Beşiktaş J.K.

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Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
Full name Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü[1]
Nickname(s) Kara Kartallar (Black Eagles)[2][3]
Siyah Beyazlılar (Black and Whites)
Founded 19 March 1903; 112 years ago (1903-03-19),[1]
as Beşiktaş Bereket Jimnastik Kulübü[4]
Ground Vodafone Arena
Istanbul, Turkey
Ground Capacity 41,903
Chairman Fikret Orman[5]
Manager Şenol Güneş
League Süper Lig
2014–15 Süper Lig, 3rd
Website Club home page
Current season

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Turkish pronunciation: [beˈʃiktaʃ], English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), known as Beşiktaş is a Turkish sports club. The club's football team, the oldest in the country, is also one of the most successful teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to a lower division. The professional sports club, founded in 1903, is based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey. The club competes in numerous branches including football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, paralympic sports, eSports and beach football.[6]

The home ground of Beşiktaş was the İnönü Stadium with a seating capacity of 32,086, however the ground was demolished in order for the Vodafone Arena to be constructed on the same land. The club last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2008–09 season, achieving a "double" after also winning the Turkish Cup[7] in the same season.

As of 3 March 2015, the club is ranked 57th in UEFA's overall club coefficient rankings and 34th for the 2014-15 season.[8]


Active departments of Beşiktaş
Football pictogram.svg Football pictogram.svg Handball pictogram.svg
Football (Men's) Football (Women's) Handball (Men's)
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball pictogram.svg Wheelchair basketball pictogram (Paralympics).svg
Basketball (Men's) Basketball (Women's) Wheelchair Basketball
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Table tennis pictogram.svg
Volleyball (Men's) Volleyball (Women's) Table Tennis
Athletics pictogram.svg Boxing pictogram.svg Wrestling pictogram.svg
Athletics Boxing Wrestling
Rowing pictogram.svg Poker-sm-211-As.png Chess pictogram.svg
Rowing Bridge Chess
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg

Early years[edit]

Beşiktaş was established in 1903 during the late Ottoman period. A group of 22 young individuals gathered on certain days of the week to perform bodily exercises in the Serencebey neighborhood of Beşiktaş. They began in the fall of 1902, in the garden of the mansion of Osman Paşa, who was then a part of the Medine Guard. The various sporting activities that these youths participated in included the horizontal bar, parallel bar, wrestling, weight lifting and gymnastics. They included such members as the sons of Osman Paşa, Mehmet Şamil and Hüseyin Bereket, and other youths of the neighborhood – Ahmet Fetgeri, Mehmet Ali Fetgeri, Nazım Nazif, Cemil Feti and Şevket. At that time, the Sultan Abdul Hamid II was having secret agents go around the city, reporting on any gatherings that might be political in nature. When these agents heard about the group, a raid was conducted and the exercising youths were taken to the police station. The tense situation was relaxed as some of these youths were close to palace officers. Since football was in disfavor in those days, they only participated in bodily exercises. In fact, Şehzade Abdülhalim, who had relations with the Palace, supported these youths and started to watch their practices frequently. Famous boxer and wrestler Kenan Bey came to the practices and started to show the group wrestling and boxing tricks.

Beşiktaş in 1903

Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission in 1903. Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of 31 March 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach, and Mazhar Kazancı, a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club, where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized, was formed.

In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on 13 January 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly went up to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.

Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.

For years, the original colours of the Beşiktaş were believed to be Red and White; and then temporarily changed into Black and White as a sign of mourning for the dead in Balkan Wars, which included some players of the club. Although most written sources endorse this claim, a detailed study carried out for Beşiktaş’s 100th anniversary documentary had shown that red was never used in club’s first colors; and Beşiktaş’s colours were always Black and White.[9]

Initial years of football[edit]

1923–24 Istanbul League champions
Players of Beşiktaş before the match against Galatasaray, 19 March 1939.

With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmet Şerafettin Bey started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921, that particular league's final season, they won it again. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the league's first champion in 1924, but was not able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the two dominant teams through the middle of the 1930s.

Beşiktaş won their second Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937, the Turkish National League was formed. In the Istanbul League season prior to the National League's first season, Beşiktaş finished in 4th place, which earned them a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the National league behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938 Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the Istanbul league and 2nd place in the National league behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record 5 consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league Beşiktaş finished 4th in 1939, 5th in 1940, 1st in 1941 and 3rd in 1943 (1942 league was not held). Beşiktaş won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944, and 1947.

