Bayraktar UAV

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Bayraktar Tactical UAS)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bayraktar family
Role Unmanned aerial vehicle
National origin Turkey
Manufacturer Baykar
Designer Baykar
Status In service
Primary user Turkish Armed Forces
Number built 260+[1][2]
Variants

The Bayraktar UAV or Bayraktar UCAV is a family of unmanned aerial vehicles designed and manufactured by Turkish company Baykar.[3] The UAVs were developed for the Turkish Armed Forces from 2004 until the present. Some models are designed for surveillance and reconnaissance only, others are capable of tactical ground-strike missions. Baykar is also developing drones to counter other aerial systems.[4] "Bayraktar" means flag-bearer in Turkish.

Bayraktar Mini UAV[edit]

Bayraktar Mini UAV

Bayraktar Mini UAV is a miniature UAV and the first UAV produced by Turkish company Baykar.[5][6]

With the concept of short range day and night aerial reconnaissance and surveillance applications, system design activities started in 2004. An initial prototype Bayraktar Mini A was developed in 2005, and following successful autonomous flight demonstrations, Baykar was awarded a contract to start series production by the Turkish Armed Forces. The first batch was composed of 19 aircraft and they were mainly deployed to the southeast parts of Turkey for use in counterterrorism operations.[7]

After hundreds of hours of flight trials, the system was subjected to major modifications and improved versions were developed. As a result, Bayraktar Mini B was fielded and became operational in December 2007 to be initially operated by the Turkish Armed Forces.[8][9] Due to its success in the region, the system was also exported to the Qatar Armed Forces in 2012.[10][11] The development of the aircraft is being continued and the most recent version (Bayraktar MINI D) has twice the communication range and 3 times higher maximum altitude of its predecessors.[12][13]

Bayraktar TB1[edit]

Bayraktar TB1 (or Bayraktar Çaldıran) is the prototype UAV made for the Tactical UAV program of the Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (Savunma Sanayii Mustesarligi or SSM; now the Presidency of Defense Industries) of Turkey,[14] started in 2007. SSM invited two companies to compete for a prototype demonstration phase of the Tactical UAS Program. In 2009, Kale-Baykar, a joint venture between the Kale Group and Baykar Technologies, demonstrated Block A (named Bayraktar Çaldıran)[15] with its dual redundant avionics system and fully autonomous takeoff and landing capability. The aircraft was selected as the winner of the program.[16][17][18] While the contract was signed with the Presidency of Defense Industries for Bayraktar TB1s, these products were not delivered and remained as prototypes for Bayraktar Block 2s. Instead, serial production commenced with Bayraktar TB2.[19]

Bayraktar TB2[edit]

Bayraktar TB2

Bayraktar TB2 is the serial production aircraft of the first tactical UAV of Baykar, Bayraktar TB1.

Baykar started to develop a new combat tactical aerial vehicle system on request of Presidency of Defense Industries, after the experiences of its first tactical UAV Bayraktar Çaldıran (TB1) flown in 2011.[20] The Bayraktar TB2 conducted its maiden flight in August 2014. On 18 December 2015, a video was published for the missile test of Bayraktar TB2 in collaboration with ROKETSAN, testing Roketsan's MAM (Smart Micro Munition)s and TUBITAK-SAGE BOZOK laser-guided bombs for the first time.[21][22][23][24][25]

The Turkish Armed Forces describe Bayraktar as a "Tactical UAV Class" to avoid competition with the TAI Anka UAV, but international standards would classify it as a medium-altitude long-endurance UAV.[26][27]

Bayraktar Akıncı[edit]

Bayraktar Akıncı at Teknofest 2019

Bayraktar Akıncı is the first High-altitude Long Endurance (HALE) class unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) of Baykar.

