Beacon, New York
|Nickname(s): Tree City|
Location of Beacon, New York
|• Mayor||Randy J. Casale (R)|
|• City Council|
|• Total||4.9 sq mi (12.7 km2)|
|• Land||4.8 sq mi (12.4 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)|
|Elevation||138 ft (42 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||14,271|
|• Density||3,200/sq mi (1,200/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0977521|
|Website||City of Beacon|
Beacon is a city located in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The 2010 census placed the city total population at 15,541. Beacon is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, New York–New Jersey–Connecticut–Pennsylvania Combined Statistical Area. It was named to commemorate the historic beacon fires that blazed forth from the summit of the Fishkill Mountains to alert the Continental Army about British troop movements.
The area known as Beacon was settled by Europeans as the villages of Matteawan and Fishkill Landing in A.D. 1709. They were among the first colonial communities in the county. Beacon is located in the southwest corner of Dutchess County in the Mid-Hudson Region, approximately 90 miles (140 km) south of Albany, New York, and approximately 60 miles (97 km) north of New York City.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Attractions
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Sports
- 8 Notable people
- 9 Media
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 External links
In 1683, the land that would come to include the City of Beacon was purchased from the Wappinger tribe by Francis Rombout and Gulian Verplanck, merchant-fur traders from New York City. The sale was confirmed, in 1685 by royal patent issued in the names of Rombout, Jacobus Kipp (as successor to the deceased Verplanck, and Stephanus Van Cortlandt. Rombout died in 1691, leaving his share to his daughter, Catharyna, who later married Roger Brett, an officer in the Royal Navy. The Rombout Patent was partitioned in 1706 with Catharyna Brett receiving about 28,000 acres along the Vis Kill. In 1708 the Bretts re-located upriver from the family home on Broadway to an area near the mouth of the Fishkill Creek and built a grist mill on the lower creek. In June 1718, Roger Brett was drowned when his sloop encountered a fierce squall near Fishkill Landing while returning from New York with supplies. Thereafter Catharyna Brett continued to manage her holdings, becoming a well-respected businesswoman.
Unlike the Verplancks, Livingstons, and other landowners, Madam Brett was not averse to selling land to settlers, although often retaining the right to build a mill. Of paramount importance was the commerce in flour. During the first third of the nineteenth century, Dutchess County ranked first among New York State counties in wheat production, supplying one third of all the flour produced in the State. Madam Brett laid out a free road over her property from the river eastward to the limits of her lands. “Madam Brett’s Road” (now, route 52) ran from Fishkill Landing through Matteawan to Fishkill. The mill thrived, attracting farmers from both sides of the river. Wheat and corn were ground into flour and meal, and shipped to New York. In 1748, Madam Brett, with eighteen others, entered into an agreement for the building of the Frankfort Store House. which stood near the water at the "Lower Landing" north of Dennings Point. This was the origin of river freighting. Fishkill Landing developed into a river port. As early as 1780 two dozen vessels operated out of Fishkill Landing.
The early development of Fishkill Landing was due in no small part to the enterprises of John Peter DeWint.  DeWint was born in Tappan in 1787. His father was a Dutchman who came to New York from the West Indies. The DeWint house in Tappan was one of George Washington's headquarters during the Revolution. In September 11, 1814 John Peter DeWint married Caroline Smith, granddaughter of John Adams. DeWint owned 2,000 acres at Fishkill Landing, a gift from his father; and held property and business interests across the river in Newburgh. In 1815 he built the Long Dock. He had a shipyard on the river just south of the Long Dock, and interests in the freight business which for many years was conducted by sloops for the Long Dock as well as the Lower and Upper Landings. In 1828 Cornelius Carman of Low Point, (present day Chelsea), built for DeWint and Carpenter, the Plow Boy, the first steam-powered ferry between Fishkill Landing and Newburgh. The Fishkill Landing post office was established in 1804. DeWint purchased the Bogardus-DeWindt House and lands as part of his Cedar Grove estate. His mother, Elizabeth, moved there in 1825. DeWint's original homestead was located on the river just north of Fishkill Landing, but was destroyed by fire in 1862. He donated land for the Dutch parsonage and burial grounds. John Peter DeWint died on November 18, 1870.