After 1959[edit]

In 1959 the Turkish First League was formed. It was Turkey's first professional league. Beşiktaş came in 3rd place in the inaugural year of the league. Beşiktaş won the league title in 1960. In 1960 they also took part in the European Cup, and became the first Turkish team ever to participate in that cup. Beşiktaş finished in 3rd place in 1961 and 1962 and 2nd place in 1963, 1964 and 1965. After that, their consistency paid off and they were finally champions again in 1966 and 1967. In 1967, they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968, Beşiktaş finished in 2nd place.

Silent 1970s[edit]

After 1967, Beşiktaş's performance declined slightly, finishing in 8th, 12th, 5th, 4th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success. Beşiktaş only finished 2nd place once in the decade (1975).

1980s Revival[edit]

Beşiktaş put an end to their bad performance in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship. Beşiktaş got another championship in 1986 as well. They finished the league in the second place four times in the second half of the decade except the championship in 1985–86 season. Hooliganism was also a major problem that had started in Europe and spread throughout Turkey as well. Beşiktaş fan hooliganism had been a major issue with many fights inside and outside the stadium. However this has become less of an issue more recently.

Milne era[edit]

Main article: Metin-Ali-Feyyaz

Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 90s. Three players of the squad; Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken, and Feyyaz Uçar were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz ("MAF") and they formed the front of the team's line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals, and above all for their friendship and modesty. The trio is regarded by supporters as the best ever attacking line of the club.

The only three-in-a-row title term in club history occurred in the 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history.[10][11] So far, Beşiktaş is the only team that has achieved these honors.

Under Milne, the team adopted the 4–4–2 system. By playing down the lines, crossing, and winning balls in the air, the team scored many goals. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest winning margin in a game with a 10–0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor.[12] This match was designated as one of the 16 biggest matches in club history.[13]

Legend of the Black Eagles[edit]

There is a legend surrounding the nicknaming of the team as "The Black Eagles." Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. As the weeks went by, this team was more and more secure in the leader's seat in the league. With five weeks remaining in the season, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium on Sunday 19 January 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. The team went ahead in the first half. Halfway through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously, despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said "Come on, Black Eagles! Attack, Black Eagles!" The story goes that the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş finished the game with a 6–0 win. The Beşiktaş players, who had very successfully defeated their opponents that season, were being described as "Black Eagles", and the football they played was being compared to "Attacking like Black Eagles". The comparison resonated with the team and the fans, and so it was adopted by the Beşiktaş community as their team's nickname.[14]

Colours and badge[edit]

BJK İnönü Stadium entrance, displaying the club emblem and stars for Turkish Super League championships.

Since only individual sports were done at the beginning in the Osman Pasha Mansion, there was no need for any colours for a uniform. However, the number of sportsmen increased with new youths who joined sport teams each passing day. Mehmet Şamil Bey (first president of the Club), who had graduated from the French school gathered the Founders Committee. He removed the pin he used in his school days bearing the colours of his school from his lapel and showed it around. He said “We must have a pin just like this one made and we must force all members who attend sports in our Club to bear this pin”. Those attending the meeting eagerly agreed with Mehmet Şamil Bey’s proposal. At the end of the meeting, the colours of the Club to be shown on the pin were decided. The two principal colours of nature in full contrast to each other were chosen as the Club colours: black and white.

The date Beşiktaş’s first badge was made was written as “1906” in Latin years inspired by the badges in the French school. On top, it said “Beşiktaş” in Arabic letters, the letter “J” was placed on the rights and letter “K” was placed on the left. On the back of the badge, there was a script saying it was made in Constantinople and there was the seal of the craftsmen who made the badge on the inside. It is interesting that the star on the crest on the badge has 6 points. This 6-pointed star was used until the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy (1908). This badge was donated by Iskender Yakak to Süleyman Seba, the late Honorary President of Beşiktaş J.K.

The current emblem of Beşiktaş symbolizes the foundation date. There are two white and three black bars on the emblem. It consists of nine parts in total. There is one white bar, three black bars, and another white bar, and there are nine parts in total. Thus: 1319, the year of the club's foundation. (The Islamic calendar was still used in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the club's foundation. 1319 is the equivalent of 1903 in Gregorian Calendar.)

Home colours[edit]


Away colours[edit]


Third colours[edit]



Main article: BJK İnönü Stadium
BJK İnönü Stadium in 2009

BJK İnönü Stadium was located near the Bosphorus and was very close to Taksim Square. The stadium could be reached easily by many means of public transport (bus, ferry, metro, light-rail, funicular etc.) easily due to its central location.