The aircraft has a 5.5+ ton maximum takeoff weight (MTOW), with 1350+ kg of this composed of payload. Akıncı is equipped with two turboprop engines which have two different thrust capabilities: 450 or 750 hp. Akinci is equipped with electronic support and countermeasure systems, dual satellite communication systems, air-to-air radar, collision avoidance radar and national advanced synthetic aperture radar.[28]

Bayraktar TB3[edit]

The Bayraktar TB3 is a variant of the TB2 that is capable of landing on a ship deck. In February 2021, chairman of the Presidency of Defense Industries (SSB) Ismail Demir made public a new type of UAV being developed by Baykar that is planned to be stationed to Turkey's first amphibious assault ship, TCG Anadolu.[29] The new aircraft being developed is a naval version of the Bayraktar TB2, powered by an engine developed by Turkish company Tusaş Engine Industries (TEI).[30][31] Demir said that between 30 and 50 folding-winged Bayraktar TB3 UAVs will be able to take off from and land on the deck of Anadolu.[32][33] Baykar's Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Selçuk Bayraktar said in 2021 that the initial flight of the Bayraktar TB3 was scheduled for 2022.[34]

Bayraktar Kızılelma[edit]

Bayraktar Kızılelma (Bayraktar Red Apple) is a proposed supersonic[35] jet-powered single-engined stealth[36] carrier-capable[37] unmanned combat aircraft in development in 2021, planned to fly for the first time in 2023.[38][37]

According to data shared by the company, Bayraktar Kızılelma will have an operational altitude of 40,000 feet (12,192 m), a take-off weight of 5.5 tons, a payload of 1.5 tons, and an ammunition carrying capacity of 1 ton.

Operational history[edit]

PKK/YPG–Turkey conflict[edit]

Turkish military use TB-2 gained prominence in counterinsurgency operations against Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and People's Protection Units (YPG) positions across the border in Iraq and Syria.[39][40][41] Turkey considers PKK and YPG to be terrorist organizations.[42]

Libya[edit]

In June 2019, international news media reported that the Libyan, UN recognized,[43] Government of National Accord (GNA) used Bayraktar TB2s to strike an airbase held by General Haftar's Libyan National Army (LNA). Despite the UN embargo on Libya's ongoing civil war, it is suspected that at least three Bayraktar TB2 UCAV were being used over Tripoli by the GNA government forces. On 6 June 2019, two GNA Bayraktar TB2 drones were destroyed along with an operation room by LNA attacks on Mitiga Airport.[44][45] Video evidence shows at least one Bayraktar TB2 flying over Tripoli[46] about to land at Mitiga's Military section, under control of GNA-allied forces.

Syria[edit]

In March 2020 Bayraktar TB2s, Anka-S UAVs and an array of Koral electronic jammers were deployed and extensively used in coordinated action to strike Syrian Army targets on the ground during the Operation Spring Shield launched by Turkey following losses the Turkish forces incurred at the hands of the Russian forces in northwestern Syria at the end February 2020.[47][48][49] The deployment was assessed by experts to be a success and a tactical game changer.[50][51][52]

Azerbaijan and 2020 Nagorno Karabakh war[edit]

Bayraktar TB2 at 2020 Victory Parade in Baku, Azerbaijan

In June 2020 the Defence Minister of Azerbaijan, Zakir Hasanov, announced that Azerbaijan had decided to purchase Bayraktar drones from Turkey.[53] During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, Bayraktar TB2s were used against Armed Forces of Armenia with great success.[54] Azerbaijan used TB-2s to destroy Armenian artillery, infantry positions and military vehicles including BM-30 Smerch MLRS, T-72s tanks, BMP-1 and BMP-2 IFVs.[55][56] Several Osa, Strela-10 and 5 S-300 air defense systems were also destroyed by TB2s.[55][57][58][59]

Ukraine[edit]

Bayraktar TB2 of Ukrainian Air Force armed with MAM-L, two ground control stations in the background