Between the voyages of the Half Moon and the Clermont there were two centuries when sloops conducted much of the river traffic. The sloop is of Dutch origin. In its simplest form, it is a vessel of one mast, carrying a mainsail, jib, and generally a topsail. For steering, a long tiller was used. Sloops were a favorite means of travel, and for the shipping of light articles, parcels, and letters. Frequently, better time was made the sloop than by the stagecoach. The Caroline, built by John Peter DeWint and named in honor of his daughter, once made the sixty miles from New York to Fishkill Landing in five hours.
Matteawan was situated on the Fishkill Creek about a mile and a half east of Fishkill Landing, and a like distance above the mouth of the creek, whose hydraulic properties contributed to its development as a manufacturing center. It lay at the foot of the Fishkill Mountains, and was a station on both the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut, and the New York & New England Railroads, and was connected with the Fishkill Landing by stage, and rail. The first settlers were Roger and Catharyna Brett, who in 1709 built a home further upstream from their original location.
Ferry service between the future locations of both Beacon and Newburgh had existed in some form at least since 1743. By the early 20th century the fleet had grown to three 160-foot (49 m) coal-fired ferries, the Orange, Dutchess and Beacon, capable of carrying 30 vehicles each. It linked the two segments of NY 52, the major east-west artery at that point. Increasing traffic on 52 by midcentury, however, coupled with the building of the New York State Thruway in the Hudson corridor, was straining the ferry beyond its breaking point. The state's Department of Public Works began planning for a bridge, but it was not a serious possibility until federal money became available through the construction of Interstate 84. Beacon is serviced weekdays by a commuter ferry, The Newburgh-Beacon Ferry, over the Hudson between both cities which helps alleviate traffic to the Beacon Train Station from Orange County commuters. The ferry's route runs between Beacon City Harbor and Newburgh City Waterfront.
The city served a variety of roles during the Revolutionary War. It manufactured war supplies, and served as a fort and signaling point. The city's name came from signal fires that were atop nearby Mount Beacon. During the 1800s, the city became a factory town and was known as "The Hat Making Capital of the US" with nearly 50 hat factories operating at one time.
During the 1960s, urban renewal led to the destruction of some significant historic buildings. In the late 1970s, the Dutchess Ski area, which had been a large tourist attraction, was closed. Also in the 1970s, a decline in the economy shuttered most of the factories. This decline quickly became a severe and ongoing economic downturn that lasted from about 1970 to the late 1990s, during which almost 80 percent of the city's commercial business spaces and factories were vacant. Starting in the late 1990s, with the opening of one of the world's largest contemporary art museums Dia: Beacon, Beacon began an artistic and commercial rebirth. New development continues to enlarge the city. Currently, the two largest planned projects are a waterfront hotel and conference center, and "The Rivers and Estuaries Center" on Dennings Point.
Beginning on February 24, 2010, a massive snowstorm affected the city and surroundings. On February 25, Mayor Steve Gold enacted a State Of Emergency, due to total snow accumulations in excess of three feet. The city was without electricity and gas services for over two days.
Beacon is home to one of a handful operating "dummy lights" in the United States, located at the intersection of Main and East Main Streets. It is a traffic signal on a pedestal which sits in the middle of an intersection, dating back to the 1920s. Two others are located in New York, in Canajoharie and Croton-on-Hudson.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles (13 km2), of which 4.8 square miles (12 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) is water. The total area is 2.25% water.
