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Component City
Baybay City Hall
Baybay City Hall
Official seal of Baybay
Motto: A Place of Discovery, Beauty and Serenity
Baybay is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°41′N 124°48′E / 10.683°N 124.800°E / 10.683; 124.800Coordinates: 10°41′N 124°48′E / 10.683°N 124.800°E / 10.683; 124.800
Country Philippines
Region Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)
Province Leyte Province
District 5th district of Leyte
16 June 2007
Barangay 51 (see § Barangays)
 • Mayor Carmen Cari (LP)
 • Vice mayor Michael Cari
 • Council
 • Total 459.34 km2 (177.35 sq mi)
Population (2010 census)[2]
 • Total 102,841
 • Density 220/km2 (580/sq mi)
 • Languages
  • Cebuano
  • Filipino
  • Waray-waray
  • English
Demonym(s) Baybayanon
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
Income class 4th class
PSGC 083708000

Baybay is a fourth income class component city located on the western coast of the province of Leyte, Philippines. It is bounded by Camotes Sea to the west, Albuera to the north, Inopacan to the south, Burauen, La Paz and MacArthur to the northeast, Javier to the east, and Abuyog and Mahaplag to the southeast.

The climate is of Coronas Climate type IV, which is generally wet with no particularly discernible seasons. Its topography is generally mountainous in the eastern portion as it slopes down west towards the shore line. Generally an agricultural city, the common means of livelihood are farming and fishing. Some are engaged in hunting and in forestal activities. The most common crops grown are rice, corn, abaca, root crops, fruits, and vegetables. Various cottage industries can also be found in Baybay such as bamboo and rattan craft, ceramics, dress-making, fiber craft, food preservation, mat weaving, metal craft, furniture manufacture and other related activities.

Also, it is the home of the premier university of the Visayas and also in Philippines and one of the leading schools in Southeast Asia on agricultural research, and was called as Resort University, the Visayas State University.

Baybay is a major port on the central west coast of Leyte, Philippines, where ferries leave for Cebu and other islands. It has also the Baybay Public Terminal, which serves routes from Tacloban, Ormoc, Maasin, Manila, Davao City and some other major towns in Leyte, Southern Leyte and Samar provinces.

According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 102,841.[2]. With an area of 45,934 hectares (460 km2; 180 sq mi), it is the second largest city in the province after Ormoc City. Formerly, Baybay was the biggest town in Leyte in terms of population and second in terms of land area, after Abuyog.


Baybay comprises 92 barangays, 23 of which are in the poblacion, with one barangay jointly located. The remaining 68 are rural barangays.[1]

  • Altavista
  • Ambacan
  • Amguhan
  • Ampihanon
  • Balao
  • Banahao
  • Biasong
  • Bidlinan
  • Bitanhuan
  • Bubon
  • Buenavista
  • Bunga
  • Candadam (Sitio Crossing Diversion Road)
  • Can-ipa
  • Caridad
  • Ciabu
  • Cogon
  • Gaas
  • Gabas
  • Gacat
  • Guadalupe (Utod)
  • Gubang
  • Hibunawan
  • Higulo-an
  • Hilapnitan
  • Hipusngo
  • Igang
  • Imelda
  • Jaena
  • Kabalasan
  • Kabatuan
  • Kabungaan
  • Kagumay
  • Kambonggan
  • Kansungka
  • Kantagnos
  • Kilim
  • Lintaon
  • Maganhan
  • Mahayahay
  • Mailhi
  • Maitum
  • Makinhas
  • Mapgap
  • Marcos
  • Maslug
  • Matam-is
  • Maybog
  • Maypatag
  • Monterico
  • Monteverde
  • Palhi
  • Pangasugan
  • Pansagan
  • Patag
  • Plaridel
  • Poblacion Zone 1
  • Poblacion Zone 2
  • Poblacion Zone 3
  • Poblacion Zone 4
  • Poblacion Zone 5
  • Poblacion Zone 6
  • Poblacion Zone 7
  • Poblacion Zone 8
  • Poblacion Zone 9
  • Poblacion Zone 10
  • Poblacion Zone 11
  • Poblacion Zone 12
  • Poblacion Zone 13
  • Poblacion Zone 14
  • Poblacion Zone 15
  • Poblacion Zone 16
  • Poblacion Zone 17
  • Poblacion Zone 18
  • Poblacion Zone 19
  • Poblacion Zone 20
  • Poblacion Zone 21
  • Poblacion Zone 22
  • Poblacion Zone 23
  • Pomponan
  • Punta
  • Sabang
  • Sapa
  • San Agustin
  • San Isidro
  • San Juan
  • Sta. Cruz
  • Sto. Rosario (located in poblacion)
  • Villa Mag-aso
  • Villa Solidaridad
  • Zacarito

