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The Place de Charles de Gaulle
The Place de Charles de Gaulle
Coat of arms of Bavay
Location of Bavay
Bavay is located in France
Bavay is located in Hauts-de-France
Coordinates: 50°17′53″N 3°47′56″E / 50.2981°N 3.7989°E / 50.2981; 3.7989Coordinates: 50°17′53″N 3°47′56″E / 50.2981°N 3.7989°E / 50.2981; 3.7989
IntercommunalityCommunauté de communes du pays de Mormal
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Francine Caucheteux[1]
10.12 km2 (3.91 sq mi)
 (Jan. 2018)[2]
 • Density330/km2 (840/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
59053 /59570
Elevation108–156 m (354–512 ft)
(avg. 123 m or 404 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Bavay (French pronunciation: ​[bavɛ]) is a commune in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. The town was the seat of the former canton of Bavay.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bavaisiens or Bavaisiennes[3]


Bavay is located some 20 km east by south-east of Valenciennes and 10 km west of Maubeuge. Main access is on the D649 highway between these two towns which passes through the commune just north of the town. Many roads radiate from the town: the D305 north-west, the D84 north-east, the D932 east by north-east, the D961 south-east, the D932 south-west, the D942 west by south-west, and the D2649 west. A disused railway line runs to the commune from Maubeuge and there is an abandoned railway station south-west of the town. Apart from the town the commune is entirely farmland.[4]

The Hogneau or Bavay river runs through the commune to the west joined by several streams in the commune. The Riez Raoult rises in the north of the commune and flows north while the Ruisseau du Louvion rises nearby and flows north-east. The Ruisseau d'Aviette rises in the east and flows east from the commune. The Ruisseau des Pres comes from the south-east and forms part of the south-eastern border before joining the Bavay river. The Ruisseau de Mecquignies comes from the south and also flows to the Bavay river.[4]


The legendary founder and apocryphal history[edit]

From the cordelier Jacques de Guise, Jean Wauquelin wrote in his Chronicles of Hainault, a manuscript of the 15th century, that Bavo, a cousin of Priam while fleeing the city of Troy, after many adventures found a hospitable land where he built a city that was called Belges—the current Bavay. According to Wauquelin, seven roads, dedicated to the planets Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Saturn, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon, left from seven temples in the city. The introduction of an elective monarchy signaled the decline of the city of Belges and the people of the city lost their unity and could not resist the Roman invasions. This episode has been considered a fable by most historians since the 19th century and even more so the bloody infighting which opposed the reign of Belges Queen Ursa by the former King Ursus.

Yet more than 1000 years after the beginning conquests of Rome, Aubert Miraeus and some chroniclers of Hainaut still evoke Bavay as the "Belgian Rome", or Roma Belgica in an apocryphal historiography compiled from other older sources. The columnist and historian of Hainaut, Jacques de Guise was simply called Belgis (Belge), a name derived by him from Belis (the god Bel).

Various authors and more modern "antiquarians" (people studying antiquity), including Joseph Adolphe Aubenas, while recognizing a lack of evidence in archeology, recalled that other texts, the oldest dating back to at least the 1st century AD also said that the Trojans came to Gaul and founded a great city. Thus, Aubenas, a member of the Society of Antiquaries of France, who in 1804 set up a goal to study the civilization of Gaul, history and French archeology, estimated in 1839 that Jacques de Guise did not invent anything, but only reported what the ancient writers had written before him.[5] Aubenas cites in support of the thesis reported by J de Guise: Ammianus Marcellinus and better Timagenes according to which:

"a part of the population of Gaul (according to the Druids) came from islands far away from beyond the Rhineland, where they had been driven either by frequent wars or by sea inundations".

Rucleri, Hunibaud, and other medieval chroniclers did not invent this story says J Aubenas because Timagene said the same thing after more than 2000 years, and after him, the Trojan origin of the Franks was also affirmed in France:

"in the Chronicle of Fredegar and its fragments and the chronicles of Hunibaud and Freculphus, which in the first half of the 9th century was expressed in formal terms".[6]

Gallo-Roman history[edit]

Roman ruins in Bavay (Bagacum)
Roman bronze statuette of Hermes found in Bavay, now in the British Museum[7]

The birth of Bavay after the conquest was the result of the reorganization of the territory by Augustus (probably between 16BC and 13BC). The parts of Gaul conquered by Caesar were then divided into three provinces. The region between the Seine and the Rhine was Gallia Belgica and its capital was at Reims. It was divided into "cities" (civitates)—administrative districts which were headed by a chief town. Living in this district were some of the fiercest people of Northern Gaul and they occupied a vast area between the Scheldt, the Sambre, and the Meuse: the Nervii.