Located on the eastern shore of the Hudson River, Beacon is noted for its proximity to numerous historic sites and large cities. It is located minutes away from Bannerman's Castle and West Point. Beacon also sits with the famous Mount Beacon as its backdrop and the Hudson River as its front door. The city also is located across the river from its larger sister city, Newburgh. Beacon is just 20 minutes south of the Hudson Valley Region Capital City, Poughkeepsie. In addition, Danbury, Connecticut is located to the east and New York City is to the south.
The city includes the following neighborhoods:
- River Side Section
- Mountain Side Section
- North Tree Streets
- South Tree Streets
- Business District (Main Street Area)—revitalized over the last decade with artists studios, shops and restaurants
- "Davies" or "The Apartments" (Section of City with a Concentrated Area of Public Housing on South Ave)
- "Forrestal Heights"—This also is partially populated by elderly fixed income persons in the one high rise buildings in the complex and welfare recipients in the two story apartments in the surrounding neighborhood.
- "The Derk" (Neighborhood East of Fishkill Creek along E. Main, centered around Beacon Fire Station 1)
Byrnsville, or Tioronda, was a hamlet near the mouth of the Fishkill, about a mile south of Fishkill Landing, and contained the Tioronda Hat Works. In 1880 it had a population of two hundred and seventeen. The Hat Works occupied the site of an old cotton-mill at this place which failed before 1850. A grist and saw-mill were subsequently built on the site but torn down by Lewis Tompkins in 1878 when the Hat Works were erected. A little below these works is the former site of the Madam Brett grist-mill, for which this has been mistaken.
Groveville derives its name from the extensive oak grove which formerly occupied the site. There was a grist mill at Groveville from a very early day, owned about 1820 by Samuel Upton, a Quaker. who acquired it from Abraham Dubois. Upton also erected on the opposite side of the race a stone building which he used as a fulling mill. Sometime after 1840, the property, was sold it to the Glenham Co., who converted it to a woolen mill, and did carding,spinning and weaving.
The first several blocks of Main Street east of its junction with South Avenue constitutes the Lower Main Street Historic District and features many small businesses located in vintage Italianate-style buildings.
- Madam Brett Homestead, 50 Van Nydeck Avenue: the oldest building in Dutchess County, and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
- Bogardus-DeWindt House is located on Tompkins Avenue, a short distance west of NY 9D, in Beacon, New York, United States. It typifies the houses built in the region between 1750 and 1830. It was included on the National Register of Historic Places on April 19, 1993.
- Denning's Point is a peninsula that extends into the Hudson River. It was known as "DePeyster's Point" until Adjutant-General William Denning purchased the land in 1785. The land has been the site of a brickyard and other industries. It is now the location of The Beacon Institute for Rivers and Estuaries. There is evidence that Alexander Hamilton lived on Denning's Point during the Revolutionary War and started crafting The Federalist Papers while living at this location.
- Eustatia is a brick cottage in the Victorian Gothic style overlooking the Hudson River on Monell Place. It was built in 1867 to designs by Frederick Clarke Withers for his friend John Monell. Monell had recently married Caroline DeWindt Downing, widow of the influential Newburgh architect Andrew Jackson Downing, with whom Withers had worked. They built the house on property deeded to them by her father, John DeWindt. Its original form and appearance have remained largely intact since its construction. In 1979 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
- The Howland Cultural Center, also known as Howland Library, is the former public library building, located on Main Street. It was designed in 1872 by Richard Morris Hunt, brother-in-law of Joseph Howland. He was one of a committee of ten local benefactors who had joined to establish a library for their city, and commissioned Hunt for the job. When the library opened, its 2,200-volume collection was available only to subscribers. Later the library opened to the general public, but by 1976 the collection needed more space and so the library moved down Main Street. The old library building is now in the hands of a private non-profit organization, the Howland Cultural Center, which presents art exhibitions and other cultural activities. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 5, 1973.
- Reformed Church of Beacon, originally the Reformed Dutch Church of Fishkill Landing, is a congregation of the Reformed Church in America. The oldest church in Beacon, the congregation was established in 1813. It overlooks the Hudson River from the top of a bluff. The church and its cemetery were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.
