|Founded||Between 1810 and 500 BC|
|• Alcalde||Pedro Fernández Peñalver (2007) (PSOE)|
|• Total||545 km2 (210 sq mi)|
|Elevation||844 m (2,769 ft)|
|• Density||43/km2 (110/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Dialing code||(+34) 958|
Baza is a town in the province of Granada in southern Spain. It has 21,000 inhabitants (2003). It is situated at 844 m above sea level, in the Hoya de Baza, a valley of the Sierra Nevada, not far from the Gallego River. This town gives its name to the Sierra de Baza. The dome-shaped mountain of Jabalcón overlooks the town from the north-west.
The sculpture of the Lady of Baza is a prehistoric artifact discovered in this area on 22 July 1971. The city was founded by the Iberians in the 4th century BC and named Basti, the name by which it was known in Roman times. As part of the Roman province of Tarraco, it was an important commercial center.
The bishopric of Basti was in existence by 306, the date of the Council of Elvira, which was attended by its bishop Eutychianus. The names of other bishops of Basti also are known through their participation in various Councils of Toledo. The diocese survived for some time the Moorish conquest but disappeared in the 13th century. After the Reconquista the territories of the two ancient sees of Basti and Acci were united as the diocese of Guadix. A collegiate church, the Colegiata de Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Encarnación, Baza, was established at Basti/Baza. This was reluctant to accept rule from Guadix. As a compromise, the collegiate church was given authority, under the bishop, over twelve parishes, and the name of the diocese was changed to that of Guadix-Baza, indicating a union of two dioceses under a single bishop. This continued until 1851, when the collegiate church became a simple parish church and the diocese resumed the name of Diocese of Guadix. No longer a residential bishopric, Basti is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
Under Islamic rule (713-1489), the cathedral, founded by the Visigoth king Reccared in about 600, and whose traditional site is occupied by the ancient church of San Máximo, was converted into a mosque
Under the Moors, Baza was an important frontier post along the border with the kingdom of Murcia. It was also a major commercial center, with a population upward of 50,000, making it one of the three most important cities in the Kingdom of Granada. In 1489, during the Granada War, the city fell to Queen Isabella I of Castile, after a stubborn defense lasting seven months. The cannons still adorn the Alameda. On 10 August 1810, French forces under Marshal Soult defeated a large Spanish force near the town.
The 1489 siege of Baza is described in Washington Irving's book The Conquest of Granada.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Baza". Encyclopædia Britannica 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 559.
- Bibliothèque sacrée, ou Dictionnaire universel, t. XI, Paris 1823, pp. 356–361
- Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 2, p. 162; vol. 3, p. 206; vol. 4, p. 198; vol. 5, p. 214; vol. 6, p. 230
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, pp. 3–4
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838
- (English) Baza Information - General Information about house sales in Baza