Bay of Islands (New Zealand electorate)

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Bay of Islands is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed during various periods between 1853 and 1993. It was thus one of the original 24 electoral districts, and New Zealand's first ever MP was elected, although unopposed, in the Bay of Islands; Hugh Carleton thus liked to be called the Father of the House.

Population centres[edit]

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–76 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated, including Bay of Islands. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries.[1]

The electorate is centred on the Bay of Islands in the Northland Region, and includes the following population centres: Kerikeri.

History[edit]

Hugh Carleton was elected to the seat in the first New Zealand Parliament in 1853. Although he was elected unopposed, he was the first MP elected and liked to be called Father of the House.[2] He represented the seat until 1870, when he was defeated.[3]

The Bay of Islands electorate existed from 1853 to 1870, then from 1881 to 1946 (when it was replaced by the Hobson electorate), then from 1978 to 1993, after which it became the Far North electorate.[4] In 1996 it became the Northland electorate.

Members representing the electorate from 1881 to 1922 were Richard Hobbs 1881–1890 (retired), Robert Houston 1890–1908 (retired), Vernon Reed 1908–1915 (election declared void) and 1917–1922 (defeated), and William Stewart 1915–1917(resigned). In 1929, Harold Rushworth, a Country Party member, had his 1928 election declared void, but he won the subsequent by-election.[5]

The 1890 election was contested by Robert Houston, James Trounsen, John Lundon and Joseph Dargaville, and they received 465, 454, 385 and 352 votes, respectively. Houston, who represented the Liberal Party, was thus declared elected.[6]:1–3

The 1893 election was contested by Houston (1431 votes), Trownson (1200 votes) and Dargaville (399 votes). The incumbent was thus re-elected.[7]

The 1896 election was contested by Houston (1592 votes) and John Press (965 votes). The incumbent was again re-elected.[8] Houston remained the electorate's representative until he retired at the 1908 election.[9]

Houston was succeeded by Vernon Reed, who represented the Liberal Party in the 1908 and 1911 elections.[10] The opposition candidate in 1908 was John Charles Johnson,[11] and by 1911 the Reform Party had established itself and George Wilkinson was their candidate.[12]

Harold Rushworth of the Country Party represented the electorate from the 1928 election onwards.[13] For the 1935 election, the United Party chose Robert Boyd Russell as their candidate. On 7 October 1935, Russell died in a rifle accident on his farm.[14] The United Party selected Clive Cameron as their replacement candidate.[15]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Reform    Country Party    Labour    National  

Election Winner
1853 election Hugh Carleton
1855 election
1861 election
1866 election
(Electorate abolished 1870–1881,
see Mongonui and Bay of Islands)
1881 election Richard Hobbs
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election Robert Houston
1893 election
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election Vernon Reed
1911 election
1914 election
1915 by-election William Stewart
1917 by-election Vernon Reed
1919 election
1922 election Allen Bell
1925 election
1928 election Harold Rushworth
1929 by-election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election Charles Boswell
1943 election Sidney Walter Smith
(Electorate abolished 1946–1978, see Hobson)
1978 election Neill Austin
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election John Carter
1990 election
(Electorate abolished 1993)

Election results[edit]

1943 election[edit]

There were three candidates in 1943, with the election won by Sidney Walter Smith over Charles Wallace Boswell.[16]

1938 election[edit]

General election, 1938: Bay of Islands[17][18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Charles Wallace Boswell 4,556 50.91
National Harold Fisher Guy 4,393 49.09
Majority 163 1.82 -19.17
Informal votes 252 2.74
Turnout 9,201 93.54
Registered electors 9,836

1935 election[edit]

General election, 1935: Bay of Islands[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Country Party Harold Rushworth 6,004 59.41 +2.49
United Clive Cameron 3,883 38.42
Independent Labour Robert Hornblow 190 1.88
Reform J B Kennedy 28 0.27
Majority 2,121 20.98 +7.13
Turnout 10,105 +13.49

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Bay of Islands[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Country Party Harold Rushworth 4,970 56.92 +4.07
Reform Allen Bell 3,761 43.08 -4.07
Majority 1,209 13.85 +8.13
Informal votes 25 0.29 -0.13
Turnout 8,756 87.02 -2.47
Registered electors 10,062

1929 by-election[edit]

Bay of Islands by-election, 1929[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Country Party Harold Rushworth 4,385 52.86 +5.03
Reform Allen Bell 3,911 47.14 -0.66
Majority 474 5.71 +5.69
Informal votes 35 0.42 -0.31
Turnout 8,331 89.49 +3.06
Country Party gain from Reform Swing
Registered electors 9,309

1928 election[edit]

General election, 1928: Bay of Islands[13][22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Country Party Harold Rushworth 3,820 47.83
Reform Allen Bell 3,818 47.80 -8.44
Liberal-Labour Robert Hornblow 349 4.37 +0.72
Majority 2 0.03 -37.20
Informal votes 59 0.73 -0.26
Turnout 8,046 86.43 -3.58
Registered electors 9,309

1925 election[edit]