The 2010 United States census listed the population at 15,541. The census of 2000 placed the city's population at 13,808 people. The census also showed that the city has 5,091 households and 3,360 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,891.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,115.3/km²), based on the census population of 13,808. There are 5,406 housing units at an average density of 1,132.1 per square mile (436.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 9,440 or 68.37% White and 4,368 or 31.63% Minority. The minority population is dominated by African Americans at 2,713 residents or 19.65%, then followed by Hispanic or Latino which make up 2,334 residents or 16.90% of the city. Smaller minority groups include 956 residents or 6.92% from other races, 181 residents or 1.31% Asian, 43 residents or 0.31% Native American, and 0.00% Pacific Islander. Also, the city includes 475 residents or 3.44% identifying themselves as two or more races.
Based on census data showing 5,091 households, 34.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% are married couples living together, 16.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% are non-families. 28.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.23.
Of the city's total population, 27.1% are under the age of 18, 7.1% are between 18 and 24, 31.9% are between 25 and 44, 21.7% are between 45 and 64, and 12.2% are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females there are 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $45,236, and the median income for a family is $53,811. Males have a median income of $40,949 versus $29,154 for females. The per capita income for the city is $20,654. 1,465 residents or 11% of the population and 310 families or 9.1% of the total number of families are living below the poverty line. Of the total population, 834 residents or 11% of those under the age of 18, and 99 residents or 8.6% of those 65 and older, are living below the poverty line. The city's housing stock is currently composed of 10% subsidized housing, of which about 400 units are state and federal housing projects.
Beacon is governed via the mayor-council system. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council consists of six members. Two are elected at-large. The other four are elected from one of four wards.
The City of Beacon participates in the Dutchess County Department of Emergency Response. All calls for police are routed to the City of Beacon Police who dispatch their vehicles to the call. All calls for fire or medical assistance are dispatched by the County Department of Emergency Response. The City of Beacon Fire Department is a combination Paid and Volunteer Department that provides fire suppression, rescue, and emergency medical first response for the city. Beacon Volunteer Ambulance Corps is a combination paid and volunteer agency that provides Basic Life Support and Mobile Life Support Services provide Advanced Life Support medical care within the city.
Museums and institutes
- Dia:Beacon: contemporary arts museum. (in city)
- The Beacon Institute of Rivers and Estuaries: a major river and estuary research institute. (in city)
- Beacon Theatre (Beacon, New York): a small performance venue that occupies the second floor of the once historic Beacon Theatre (now converted into apartments).
Parks and recreation
- Bannerman Castle Trust: in connection with the Beacon Historical Society.
- Forrestal Park: connected to Forrestal Elementary on Liberty Street this large playground with a basketball court is a longtime favorite with locals. (in city)
- Green Street Park: neighborhood park located in the Mountain Side Section of the city (in city)
- Hammond Field: neighborhood park located in the River Side Section of the City that is primarily used for the city school district functions. Is the home of the "Beacon Bulldogs" Track and Football venues. (in city)
- Hudson Highlands State Park: state park located behind and just south of the city. A very large state park that covers Mount Beacon. (1–3 minutes east and south of city)
- Memorial Park: located in the center of the city and serves as the city's "Central Park". It is the city's primary park and many civic events are hosted there. (in city)
- Mt. Beacon Park: the hiking trails in and around the Mt. Beacon Incline Railway
- Riverfront Park: The City's riverfront park, which is located on a peninsula jutting out into the Hudson River. A very active park that hosts numerous events. (in city)
- River Pool at Beacon: a project for cleaning up the Hudson River and allowing a safe place to swim.