The town became the capital for the Nervii under the name of Bagacum or Bavacum and, under the Roman Empire, it was an important junction of seven roads, the meeting-place of which was marked by a milestone, destroyed in the 17th century and replaced in the 19th century by a column.[8]

As the centre of the road junction, Bavay was an obligatory passage between Germania and the naval port of Boulogne-sur-Mer, a bridgehead to Britain. Other routes, seven in total, connected the capital city of the Nervii to the capital cities of neighbouring peoples (Amiens via Arras, Tongeren, Cassel, Trier in the east and Reims in the south). Its position was evidently strategic, but soon these military routes (the future emperor Tiberius transited at Bavay with his armies around 4 AD) were used for commercial purposes.

From the Claudian period and especially under the Flavians in the late 1st century the city grew. Large monuments were built: a forum, thermal baths fed by an aqueduct bringing water from a fountain near Floursies located twenty kilometres away, and other buildings with a seemingly official nature adorned the city.[9]


Excavations in the Roman Forum resulted in the discovery of ceramics from the 9th and 10th centuries. The history of the town during this period is unclear and reference is necessary to the larger lines of history of the County of Hainaut. It is likely that the Roman Forum was built as part of a defensive system as some later documents referred to viel castel.

In the 12th century the region of Bavay became part of the County of Hainaut and the city was the capital of a Prévôt.

In the 13th and 14th centuries the city was fortified with a medieval design for the enclosure and its major levee is still visible today.

Modern era[edit]

In 1433 the county of Hainaut of which Bavay was part became part of the prosperous Burgundian Netherlands. In 1519, the Burgundian Netherlands became part of the Holy Roman Empire of Charles V also in a very prosperous period. In 1555 Charles V divided his empire and gave the Netherlands to which Bavay belonged to his son Philip II, King of Spain. Bavay then remained part of the Spanish Netherlands until 1678 when, after numerous battles of conquest by Louis XIV, a large part of the southern Spanish Netherlands was united with the kingdom of France. The confirmation of the unification of Bavay with the kingdom of France came in 1678 with the (Treaty of Nijmegen). Louvignies-Bavay merged with Bavay in 1946.

French Revolution[edit]

The city was taken by the Austrians who entered the city on 21 July 1792[10]


Arms of Bavay

Argent, a lion gules debruised by an inescutcheon of Or with a lion sable.


The Grand Prix of Bavay on 17 August 2014

List of Successive Mayors of Bavay[11]

From To Name Party
1826 Pierre Amand Cagnon
1880 Anatole Martial Aimé Crapez
1904 Gaston Derome
1909 Gaston Derome
2001 2020 Alain Fréhaut ind.
2020 2026 Francine Caucheteux

The municipal majority in Bavay is the Independents. The Mayor stood for election to the General Council as a UPN (Union Pour le Nord or Union for Nord region) candidate.


In 2017 the commune had 3,326 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 1,339—    
1800 1,455+1.19%
1806 1,484+0.33%
1821 1,617+0.57%
1831 1,635+0.11%
1836 1,650+0.18%
1841 1,601−0.60%
1846 1,620+0.24%
1851 1,635+0.18%
1856 1,587−0.59%
1861 1,646+0.73%
1866 1,765+1.41%
1872 1,777+0.11%
1876 1,851+1.03%
1881 1,863+0.13%
1886 1,837−0.28%
1891 1,854+0.18%
1896 1,960+1.12%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 1,910−0.52%
1906 1,799−1.19%
1911 1,941+1.53%
1921 1,772−0.91%
1926 1,800+0.31%
1931 1,803+0.03%
1936 1,886+0.90%
1946 2,602+3.27%
1954 2,942+1.55%
1962 3,024+0.34%
1968 3,377+1.86%
1975 3,746+1.49%
1982 4,193+1.62%
1990 3,751−1.38%
1999 3,581−0.51%
2007 3,429−0.54%
2012 3,435+0.03%
2017 3,326−0.64%
Source: EHESS[12] and INSEE[13]

Distribution of age groups[edit]

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Bavay and Nord Department in 2017

Bavay Nord
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 20.3 15.9 20.9 18.6
15 to 29 Years 18.1 14.1 20.8 19.2
30 to 44 Years 16.5 17.0 19.7 18.9
45 to 59 Years 19.5 17.3 19.1 18.7
60 to 74 Years 18.7 21.8 13.9 15.1
75 to 89 Years 6.4 11.4 5.1 8.2
90 Years+ 0.6 2.4 0.4 1.3

Source: INSEE[14][15]


In 2010, the median fiscal revenue per household was €23,634.[16]

Culture and heritage[edit]

Gallo-Roman Forum

The commune has a large number of sites that are registered as historical monuments.[17] Below is an abridged summary of the most important sites.