There were four different parts of the stadium; 1."Kapalı" is where the most hot-blooded fans were during the matches; 2."Yeni Açık" was the larger side, which faced the sea; 3."Eski Açık" was the smaller curve on the seaside, where visiting supporters were typically placed; 4."Numaralı" is where press, VIP and protocol stands could be found.

2013 was the last season of the İnönü Stadium as Beşiktaş's home ground. The club played their 2013-14 and 2014-15 season home games mostly at the Ataturk Olympic Stadium and the Başakşehir Fatih Terim Stadium. The new stadium, Vodafone Arena, is scheduled to be completed in 2016.


Current squad[edit]

As of 19 January 2015.[15]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
2 Turkey DF Serdar Kurtuluş
3 Turkey DF İsmail Köybaşı
5 Argentina MF José Sosa
6 Serbia DF Duško Tošić
7 Turkey MF Gökhan Töre
8 Austria MF Veli Kavlak
10 Turkey MF Olcay Şahan
11 Turkey FW Mustafa Pektemek
12 Spain DF Alexis
13 Canada MF Atiba Hutchinson
15 Turkey MF Oğuzhan Özyakup
17 Portugal MF Ricardo Quaresma
No. Position Player
18 Germany MF Tolgay Arslan
20 Turkey MF Necip Uysal (vice-captain)
21 Turkey MF Kerim Frei
23 Turkey FW Cenk Tosun
27 Turkey GK Günay Güvenç
29 Turkey GK Tolga Zengin (captain)
30 Brazil DF Marcelo (on loan from Hannover)
32 Germany DF Andreas Beck
33 Germany FW Mario Gómez (on loan from Fiorentina)
44 Brazil DF Rhodolfo
71 Ukraine GK Denys Boyko
96 Turkey GK Veysel Sapan

Out on loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Turkey DF Berat Çetinkaya (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)
Colombia DF Pedro Franco (at San Lorenzo until 30 June 2016)
Sweden DF Alexander Milošević (at Hannover until 30 June 2016)
Turkey DF Tugay Kaya (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)
Turkey MF Oğuz Aksoy (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)
Turkey MF Muhammed Şahingöz (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)
No. Position Player
Armenia MF Aras Özbiliz (at Rayo Vallecano until 30 June 2016)
Turkey FW Furkan Yaman (at Eyüpspor until 30 June 2016)
Turkey FW Ömer Şişmanoğlu (at Antalyaspor until 30 June 2016)
Turkey FW Recep Akkemik (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)
Turkey FW Sinan Kurumuş (at Bayrampaşaspor until 30 June 2016)

Reserves and academy squads[edit]

For the reserve and academy team squads, see Beşiktaş J.K. A2 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Turkey GK Nevzat Doğukan Yamanarslan
Turkey GK Enes Kurt
Turkey GK Hüseyin Yılmaz
Turkey DF Abdülsamet Ilgar
Turkey DF Serkan Yavuz
Turkey DF Furkan Akbulut
Turkey DF Halil İbrahim Mızrap
Turkey DF Asım Metin
Turkey DF Anıl Tekeli
Turkey DF Beytullah Ayduvan
Turkey DF Fatih Aksoy
Turkey MF Alpcan Arıcı
No. Position Player
Turkey MF Ufuk Orhan
Turkey MF Eslem Öztürk
Turkey MF Sedat Şahintürk
Turkey MF Devrim Taşkaya
Turkey MF Şamil Başaran
Turkey MF Emre Turan
Turkey MF Burak Balaban
Turkey FW Hüseyin Afkan
Turkey FW Muhammed Enes Durmuş
Turkey FW Hamza Küçükköylü
Turkey FW Burak Özgür Subaş
Turkey FW Yusuf Oyit

Technical staff[edit]

Position Name
Manager Turkey Şenol Güneş
Assistant Manager Turkey Tamer Tuna
Assistant Manager Turkey Şeref Çiçek
Assistant Manager Turkey Mehmet Kulaksızoğlu
First Team Coach Turkey Dolu Arslan
First Team Coach Turkey Eren Şafak
Goalkeeping Coach Spain José Sambade Carreira
Fitness Coach Spain Miguel Peiró
First Team Doctor Turkey Sarper Çetinkaya
First Team Doctor Turkey Murat Çevik
Physiotherapist Turkey Zeki Cetin
Physiotherapist Turkey Aşkın Dede
Physiotherapist Turkey Mehmet Alpözgen
Football Interpreter Turkey Halil Yazıcıoğlu
Kit Manager Turkey Ünal Akkoyun
Kit Manager Turkey Süreyya Soner
Chief Scout Turkey Gökhan Keskin


Picture of the 2002–03 Süper Lig champions' trophy, won by Beşiktaş during the club's centenary year (1903–2003)

Domestic championships[edit]

Defunct domestic competitions[edit]

Picture of the 2006–07 Turkish Cup Trophy, won by Beşiktaş.

