Peregrine Pharmaceuticals

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Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Industry Pharmaceuticals
Founded 1981
Headquarters Tustin, California, United States
Key people
Steven W. King
(President and CEO)
Revenue Increase US$ 26.781 million (2015)[1]
Decrease US$ -50.499 million (2015)[1]
Decrease US$ -50.358 million (2015)[1]
Total assets Increase US$ 97.464 million (2015)[1]
Total equity Increase US$ 97.646 million (2015)[1]
Number of employees
Increase 215 (April 30, 2015)[1]

Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a publicly-traded American biopharmaceutical company with a portfolio of monoclonal antibodies in clinical trials as potential cancer treatments and diagnostic agents. As of 2016 their lead product candidate was bavituximab. It also has a revenue-generating subsidiary, Avid Bioservices, which is a contract manufacturing organization that provides services to Peregrine and to other companies.


Peregrine was founded in 1981.[1]

In 2002 Peregrine established a wholly owned subsidiary, Avid Bioservices, a contract manufacturing organization that provides cGMP development and biomanufacturing services for both Peregrine and outside customers.[2] In 2015 Avid had revenues of about $27 million, about 80% of which came under contract from Halozyme Therapeutics.[1]

Products in development[edit]


Bavituximab (PGN401) is a human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against phosphatidylserine, which is a component of cell membranes that is exposed when a cell is transformed into solid tumor cancer cell or dies,[3][4] and when cells are infected with hepatitis C.[5] The process of cell death is highly controlled and so there usually no immune response to phosphatidylserine but when bavituximab binds to it, the conjugate appears to stimulate an immune response in humans.[4]

Bavituximab was invented at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; Peregrine exclusively licensed intellectual property related to bavituximab from the university, including US patent 6,300,308 invented by Alan J. Schroit and US Patents 6,406,693 and 6,312,694 invented in the laboratory Philip E. Thorpe.[1]:6[6]

In June 2014 the FDA granted Peregrine fast-track status as a second-line drug candidate for non-small cell lung cancer.[7]

As of January 2016, bavituximab had been in a Phase III clinical trial for non-small cell lung cancer, a Phase II/III trial for breast cancer, a Phase II trial for pancreatic cancer, a phase I/II trial for hepatocellular carcinoma, and Phase I clinical trials in malignant melanoma and rectal cancer; its development had been discontinued for influenza and prostate cancer.[3] As of 2011 it had been in a Phase II trial for hepatitis C[5] but no results had been reported as of 2016.[3]


Example image from preclinical studies

124I-PGN650 is a phosphatidylserine-targeting F(ab')2 fully human monoclonal antibody fragment joined to the PET imaging radio-isotope iodine-124 being developed to obtain medical images of cancer.[8]


Cotara (131I-chTNT-1/B) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against DNA-histone H1 complex called TNT-1, conjugated to the radioisotope iodine-131.[9][10] As of 2016 Peregrine was developing it for Glioblastoma multiforme; it has been granted orphan status in Europe and the US.[10]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "2015 Form 10-K, Peregrine Pharmaceuticals". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. 
  2. ^ Staff, Pharma Live. November 11th, 2011 Global Contract Manufacturing Companies: Pharmaceutical And Biotechnology
  3. ^ a b c Staff, Adis Insight. Bavituximab profile Last updated Jan 27 2016
  4. ^ a b Mahoney K. M.; Rennert P. D.; Freeman, G. J. (August 2015). "Combination cancer immunotherapy and new immunomodulatory targets". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 14 (8): 561–84. PMID 26228759. 
  5. ^ a b Ahn J, Flamm SL. Hepatitis C therapy: other players in the game. Clin Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;15(3):641-56. PMID 21867942
  6. ^ Peregrine press release: Peregrine Pharmaceuticals Licenses Additional Intellectual Property for Its Anti-Phospholipid Therapy Platform Technology. July 6, 2004
  7. ^ Staff, The Pharma Letter. Hune 1, 2014 US FDA grants Peregrine Fast Track designation for bavituximab in NSCLC
  8. ^ BioCentury 124I-PGN650 profile. Page accessed February 12, 2016
  9. ^ Hdeib A, Sloan A. Targeted radioimmunotherapy: the role of 131I-chTNT-1/B mAb (Cotara) for treatment of high-grade gliomas. Future Oncol. 2012 Jun;8(6):659-69. PMID 22764763
  10. ^ a b "UK Medicines Information, New Drugs Online - Cotara". UKMi. Retrieved 2 February 2015.