Local government[edit]

Baybay City Legislative Building and Convention Center.

The executive power of the is vested on the mayor. The Sangguniang Panlungsod or the city council has the legislative power to create city ordinances. It is a unicameral body composed of ten elected councilors and certain numbers of ex officio and sectoral representatives. It is presided by the vice-mayor, the City Mayor and the elected city councilors are elected-at-large every three (3) years.[citation needed] Also, the city has also Regional Trial Court Branch 14 and Municipal Trial Court in Cities whose both located at the city proper in front of the Baybay Legislative Building and Convention Center.

List of former mayors[edit]


Population census of Baybay
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 82,281 —    
1995 86,179 +0.87%
2000 95,630 +2.26%
2007 102,526 +0.96%
2010 102,841 +0.11%
Source: National Statistics Office[2][3]

People of Baybay called as Baybayanons or Baybayanos (depending on the usage) which is Cebuano-speaking people. Most of the people are Roman Catholic, almost 90% of the whole population.


People of Baybay City are mostly Cebuano-speaking Leyteños with some words influenced by Waray-waray language and Boholano dialect. Baybayanon is the language spoken by inhabitants of the original settlements of Baybay City before mass migration of Cebuanos into the area and widely recognized as predating the surrounding Cebuano communities. It is a more representative language reference name than the so-called "Utodnon" or "Waya-waya" since it does not refer to a single barangay but spoken in five barangays namely Guadalupe (Utod), Gabas, Kilim, Patag, and Pangasugan. It is a living language given an ISO 639-3 language code, bvy, and has an approximate 10,000 speakers (2009 J. Lobel). It has been listed by Ethnologue as a dialect of Waray-waray, however, it is distinct from Waray-waray, and is not mutually intelligible. Furthermore, Baybayanon speakers do not consider themselves or their language to be Waray-waray. No published works have argued that Baybayanon is a dialect of Waray-waray; in fact, published works (by Rufino, as well as Lobel's forthcoming dissertation) have specifically referred to this as a distinct language. Other languages spoken by few in the city include Filipino, English, Waray-waray, Spanish, Chinese.


Baybay is a hub of business and industry for the western coast of Leyte, with a commercial service sector in the city that includes banks, virtual assistance centers, restaurants, cafes, night spots, sports centers, as well as retail and wholesale stores. The city's seaside promenade is the most visited, especially at night-time.


Baybay City can be reached by different types of transportation:

  • It is 5 hours from Cebu City, 6 hours from Mindanao, and 20 hours from Manila by passenger vessels.
  • There is no airport in Baybay, but domestic flights serve Tacloban airport, which is about 3 hours by road.


  • Binaybayon Festival - is the City's Festival, is celebrated every 27th day of December (the city fiesta) in honor of the Patroness of Baybay, Our Lady of Immaculate Conception for the blessings that she gave every year. It also depicting the rich history of Baybay and also, showing the main source of livelihood of most Baybayanons like fishing, farming and weaving.
  • Halaran Festival - is celebrated at Brgy. Sto. Rosario every month of October in honor of the Holy Rosary. It also depicting the history of Brgy. Sto. Rosario and also, it shows the main source of livelihood among residents in the place which is fishing, because the barangay itself is resided beside in the seashore.
  • Sirong Festival - is celebrated at Brgy. Pomponan every 13th day of June in honor of Saint Anthony of Padua. Like other festivals in Baybay, it also showing the history of Brgy. Pomponan and its main source of livelihood which is farming.