As a part of its military modernization program, Armed Forces of Ukraine acquired 12 Bayraktar TB2s in 2019.[60][61] After successful use of the aircraft, the Ukrainian Navy ordered 5 additional Bayraktar TB2s, reportedly delivered in 2020.[62] Meanwhile, Turkish and Ukrainian officials announced the establishment of a joint venture to produce 48 additional Bayraktar TB2s in Ukraine.[63]

Ukraine's Bayraktar TB2s were used extensively during the 2022 Russian invasion[64] for surveillance of and attacks on Russian ground convoys.[65][66] The drones played a significant role in deterring Russian advances in the early stages of the conflict.[67]

Ukrainian Chief of General Staff Valery Zaluzhny made available Bayraktar TB2 operation photographs on his Facebook account, including destruction of a Russian-made Buk Air Defense Missile System.[68]

Operators[edit]

Baykar announced to the public via Twitter on 5 March 2022, that Bayraktar UAVs were exported to at least 19 countries. Only 11 of these user countries are publicly known, while the other 8 countries are unknown:[69][70]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "200'üncü Bayraktar TB2 göklerde". Savunma Sanayi(Turkish Defence Industry) (in Turkish). 24 July 2021.
  2. ^ "Bayraktar TB2 SİHA'dan 400 bin uçuş saati". TRT Haber (in Turkish). 26 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Selçuk Bayraktar'dan İHA'lı aile pozu". 15 June 2019.
  4. ^ "AKINCI TİHA hava savunması da yapabilecek" (in Turkish). 21 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Bayraktar UAV". Army-Technology. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  6. ^ "The three brothers who produced the 'Bayraktar'". 1 June 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014.
  7. ^ FarooqUmar, Umar (May 14, 2019). "How Turkey Defied the U.S. and Became a Killer Drone Power". The Intercept. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
  8. ^ Turkish army orders mini-UAVs Archived 2013-10-03 at the Wayback Machine, 8 August 2006
  9. ^ "Bayraktar Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - Army Technology". www.army-technology.com. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
  10. ^ "Turkey sells mini drones to Qatar". 2012-03-13. Archived from the original on 2014-08-09.
  11. ^ "Procurement: Turkey Exports UAVs". 2012-03-19. Archived from the original on 2014-08-09.
  12. ^ "Bayraktar Mini UAV D with Advanced Features is Ready to Enter the Inventory". RayHaber | RaillyNews. 2021-03-22. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
  13. ^ Efsane geri döndü: Bayraktar Mini İHA, artık daha gelişmiş özellikleriyle sahada (in Turkish), retrieved 2021-04-08
  14. ^ "Undersecretariat for Defence Industries Tactical UAV Development Project". SSM. 3 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014.
  15. ^ "IDEF 2011: Bayraktar tactical UAV nears production". Shephardmedia.com. 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014.
  16. ^ "'Heron'a karşı 'Çaldıran'" (in Turkish). Hürriyet.com. 1 October 2009.
  17. ^ "Israeli Manufacturers' Turkish UAV Contract". Defence Industry Daily. 22 December 2011.
  18. ^ "From a Hobby to the Peaks of Technology / The Turkish Perspective January-February 2011 Issue 2" (PDF). 1 January 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 December 2014.
  19. ^ "Türk SİHA'larının Gelişim Serüveni" (in Turkish). September 2021.
  20. ^ "Bayraktar Caldiran UAV" (PDF).
  21. ^ "Milli İHA'ya yerli füze takıldı!". Haber7. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018.
  22. ^ Youtube Archived 5 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine May I present to you eventually, 100% Turkish manufactured armed UAV: Bayraktar TB2
  23. ^ "Official video footage of Turkish UCAV tests". Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  24. ^ "Yerli IHA ilk harekatinda 5 teroristi vurdu". 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016.
  25. ^ "Bayraktar ilk silahlı operasyonunu PKK'ya yaptı". Kokpit.Aero. 12 September 2016. Archived from the original on 10 September 2016.
  26. ^ "Turkey Steadily Builds UAV Capabilities". 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014.
