Bayuda Volcanic Field

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bayuda Volcanic field
Bayuda Vulkanfeld.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 670 m (2,200 ft) [1]
Coordinates 18°20′0″N 32°45′0″E / 18.33333°N 32.75000°E / 18.33333; 32.75000Coordinates: 18°20′0″N 32°45′0″E / 18.33333°N 32.75000°E / 18.33333; 32.75000
Geography
Bayuda Volcanic field is located in Sudan
Bayuda Volcanic field
Bayuda Volcanic field
Geology
Age of rock Holocene
Mountain type Volcanic field
Last eruption 850 CE ± 50 years [1]

The Bayuda (or Baiyuda) Volcanic field (BVF) are crater-like landforms in NE Sudan 300 km north of Khartoum.

Geography[edit]

The BVF is located in the north of the Bayuda Desert in the bend of the Nile between the Fourth and the Fifth Cataract. The main volcanic field is 48 km long and 11 km wide covering an area of about 480 km2[2] and extending in a NW direction from 18.28 N, 32.92 E. to 18.43 N to 32.50 E.[3]

Lava fields and scoria cones

Geology[edit]

The BVF has a very long geological history as it was a part of the Gondwanaland.[4] It comprises at least 57 Cinder cones, 15 Maars and large Lava fields.[1] The volcanoes are small and composed of basaltic lavas and Tephra. Each of the composite volcanoes passed through a stage of pyroclastic cone-building followed by a period of lava extrusion which usually resulted in the breaching of the cone.[5]

El Muweilih crater: Natron-rich clay is dug out

Maar-like craters[edit]

Due to their lack of erosion the maar-like explosion craters are considered of recent, Pleistocene or Holocene, origin.[5] The largest one, Hosh ed Dalam, is 1.3 km wide, and approximately 500 m deep.[1] The El Muweilih or Atrun Crater[6] is certainly the best known one. El Muweilih means The Salty Place and refers to a small saline lake on the crater floor from where natron-rich clay is dug out and dried by local nomads.[5]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Global volcanism program". Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  2. ^ Lenhardt, N., Lenhardt, S.Z., Bumby, A.J., Ibn Ouf, M., Salih, S.A.: Morphological analysis of Holocene scoria cones and maar volcanoes of the alkaline Bayuda Volcanic Field in NE Africa (Sudan): new insights into the structure and evolution of a monogenetic volcanic field, 2016.
  3. ^ http://www.volcanolive.com/bayuda.html
  4. ^ Amelia Carolina Sparavigna: Crater-like landform in Bayuda desert (a processing of satellite images), 2010
  5. ^ a b c Almond, D.C., Ahmed, F. & Khalil, B.E. Bull: An Excursion to the Bayuda Volcanic Field of Northern Sudan, Volcanol (1969) 33: 549.
  6. ^ A demonination usually found in tourist guides