Visayas State University Administration Building

The City is home to various colleges and universities in the country.

Tertiary Education[edit]

a zonal agricultural university in the Visayas and one of the country's largest universities in terms of land area. VSU is also one of the premier universities in Southeast Asia in agricultural research. VSU is the only university in the entire Visayas region recognized by the Department of Tourism as a tourist site for its resorts, convention facilities, and most of all its 180‑degree view of Mount Pangasugan and the Camotes Sea. The Philippine Department of Tourism recognises its diverse flora and fauna bounding the mainland and sea from side to side.


The Baybay National High School Administration Building. Baybay NHS is the biggest high school in the city (in terms of land area and population) and also the oldest high school in the city, founded in 1945.
  • Baybay National High School
  • Baybay City National Night High School
  • Bitanhuan National High School
  • Bunga National High School
  • Caridad National High School
  • Ciabu National High School
  • Plaridel National High School
  • Pomponan National High School
  • Mailhi National High School
  • Makinhas National High School
  • Visayas State University Laboratory High School


There are 71 elementary schools in the city, 3 are located in the poblacion and 68 in rural areas.


There are several pre-elementary schools, i.e. kindergartens, as well as day care centers in various barangays


  • Western Leyte Provincial Hospital (WLPH)
  • Baybay Doctors' Hospital (BDH)
  • Baybay Rural Health Unit I
  • Baybay Rural Health Unit II
  • Visayas State University Hospital
Baybay sunset in baywalk.


During the 11th Congress (1998–2001), Congress enacted into law 33 bills converting 33 municipalities into cities. However, Congress did not act on a further 24 bills converting 24 other municipalities into cities.

During the 12th Congress (2001–2004), Congress enacted into law Republic Act No. 9009 (RA 9009), which took effect on 30 June 2001. RA 9009 amended Section 450 of the Local Government Code by increasing the annual income requirement for conversion of a municipality into a city from ₱20 million to ₱100 million. The rationale for the amendment was to restrain, in the words of Senator Aquilino Pimentel, "the mad rush" of municipalities to convert into cities solely to secure a larger share in the Internal Revenue Allotment despite the fact that they are incapable of fiscal independence.

After the effectivity of RA 9009, the House of Representatives of the 12th Congress adopted Joint Resolution No. 29, which sought to exempt from the ₱100 million income requirement in RA 9009 the 24 municipalities whose cityhood bills were not approved in the 11th Congress. However, the 12th Congress ended without the Senate having approved Joint Resolution No. 29.

During the 13th Congress (2004–2007), the House of Representatives re-adopted former Joint Resolution No. 29 as Joint Resolution No. 1 and forwarded it to the Senate for approval. However, the Senate again failed to approve the Joint Resolution. Following the suggestion of Senator Aquilino Pimentel (Senate President), 16 municipalities filed, through their respective sponsors, individual cityhood bills.[4] The 16 cityhood bills each contained a common provision exempting it from the ₱100 million income requirement of RA 9009 –

"Exemption from Republic Act No. 9009. — The City of x x x shall be exempted from the income requirement prescribed under Republic Act No. 9009."

On 22 December 2006, the House of Representatives approved the cityhood bills. The Senate also approved the cityhood bills in February 2007, except that of Naga, Cebu which was passed on 7 June 2007. These cityhood bills lapsed into law on various dates from March to July 2007 after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo failed to sign them.

The point of law at issue in 2007 was whether there had been a breach of Section 10, Article X of the 1987 Constitution, which provides –

No province, city, municipality, or barangay shall be created, divided, merged, abolished or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.

– and in each case the established criteria were far from met.

