Bay County, Michigan
Location within the U.S. state of Michigan
Michigan's location within the U.S.
|Founded||February 17, 1857|
|Named for||Saginaw Bay|
|Largest city||Bay City|
|• Total||631 sq mi (1,630 km2)|
|• Land||442 sq mi (1,140 km2)|
|• Water||188 sq mi (490 km2) 30%%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||236/sq mi (91/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
This section needs expansion with: history after the county was organized. You can help by adding to it. (August 2012)
Bay County was created in 1857 from portions of Midland County, Saginaw County, and Arenac County. Its name references that it "surrounds Saginaw Bay." Being only sparsely populated at that time, Arenac County government was unorganized and was attached to Saginaw County for administrative purposes. There was considerable opposition to the creation of Bay County from elected officials in both Saginaw and Midland counties. In 1854, a bill introduced to the state legislature to create Bay County was defeated by a small majority.
In 1857, a new bill was introduced into the legislature. After initial opposition from the representatives of Saginaw and Midland counties, a compromise revision that would present the matter for ratification to the voters of "in said county" was passed by the legislature on February 17, 1857. The matter was put before all the voters of Saginaw and Midland counties and was soundly defeated. However, the population within the boundaries proposed for Bay County approved the measure. The bill passed by the legislature included phrasing, which was deliberately included by the Bay City lawyer Chester H. Freeman, that allowed Bay County to claim ratification. Under the act, the county was to become effective April 20, 1857.
Residents of Bay County held elections for county officials in June 1857. However, Saginaw County did not recognize the organization of the new county government. In the winter of 1858, Freeman secured passage of a bill in the legislature that would have confirmed the organization of Bay County. But the bill was vetoed by the governor. However, a case that went before the Michigan Supreme Court in its May 1858 term settled the matter. In the case, a defendant was tried in a Saginaw County court, but filed a plea for abatement, claiming that the supposed offense was committed in Bay County and was not in the jurisdiction of the Saginaw County court. Freeman had represented the defendant and prepared arguments, but became incapacitated due to illness. At the request of Freeman's wife, Colonel William M. Fenton argued the case before the Michigan Supreme Court, with the result that Bay County was declared a fully organized county.
This section needs expansion with: history between 1900—1978 and after 1979. You can help by adding to it. (August 2012)
In 1978, Bay County became the second Michigan county (after Oakland County) to adopt a County Executive form of government. Act 139 of 1973 provides for an optional unified form of county government under an appointed County Manager or an elected County Executive. With the County Executive, all departments of the county government that are not headed by a separate elected official (e.g. Treasurer, Clerk, Sheriff, etc.) are under the direction of the County Executive. The County Executive also has veto power over the motions and resolutions passed by the County Commission.
Since the adoption of this form of government, Bay County has had four County Executives: Gary Majeske (R) (1979–1989), Kim Higgs (D) (1989–1993), Thomas Hickner (D) (1993–2016), and James Barcia (D).
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 631 square miles (1,630 km2), of which 442 square miles (1,140 km2) is land and 188 square miles (490 km2) (30%) is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Michigan by land area.
The Saginaw River flows through Bay City while the Kawkawlin River drains much of the central portion of the county. The Pinconning River and Saganing Creek drain the northern portion. The Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron lies to the east, giving the county its name.
Interstate 75 (I-75) and U.S. Highway 23 (US 23), which are concurrent within the county, are the major north–south route. North of Bay City, M-13 follows a parallel route a few miles to the east. US 10 has its eastern terminus in Bay City. M-25, M-15, and M-84 enter Bay City from the east, southeast and southwest respectively and terminate in or near the city.
- Arenac County (north)
- Gladwin County (northwest)
- Tuscola County (southeast)
- Midland County (west)
- Saginaw County (south)
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The 2010 United States Census indicates Bay County had a 2010 population of 107,771. This is a decrease of -2,386 people from the 2000 United States Census. Overall, the county had a -2.2% growth rate during this ten-year period. In 2010 there were 44,603 households and 29,116 families in the county. The population density was 243.7 per square mile (94.1 square kilometers). There were 48,220 housing units at an average density of 109.0 per square mile (42.1 square kilometers). The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 91.2% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 4.7% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races.
There were 44,603 households, out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were husband and wife families, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, and 29.3% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the county, the population was spread out, with 22.2% under age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93 males.
The 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $45,451 and the median income for a family was $52,784. Males had a median income of $31,035 versus $18,294 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,378. About 11.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.7% of those under the age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to Bay Future, Inc. the top employers in the county are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||McLaren - Bay Region||2,083|
|2||The Dow Chemical Company||1,160|
Since 1932, Bay County has voted for the Democratic Party candidate in every Presidential election except 7: 1952, 1956, 1972, 1980, 1984, 2016, and 2020. Donald Trump became the first Republican to carry the county since Ronald Reagan in 1984.
Bay County government is set up under Public Act 139 of 1973. This format provides for an elected County Executive who, as chief administrator, has influence over all departments, except those headed by other elected officials. In that manner, the County Executive appoints and supervises all department heads. It is the duty of the County Executive to coordinate all county activities and unify the management of county affairs, enforce all orders, rules and ordinances passed by the Board of Commissioners and all laws enacted by the state. In addition, the County Executive must submit to the Board of Commissioners a recommended budget each year. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, and participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services. The county Board of Commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. Bay County has a Board of Road Commissioners, which consists of three commissioners who are elected and serve six-year staggered terms (one road commissioner elected every two years). The Board is the policy-making body of the Bay County Road Commission and is responsible for establishing budget priorities and managing the annual budget. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire, building and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.
- County Executive: James Barcia
- Prosecuting Attorney: Nancy E. Borushko
- Sheriff: Troy R. Cunningham
- County Clerk: Cynthia A. Luczak
- County Treasurer: Shawna Walraven
- Register of Deeds: Brandon Krause
- Drain Commissioner: Michael Rivard
- Road Commissioners: William Schumacher, William Jordan, Jacob Hilliker
Board of Commissioners
7 members, elected from districts (six Democrats, one Republican)
|1||Marie Ann-Fryzel Fox||Democratic|
|3||Vaughn J. Begick||Republican|
|4||Kim J. Coonan||Democratic|
|5||Thomas M. Herek, Chairman||Democratic|
|6||Kaysey Owczarzak Radtke||Democratic|
|7||Jayme A. Johnson||Democratic|
- Bangor Charter Township
- Hampton Charter Township
- Monitor Charter Township
- Portsmouth Charter Township
- Williams Charter Township
- Almeda Beach
- Aplin Beach
- Brissette Beach
- Donahue Beach
- Killarney Beach
- Lagoon Beach
- Linwood Beach
- Little Killarney Beach
- Meyers Beach
- Mount Forest
- Nine Mile
- North Williams
- Three Churches Corner
- Tobico Beach
- University Center
- Bay County Library System
- List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Bay County, Michigan
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Bay County, Michigan
- "Bibliography on Bay County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "History of Bay County". baycounty-mi.gov.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on July 4, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Butterfield, George Ernest; George N. Fuller (2005) [192?]. "County Organization and Government". History of Bay County. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Library. pp. 42–53. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Kusmierz, Marvin (October 2005). "Michigan Map History Relevant to Bay County, MI". Archived from the original on 2012-08-24. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates Tables". Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2012.
- "Diocese of Saginaw". saginaw.org.
- "Bay County by the Numbers". welcometobaycounty. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
- "Summary Results Report - 2020 General Election" (PDF). Bay County, Michigan. November 4, 2020.
- Bay County Government
- "Bibliography on Bay County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Bay County Republican Party
- Bay County Democratic Party