  27. ^ "Turkey's unmanned ambitions shift up gear". 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
  28. ^ "BAYKAR Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems". baykardefence.com. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  29. ^ "Turkey's TCG Anadolu to allow drones to land, takeoff in global 1st". Daily Sabah. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  30. ^ "Local engines to power Turkey's cutting-edge combat drones". Daily Sabah. 30 October 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  31. ^ Isik, Talha. "S/İHA Gemisi: TCG Anadolu". BAUDEGS (in Turkish). Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  32. ^ Ozberk, Tayfun (29 April 2021). "Turkey plans to deploy attack drones from its amphibious assault ship". Defense News. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  33. ^ Axe, David. "Behold The Turkish Navy's Drone Aircraft Carrier". Forbes. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Bayraktar TB3 to perform maiden flight in 2022". Global Defense Corp (Press release). 2021-09-06.
  35. ^ "Ascendant and assertive Turkey creates tough choices for US". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  36. ^ Azman, Kaan (2021-08-04). "Selçuk Bayraktar'dan Muharip İnsansız Uçak Sistemi üzerine açıklamalar". DefenceTurk (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  37. ^ a b Ozberk, Tayfun (2021-07-22). "Turkey to deploy MIUS unmanned combat aircraft from LHD Anadolu". Naval News. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  38. ^ "Baykar eyes first flight for MIUS in 2023". Shephard Media. 2021-07-23.
  39. ^ "Turkey's Bayraktar TB2 drones enable swift, precise victory against YPG/PKK in Syria's Afrin". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  40. ^ "Battle for Idlib: Turkey's drones and a new way of war". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  41. ^ "Turkey's Drone War in Syria – A Red Team View". Small Wars Journal. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  42. ^ "Erdogan says Turkey will 'never declare a ceasefire'". CNN. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  43. ^ "As Libya marks 64th independence anniversary, UN envoy urges unity behind new Government". United Nations. 24 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
  44. ^ "Letter dated 29 November 2019 from the Panel of Experts onLibya established pursuant to resolution 1973 (2011) addressed to the President of the Security Council" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. 9 December 2019. p.32 The Panel is aware that two Bayraktar TB2 UCAVs were destroyed by HAF air strikes against the Misrata air academy on 6 and 7 June 2019, with a third shot down by HAF on 30 June 2019, but combat losses have reportedly been much higher
  45. ^ "Libya:Drone test laboratory for a new type of air warfare". Air & Cosmos International. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  46. ^ "Libya: Turkish-made Bayraktar TB2 UAV seen at the GNA-held airbase". Military Africa. Military Africa. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  47. ^ "Damage caused to Assad regime assets demonstrates Turkey's high UAV capabilities". dailysabah.com. 1 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Turkey's Killer Drone Swarm Poses Syria Air Challenge to Putin". Bloomberg News. 1 March 2020.
  49. ^ Karnozov, Vladimir (2 March 2020). "Fighter-bombers and Anka UAVs Downed as Turkey and Syria Exchange Blows". Aviation International News. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Ten Hezbollah, Syrian Army Commanders Killed in Turkish Drone Strikes". defenseworld.net. 3 March 2020.
