..."
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Next, Greenwood points out a staircase leading up to Georgina's, a coffee shop where he and Yorke used to hang out back in their school days. "We'd be with the other goths, talking about Bauhaus in our mohair jumpers," he says. "I haven't been in there in fifteen years."
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They played a wide range of covers that tied in to varying degrees with the agitprop documentary taking place onscreen. Some, like The Jesus and Mary Chain's "Just Like Honey" and Bauhaus' "Bela Lugosi's Dead", seemed chosen more for mood.
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- Parkin, Lance (2011). Alan Moore. Oldcastle Books. ISBN 9781842434604.
...Mask by Bauhaus in the issue dated 26 February 1981 (Moore also wrote the sleeve notes for that album, as Brilburn Logue)...Moore wrote the programme for Bauhaus: Burning the Inside Tour (1983).
- Khoury, George (2003). The Extraordinary Works of Alan Moore. TwoMorrows. ISBN 9781605490090.
"Phantoms of the Teenage Opera" half-page article on the group Bauhaus. uncredited but unmlstakeably by Moore, later confirmed on the letters page of the November 29. 1980 issue (p.62): in the course of replying to a reader's letter the editor remarks,...
- "Bauhaus: Phantoms of the Teenage Opera". Sounds (16 February 1980).
- Douglas Keesey (2016). Understanding Chuck Palahniuk. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781611176988.
It is not only these literary traditions that have informed and inspired Palahniuk's fiction; there are significant cinematic and musical influences as well. ...When it comes to music, Palahniuk has said that “the punk esthetic shaped my work: Start loud, run short, end abruptly.”93 Punk, industrial rock, and other edgy, confrontational styles tend to be the major influences.... ....To get into the right mood to create his damaged and sometimes dangerous characters, Palahniuk will often listen to the same song on repeat while he is writing. These have included Radiohead's “Creep” for Choke, Depeche Mode's “Little 15” for Diary, and Bauhaus's “Bela Lugosi's Dead” for Haunted.
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The physical appearance of Eric Draven was based heavily on the face of Peter Murphy of the band Bauhaus, who O'Barr also saw while in Germany, and the body of rock icon Iggy Pop.
- Voger, Mark (2006). "As the Crow Flies". The Dark Age. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 9781893905535.
Q: How did the Crow character of Eric come to you? O'Barr: Basically, I was just playing around with the makeup on the face. I was in England. On the side of a building was painted the three faces of the English theater, which were Pain, Irony and Despair. The smiling face was Irony. So that's basically where the makeup came from. Physically, Eric is kind of a mixture of Iggy Pop and Peter Murphy.
- McKean, Dave; Gaiman, Neil (1997). The collected Sandman covers, 1989-1997. Watson-Guptill. p. 1. ISBN 9780823046324.
The Sandman image was inspired by Peter Murphy, the ex-Bauhaus singer and Maxell tape model, because when artist Mike Dringenberg saw the original sketches for the character he said "He looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus."
- McCabe, Joseph, ed. (2004). Hanging Out with the Dream King: Conversations with Neil Gaiman and His Collaborators. Quach, Sophia (photographer). Fantagraphics. p. 92. ISBN 9781560976172.
['Sandman' artist Kelly Jones talks about the inspiration behind Dream's appearance] I know Neil always said [the Sandman] was based on Robert Smith of the Cure, but I just hated the Cure. I didn't want to hear that. I was really into Peter Murphy at that time, the guy from Bauhaus. I didn't like Bauhaus, but I liked him on his own, and he had a song called "Cut You Up" or something; it was on the radio at the time. I bought the CD, and I said, 'You know, with that big poufy hair, he looks like that guy.' At that time, Murphy was very gestural. I don't think the guy ever had a picture taken of him that wasn't angled and in deep lighting. So I took that, too. I said, 'Whenever I do him, I'm gonna do that kind of thing. And get into his face, don't just keep him in deep shadow all the time. He will be in deep shadow all the time, but I want to put across a guy who's clueless. Not stupid, but he's not understanding things.' Because he's an immortal guy who...
- Gaiman, Neil (16 February 2013). "The Official Neil Gaiman Tumblr". Tumblr. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
The original idea-model for Morpheus was Peter Murphy from Bauhaus.
- Gaiman, Neil. "Neil Gaiman – FAQ – Comics". Retrieved 22 September 2012.
If I remember correctly Dave based the face on the cover of Sandman #1 on an image of Peter Murphy.
- Baddeley, Gavin; Woods, Paul A. (2006). Woods, Paul A., ed. Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture (2nd ed.). Plexus. p. 1941. ISBN 9780859653824.
Sandman inker Mike Dringenberg observed, '"Hey, [he] looks like Peter Murphy from Bauhaus.'" Cover artist Dave McKean and Gaiman 'got some Bauhaus videos and immediately saw that Mike was right; and Dave ended up making the central image on the cover of Sandman [number one] a Peter Murphy-like face.
- Shirley, Ian (1994). Dark Entries: Bauhaus and Beyond. SAF. ISBN 0-946719-13-6.
- Thompson, Dave (2002). The Dark Reign of Gothic Rock: In The Reptile House with The Sisters of Mercy, Bauhaus and The Cure. Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-900924-48-X.
- Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-303672-6.
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