General election, 1925: Bay of Islands[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Allen Bell 4,211 56.24 +4.90
Country Party Hugh James Sweeney 1,424 19.02
Labour Allan Edward Bisset 1,268 16.94
Liberal Richard Theophilus Wrathall[mb 1] 311 4.15
Liberal Robert Hornblow 273 3.65
Majority 2,787 37.22 +34.53
Informal votes 75 0.99 -0.61
Turnout 7,562 90.01 +3.79
Registered electors 839
  1. ^ Wrathall stood for the 'National Party', a splinter group of the Liberal Party

1922 election[edit]

General election, 1922: Bay of Islands[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Allen Bell 3,585 51.35
Reform Vernon Reed 3,397 48.65 -13.45
Majority 188 2.69 -21.51
Informal votes 114 1.61 +0.48
Turnout 7,096 86.22 +7.52
Registered electors 8,230

1919 election[edit]

General election, 1919: Bay of Islands[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Vernon Reed 3,066 62.10
Independent Liberal St. Claire Jounneaux 1,871 37.90
Majority 1,195 24.20
Informal votes 56 1.12
Turnout 4,993 78.70
Registered electors 6,344

1915 by-election[edit]

Bay of Islands by-election, 1915[26][27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform William Stewart 3,264 59.51
Liberal George Gardiner Menzies[28] 2,221 40.49
Majority 1,043 19.02 +17.25
Informal votes 6 0.11 -0.88
Turnout 5,491 75.98 -9.60
Reform gain from Liberal Swing
Registered electors 7,227

1914 election[edit]

General election, 1914: Bay of Islands[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Vernon Reed 2,328 38.01 -13.76
Liberal Peter Buck 2,220 36.25
Reform George Wilkinson[nb 1] 1,576 25.73 -22.49
Majority 108 1.76 -1.78
Informal votes 61 0.99 -0.11
Turnout 6,185 85.58 5.61
Registered electors 7,227

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ George Wilkinson had been the official Reform Party candidate in the 1911 election whilst Vernon Reed had stood for the Liberal Party, but in 1914, Reed became the official candidate of the Reform Party.[30]

1911 election[edit]

General election, 1911: Bay of Islands, first ballot[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Vernon Reed 2,671 51.77 -1.37
Reform George Wilkinson 2,488 48.23
Majority 183 3.55 -2.73
Informal votes 57 1.09
Turnout 5,216 79.98 +3.20
Registered electors 6,522

1908 election[edit]

General election, 1908: Bay of Islands, first ballot[11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Vernon Reed 2,242 53.14
Conservative John Charles Johnson 1,977 46.86
Majority 265 6.28
Turnout 4,219 76.78
Registered electors 5,495

1893 election[edit]

General election, 1893: Bay of Islands[31][32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Houston 1,431 47.23 +19.16
Conservative James Trounsen[33] 1,200 39.60 +12.19
Liberal Joseph Dargaville 399 13.17 -8.08
Majority 231 7.62 +6.96
Turnout 3,030 61.64 +12.03
Registered electors 4,916

1890 election[edit]

General election, 1890: Bay of Islands[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Houston 465 28.07
Conservative James Trounsen 454 27.41
Liberal John Lundon 385 23.24
Liberal Joseph Dargaville 352 21.25
Majority 11 0.66
Turnout 1,656 49.49
Registered electors 3,346

1884 election[edit]

General election, 1884: Bay of Islands[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Richard Hobbs 355 56.08
Independent Gannon 198 31.28
Independent McKenzie 80 12.64
Majority 157 24.80
Turnout 633

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  2. ^ McLintock, A. H., ed. (23 April 2009) [First published in 1966]. "Carleton, Hugh Francis". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 188.
  4. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 259.
  5. ^ Wilson 1985.
  6. ^ a b "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  7. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  8. ^ "Bay of Islands". Auckland Star. XXVII (290). 7 December 1896. p. 2. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 206.
  10. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 228.
  11. ^ a b AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 1.
  12. ^ a b AtoJs 1911 election 1912, p. 1.
  13. ^ a b The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 1. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  14. ^ "Fatally Shot". Auckland Star. LXVI (238). 8 October 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  15. ^ "Bay of Islands Seat". The Evening Post. CXX (91). 14 October 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24713). 13 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  17. ^ "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 1. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  18. ^ "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. LXXV (23181). 29 October 1938. p. 25. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  19. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1936. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  20. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 1. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  21. ^ "Bay of Islands Seat - Final Figures Announced". The Evening Post. CVII (91). 20 April 1929. p. 10. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  22. ^ "Public Notices". Auckland Star. LIX (302). 21 December 1928. p. 5. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  23. ^ The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 1. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  24. ^ Hislop, J. (1923). The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. p. 1. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  25. ^ Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. p. 1. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  26. ^ "Bay of Islands Election". The Evening Post. LXXXIX (144). 19 June 1915. p. 6. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  27. ^ "Bay of Islands Election". King Country Chronicle. IX (775). 2 June 1915. p. 5. Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  28. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1902). "Mr. George Gardiner Menzies". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Auckland Provincial District. Christchurch: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  29. ^ Hislop 1915, p. 1.
  30. ^ "Political Gossip". The Marlborough Express. C (266). 16 November 1914. p. 3. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  31. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 1. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  32. ^ "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  33. ^ "Page 4 Advertisements Column 3". The Northern Advocate. 25 November 1893. p. 4. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  34. ^ 1884 election results

References[edit]