  51. ^ Gatopoulos, Alex (3 March 2020). "Battle for Idlib: Turkey's drones and a new way of war". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  52. ^ Petkova, Mariya (2 March 2020). "Turkish drones – a 'game changer' in Idlib". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  53. ^ Anadolu Ajansı. "Azerbaijan to purchase combat drones from Turkey". Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  54. ^ "Turkish armed drones used against Armenia, Azerbaijan confirms". Middle East Eye. 5 October 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Everything We Know About The Fighting That Has Erupted Between Armenia And Azerbaijan". The Drive. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  56. ^ "Bayraktar TB2 Armed UAVs operated by the Azerbaijan Air Force have destroyed 2 more Armenian Smerch MLRS platform". Cybershafarat. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  57. ^ "Azerbaijan used TB2 drone to destroy twelve 9K33 Osa short-range anti-aircraft systems of Armenia". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  58. ^ "Turkish Bayraktar TB2 drone destroyed the S-300 SAM of Armenia". Global Defense Corp. 8 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  59. ^ "Azerbaijani used TB2 drone to destroy second S-300 SAM of Armenia". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  60. ^ "Ukraine to buy 5 more Turkish Bayraktar TB2 drones in 2021". Daily Sabah. 27 November 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  61. ^ Axe, David. "Ukraine Might Field A Drone Strike Force—And It Could Knock Out Russian Tanks". Forbes. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  62. ^ "Ukrainian Navy to receive Turkey's Bayraktar TB2 UAVs this year". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  63. ^ "Ukrainian Navy Will Receive Turkish Bayraktar TB2 Drones This Year – The Defense Post". Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  64. ^ Hetzner, Christiaan (4 March 2022). "The inanimate hero of Ukraine's defensive war against Russia, cheap Turkish drones may pose a broader threat". Fortune.
  65. ^ Philipps, Dave; Schmitt, Eric (2022-03-11). "Over Ukraine, Lumbering Turkish-Made Drones Are an Ominous Sign for Russia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-03-11.
  66. ^ JOVANOVSKI, KRISTINA (7 March 2022). "Turkey defense industry to benefit from drones' success in Ukraine". The Jerusalem Post.
  67. ^ Isachenkov, Vladmir; Bilginsoy, Zeynep (5 August 2022). "Putin hosts Erdogan for talks on trade, Ukraine, Syria". AP News.
  68. ^ "Advanced Warfare: Game Changer Turkish Drones!". Discover all about Turkish People & Turkey!. 2022-02-28. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  69. ^ @BaykarTech (5 March 2022). "TB2 19 ülkeye ihraç edildi" [TB2 has been exported to 19 countries] (Tweet) (in Turkish). Retrieved 5 March 2022 – via Twitter.
  70. ^ "Akıncı TİHA da katıldı, savunma sanayisi ihracatta yüksekten uçuyor" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 23 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  71. ^ "Turkey delivered Bayraktar TB2 drones to Qatari Emirati Armed Forces". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  72. ^ "Everything We Know About The Fighting That Has Erupted Between Armenia And Azerbaijan". The Drive. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  73. ^ "'Largest drone war in the world': How airpower saved Tripoli". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  74. ^ Alemdar, Ahmet (5 October 2020). "Ukrayna 48 adet Bayraktar TB2 SİHA tedarik etmek istiyor".
  75. ^ "Turkmenistan Parades Newly-Acquired Bayraktar TB2s". Oryx Blog. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  76. ^ "Morocco receives their first Turkish drones". Defense Arabia (in Arabic).
  77. ^ "Poland to become first NATO country to buy Turkish drones". Reuters. 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  78. ^ "Bayraktar TB2 SİHA'ların Yeni Alıcısı Kırgızistan Oldu". savunmasanayist.com (in Turkish). Savunma Sanayi ST. 21 October 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  79. ^ Tayfur, Nazir Aliyev (22 October 2021). "Kyrgyzstan set to receive Turkish armed drones". aa.com.tr. Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  80. ^ "Akıncı TİHA İçin İlk İhracat Sözleşmesi İmzalandı". savunmasanayist.com (in Turkish). Savunma Sanayi ST. 23 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  81. ^ "Etiyopya'ya Bayraktar TB2 teslim edildiği iddiası". savunmasanayist.com (in Turkish). 19 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  82. ^ a b Kurunç, Kamer (11 March 2022). "Pakistan'dan AKINCI TİHA ve Bayraktar TB2 Mesajı". savunmasanayist.com (in Turkish). Savunma Sanayi ST. Retrieved 11 March 2022.

External links[edit]