UEFA achievements[edit]

European record[edit]

Current ranking[edit]

As of 25 November 2015[16]
Rank Team Coefficient
60 Belarus FC BATE Borisov 32.850
61 Turkey Beşiktaş 32.440
62 Turkey Fenerbahçe S.K. 32.440
63 Spain Levante UD 31.142


As of 16 December 2015[17]
Competition Pld W D L GF GA GD
UEFA Champions League 68 22 13 33 64 104 −40
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 20 4 4 12 21 38 −17
UEFA Europa League 96 42 20 34 146 118 +28
Total 184 68 37 79 231 260 −29

Recent seasons[edit]

Season Div. Pos. Pl. W D L GS GA P Cup Europe Manager
2005–06 SL 3 34 15 9 10 52 39 54 Winners UC Group stage Rıza ÇalımbayJean Tigana
2006–07 SL 2 34 18 7 9 43 32 61 Winners UC Group stage Jean Tigana
2007–08 SL 3 34 23 4 7 58 32 73 Quarter-finals UCL Group stage Ertuğrul Sağlam
2008–09 SL 1 34 21 8 5 60 30 71 Winners UC First round Ertuğrul SağlamMustafa Denizli
2009–10 SL 4 34 18 10 6 47 25 64 Group stage UCL Group stage Mustafa Denizli
2010–11 SL 5 34 15 9 10 53 36 54 Winners UEL Round of 32 Bernd SchusterTayfur Havutçu
2011–12 SL 4 34+6 15+1 9+2 10+3 50+5 39+9 54+5 Round of 16 UEL Round of 16 Carlos CarvalhalTayfur Havutçu
2012–13 SL 3 34 16 10 8 63 49 58 Round of 16 Samet Aybaba
2013–14 SL 3 34 17 11 6 53 33 62 Round of 32 UEL Play-off Slaven Bilić
2014–15 SL 3 34 21 6 7 55 32 69 Round of 16 UCL
Round of 16

Last updated: 9 June 2015 (2015-06-09)
Div.=Division; Pos.=Position; Pl=Match played; W=Won; D=Drawn; L=Lost; GS=Goals scored; GA=Goals against; P=Points
SL=Süper Lig; UCL=UEFA Champions League; UCWC=UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; UC=UEFA Cup; UEL=UEFA Europa League; Cup=Turkish Cup
Background colours: Gold=winners; Silver=runners-up; Bronze=third


Name[18] Period[18]
Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya 1981–84
Turkey Süleyman Seba 1984–00
Turkey Serdar Bilgili 2000–04
Turkey Yıldırım Demirören (tüpçü) 2004–12
Turkey Fikret Orman 2012–present


There have been managers from various European countries at the helm of the club. The longest serving manager of Beşiktaş is Şeref Bey, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league three times in a row along with other trophies as well.[19]


Years Shirt sponsor Kit manufacturer
1988 None Adidas
1988–1998 Beko
1998–2001 Reebok
2001–2004 Puma
2004–2005 Turkcell
2005–2009 Cola Turka Umbro
2009–2011 Adidas
2011–2014 Toyota
2014– Vodafone


  1. ^ a b "Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü Derneği Tüzüğü" (PDF) (in Turkish). p. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kara Kartallar Efsanesi". Beşiltaş JK. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Turkey - Club Nicknames". RSSSF. 10 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "The Club". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Info Bank » Club Details". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Branches, Football". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Basketball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Volleyball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Handball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Athletics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Boxing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Wrestling". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Chess". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Cards Bridge". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Gymnastics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Rowing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Table Tennis". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Disabled Sports". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Beşiktaş Beach Football Team is Established". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Denizlispor:1 – Beşiktaş:2". 30 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  8. ^ "UEFA Rankings". UEFA. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  11. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  12. ^ "Beşiktaş – Adana Demirspor : 10–0". Beşiktaş club website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  13. ^ "Basarilarimiz" [Our Achievements]. Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ "First Team". Beşiktaş J.K. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ UEFA club competition record –
  18. ^ a b "Başkanlarımız" (in Turkish). Beşiktaş official website. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  19. ^ Teknik Direktörlerimiz Beşiktaş JK

External links[edit]