Civil heritage[edit]

The Brunehaut Column
  • The War Memorial (1923)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[18]
  • A Chateau at Louvignies (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[19]
  • A Flour Mill at Louvignies (1823)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[20]
  • The Theillier Brewery at 11 Rue de Chaussée (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[21]
  • The Alphonse Derome Oil Mill at 4 Rue Eugène-Wascart (1860)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[22]
  • A Lavoir (Public Laundry) at Chemin des Foulons (1896)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[23]
  • The Moulin de Fréhart Flour Mill at Rue Fréhart (1751)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[24]
  • The Derome Ferilizer Factory at 45-47 Rue de la Gare (1860)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[25]
  • A Dovecote at 2 Rue de Glatignies (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[26]
  • The Brunehaut Column in the Grand Place (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[27]
  • The Town Hall in the Grand Place (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[28]
  • A Gallo-Roman Archaeological site at 10 Rue Saint-Maur (1st century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[29][30] There is a Forum from the 1st century whose importance was unveiled by the 1940 bombing that destroyed the buildings covering it. Several hypocausts have been found under the church and under some houses belonging to a set of at least five hypocausts with signs of important baths, perhaps public.[31]
  • The City Fortifications (9th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[32]
Other sites of interest
  • The Bavay Museum contains some pottery pieces of unknown functionLogo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which are registered as historical objects.[33][34]
  • The Communal Cemetery of Bavay contains 12 graves managed by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission of British soldiers who died towards the end of the First World War in August and November 1918[35]
  • The Circuit des Sources hiking trail gives access to part of the heritage of the town.

Religious heritage[edit]

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • An Oratory at 22 Rue de Chaussée (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[36]
  • The Notre-Dame de Walcourt Oratory at D961 (1817)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[37]
  • The Church of Saint Nicolas (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[38]
  • The Parish Church of Our Lady of the Assumption (16th century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[39] The Church contains several items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Tombstone for Charles Richer (1684)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[40]
    • A Tombstone for Jacques de Maulde (17th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[41]
    • A Tombstone for Mathieu Ghondry Mayeur de Louvignies (1578), Philipotte du Vivier (1611), and Jean Ghondry (1623)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[42]
    • 2 Statues: Bishops (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[43]
    • A Tombstone for Philippe Mercier (1778)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[44]
    • A Tombstone for Jean de Chasteler and Françoise de Carondelet (1624)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[45]
  • Old Convents (16th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[46]

Environmental heritage[edit]

Picture gallery[edit]

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Jean de Haynin was a famous chronicler known for using for the first time the term "Walloon" in his writings. Born on 14 October 1427 and died 12 May 1495 in his castle at Hainin (Belgium), he was an author, knight, Lord of Hainin, Louvignies at Bavay (where a street has been named after him[4]), Anfroipret, Oby, and Broeucq (in Seclin). Although from a very ancient family of Lords of Hainin, he was the first to have a fixed abode and he is buried in the church of Hainin with Marie de Roisin, his wife since 1454 (born September 1435, died 21 August 1471). Entered into arms in 1452, he is best known in Belgium for his writings on his many rides with the troops of the Dukes of Burgundy. He is also noted for documenting in his hand his origins and dates of birth of his thirteen children, leaving a blank for only his own death which was filled in by his son François.[47]
  • Jean Lemaire de Belges, born at Belges—today called Bavay—in 1473.
  • Jean Goudezki was born and died in Louvignies, Bavay (1866–1934). Author, poet, singer at the famous cabaret Le Chat noir in Paris.
  • Maxime Lecomte, a politician, MP, and senator, was born in Bavay in 1846. He was "Parliamentary Reporter" for the 1905 law separating church and state in the senate.