In November 2008, Baybay lost its cityhood, along with 15 other cities,[4] after the Supreme Court of the Philippines granted a petition filed by the League of Cities of the Philippines, and declared unconstitutional the cityhood law (RA 9389) which had allowed the town to acquire its city status.[5] The Supreme Court ruled that they did not pass the requirements for cityhood.[6][7]

On 10 December 2008, the 16 cities affected acting together filed a motion for reconsideration with the Supreme Court. More than a year later, on 22 December 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law" (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) "is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators."[8] Accordingly cityhood status was restored.

But on 27 August 2010, the 16 cities lost their city status again, after the Supreme Court voted 7-6, with two justices not taking part, to reinstate the 2008 decision declaring as "unconstitutional" the Republic Acts that converted the 16 municipalities into cities. A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least ₱100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.[9]

On 15 February 2011, the Supreme Court made another volte-face and upheld for the third time the cityhood of 16 towns in the Philippines.[10]

And on 12 April 2011, a Supreme Court en banc ruling delivered in Baguio City, promulgated and resolved that:

We should not ever lose sight of the fact that the 16 cities covered by the Cityhood Laws not only had conversion bills pending during the 11th Congress, but have also complied with the requirements of the LGC prescribed prior to its amendment by R.A. No. 9009.[9] Congress undeniably gave these cities all the considerations that justice and fair play demanded. Hence, this Court should do no less by stamping its imprimatur to the clear and unmistakable legislative intent and by duly recognizing the certain collective wisdom of Congress. WHEREFORE, the Ad Cautelam Motion for Reconsideration (of the Decision dated 15 February 2011) is denied with finality.[10]

So affirming the finality of the constitutionality of the 16 cityhood laws.

On 28 June 2011 the Supreme Court directed the Clerk of Court to issue forthwith the entry of judgment on the cityhood case of 16 municipalities. Sealing with "the finality of the resolution upholding the constitutionality of the 16 Cityhood Laws absolutely warrants the respondents‍ '​ "Motion for Entry of Judgment", the SC ruled."[11]

This entry of judgment ended the cityhood battle of the 16 cities in the Philippines.

NB The income classification limits have been revised more than once since RA9009.

Source: Income Classification for Provinces, Cities and Municipalities


  1. ^ a b "Province: Leyte". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  3. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City and Municipality: Central Visayas: 1995, 2000 and 2007" (PDF). National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2011. 
  4. ^ a b The 16 were:
    Municipality Province
    Batac Ilocos Norte
    Baybay Leyte
    Bayugan Agusan del Sur
    Bogo Cebu
    Borongan Eastern Samar
    Cabadbaran Agusan del Norte
    Carcar Cebu
    Catbalogan Samar
    El Salvador Misamis Oriental
    Guihulngan Negros Oriental
    Lamitan Basilan
    Mati Davao Oriental
    Naga Cebu
    Tabuk Kalinga
    Tandag Surigao del Sur
    Tayabas Quezon
  5. ^ Republic Act No. 9389 of 15 March 2007 Charter of the City of Baybay
  6. ^ G.R. No. 176951 et al. (First appeal) of 18 November 2008 Consolidated petitions for prohibition assailing the constitutionality of the subject Cityhood Laws and enjoining the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) and respondent municipalities from conducting plebiscites pursuant to the Cityhood Laws.
  7. ^ Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  8. ^ G.R. No. 176951 et al. (First reversal) of 21 December 2009
  9. ^ a b Republic Act No. 9009 of 24 February 2001 An Act amending section 450 of Republic Act no. 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991, by increasing the average annual income requirement for a municipality or cluster of barangays to be converted into a component city.
  10. ^ a b G.R. No. 176951 et al. (Second appeal) of 15 February 2011 League of Cities of the Philippines v. COMELEC
  11. ^ G.R. No. 176951 et al. (Final Resolution) of 28 June 2011 Supreme Court has directed the Clerk of Court to forthwith issue the Entry of Judgment

External links[edit]