See also[edit]


  • (in French) Albums of Croy, County of Hainaut Volume 6, vol. 9 of the Collection, Brussels, 1989 (iconographic sources)
  • (in French) N. Choin, For a study of the County of Hainaut in the second half of the 14th century, based on the oldest documents related to Bavay, Bouchain, Le Quesnoy and Maubeuge, Lille, 2000
  • (in French) N. Choin, Introduction to the Study of the Provost District Accounts of Bavay and Maubeuge (1354–1368)
  • (in French) N. Choin, Oldest Documents for the areas of Bavay, Bouchain, Le Quesnoy and Maubeuge, 2007
  • (in French) N. Choin, Accounts of the receiver of Hainaut for the year 1359–1360 accompanied by an introduction to the study of land management by the County of Hainaut in the 14th century, 2007 (Relates to the domain of the provost of Bavay in the 14th century)
  • (in French) L. Delhaye, Bavay and the region that surrounds it, Douai, Dechristé, 1869, 501 pp. Read online (accessed 24 July 2013)
  • (in French) Lucien Delhaye, History of the provostship of Bavay: followed by a dissertation on the ancient capital of Nervie, Bavay Printing Nestor Jouglet, 1873, 251 pp. Read online (accessed 25 July 2013)
  • (in French) C. Pavot, The City of Bavay in the 14th–15th centuries, the privileges of its citizens and its business activities, 1990


  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires"., Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2018". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2020.
  3. ^ Inhabitants of Nord (in French)
  4. ^ a b c d Google Maps
  5. ^ Joseph Adolphe Aubenas Second letter from Jacques de Guyse; analyst of Hainaut to the Baron de Stassart..., 1839, Imprimerie de H. Fournier et Cie, Paris, 14, Rue de Seine, Book scanned by Google books, in the library of the University of Michigan. This work of 48 pages analyses the reported affirmation by J. de Guyse that the Belgian kings descended from the Trojans. (in French)
  6. ^ Joseph Adolphe Aubenas refers on this subject to the passage from this author reported and discussed by Agricol-Joseph Fortia d'Urban in his Historic Tableau of the World. IV, 296–299 (in French)
  7. ^ British Museum Collection
  8. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bavai". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 543.
  9. ^ Frédéric Loridant Archived 2008-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, with authorisation from the author (in French)
  10. ^ Thierry Aprile, The First Republic: 1792–1804, from the fall of the monarchy to the Consulate, Paris : Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet, 1999, ISBN 2-85704-595-6, p. 28 (in French)
  11. ^ List of Mayors of France (in French)
  12. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Bavay, EHESS. (in French)
  13. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  14. ^ Évolution et structure de la population en 2017: Commune de Bavay (59053)
  15. ^ Évolution et structure de la population en 2017: Département du Nord (59)
  16. ^ Page RFDM2010COM: Local Fiscal revenue by household - 2010, INSEE, consulted on 24 May 2013 (in French).
  17. ^ Base Mérimée: Search for heritage in the commune, Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000587 War Memorial (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000591 Chateau at Louvignies (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59001008 Flour Mill at Louvignies (in French)
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000157 Theillier Brewery at 11 Rue de Chaussée (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59001004 Alphonse Derome Oil Mill at 4 rue Eugène- Wascart (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000578 Lavoir at Chemin des Foulons (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59001005 Moulin de Fréhart at Rue Fréhart (in French)
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59001007 Derome Ferilizer Factory at 45-47 Rue de la Gare (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000612 House at 2 Rue de Glatignies (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000586 Brunehaut Column in the Grand Place (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000585 Town Hall in the Grand Place (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00107924 Gallo-Roman Archaeological site at 10 Rue Saint-Maur (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000583 Gallo-Roman Archaeological site at 10 Rue Saint-Maur (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  31. ^ Archeological Files, Number 323, The bathing establishments in Belgian Gaul, Frédéric Loridant p. 101 (in French)
  32. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000582 City Fortifications (in French)
  33. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000081 Pottery pieces of unknown function (in French)
  34. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000080 Pottery pieces of unknown function (in French)
  35. ^ Bavay on the website
  36. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000692 Oratory at 22 Rue de Chaussée (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  37. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000688 Notre-Dame de Walcourt Oratory (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  38. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000592 Church of Saint Nicolas (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  39. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000589 Parish Church of Our Lady of the Assumption (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  40. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000079 Tombstone for Charles Richer (in French)
  41. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000078 Tombstone for Jacques de Maulde (in French)
  42. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000077 Tombstone for Mathieu Ghondry Mayeur de Louvignies, Philipotte du Vivier, and Jean Ghondry (in French)
  43. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000076 2 Statues: Bishops (in French)
  44. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000075 Tombstone for Philippe Mercier (in French)
  45. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM59000074 Tombstone for Jean de Chasteler and Françoise de Carondelet (in French)
  46. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA59000577 Old Convents (in French)Camera aabb.svg
  47. ^ Bibliothèque Royale de Bruxelles, ms II 2545 folio 259 (in French)

External links[edit]