- South Ave Park: housing project park for the Forrestal Heights Houses. Primarily used for the Beacon Hoops program, a city youth basketball program. (in city)
- University Settlement Park: owned by the city and operated by the Department of Parks and Recreation. It includes a theater space that is available for rental. It is also home to The Beacon Pool, and an outdoor pool that is 140 feet by 50 feet and is open to the community in the summer. (in city)
- Beacon Sloop Club: started in 1978 to promote recreation, sound ecological practices, and environmental awareness of the Hudson River. The BSC offers free rides to the public on the Sloop Woody Guthrie, teaches seamanship to its volunteers, and maintains the harbor.
Beacon's most major route is Interstate 84 (I-84), which passes through the city's north side, providing a connection that is minutes to the Taconic State Parkway, New York State Thruway, and Stewart International Airport. The city also has the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge which carries the Interstate Highway over the Hudson River.
New York State Route 9D (NY 9D) serves as the city's north-south arterial. It starts at the city's north side and wraps around the city to its south side. The city also has NY 52 Business, which begins in the city's west side at NY 9D and runs across the middle of the city to I-84 east of the city limits.
From 1902 to 1978, the Mount Beacon Incline Railway was one of the steepest incline railways in existence (a 74% grade). It took an estimated 3.5 million people up to the 1,540-foot (470 m) summit of Mount Beacon. Fire and vandalism destroyed the incline railway. There is now a movement to restore it.
Duchess County's LOOP transportation system operates public bus service in and near Beacon on weekdays and Saturdays. One line (Route A) travels from downtown Beacon northeast on NY 52 to Fishkill and north on U.S. Route 9 (US 9) through Wappingers Falls to South Hills Mall, Poughkeepsie Galleria and downtown Poughkeepsie. Another line (Route B) travels from Beacon north to Poughkeepsie along NY 9D and US 9. A third line (Route F) travels northeast from Beacon through Fishkill to Hopewell Junction.
Beacon also has its own shuttle service, which runs on Sundays (unlike the LOOP buses).
An amateur rugby club, The Hudson Valley Rebels, are composed of a Women's Rugby team (formed in 2005), and a Men's team (started in 2002). The club practices beginning mid-March at the Beacon Memorial Park on Tuesdays and Thursdays at 6:00pm. All are welcome to come join, 18 or older. No experience is necessary. For details, visit: www.hvrugby.com.
A disc golf ("frisbee golf") course was constructed in the woods and fields of the University Settlement camp in 2011. Parking for the course is located on NY 9D when entering Beacon from the south. This 18-hole course, "Beacon Glades", is free and open to the public. Stroke-play tournaments are occasionally held. A weekly 2-person scramble tournament is held every Wednesday at 6:30pm during the summer.
- Hudson Valley Renegades: Class A Minor League Baseball Team for the Tampa Bay Rays. Team plays out of Dutchess Stadium located in neighboring Fishkill (3–5 minutes north of city). The team is a member of the New York–Penn League.
- Hudson Valley Hawks: semi-professional basketball of the National Professional Basketball League. Played their games at Beacon High School.
- The Hudson Valley Bears were one of four founding members of the Eastern Professional Hockey League (2008–09). They played their home games at the Mid-Hudson Civic Center in nearby Poughkeepsie.
- The Hudson Valley Highlanders of the North American Football League played their home games at Dietz Stadium in nearby Kingston.
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- Melio Bettina, boxer, World Light Heavyweight Champion in 1939. A small street in the city's center is named in his honor.
- Wallace E. Conkling (1896–1979), 7th bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago, was born and raised in Matteawan (now part of Beacon).
- James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy 1944-1947 and Secretary of Defense from 1947-1949. One of the city's four elementary schools and one of its federal housing projects is named in his honor.
- Paul Lavalle, conductor, composer, arranger and performer. Notable for his contribution to numerous radio shows throughout the 1940s, he was selected to be the conductor for the famous Band of America in 1948. In the 1960s, he was instrumental in forming what became the 100-member McDonald's All-American High School Band which participated in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade and Tournament of Roses Parade.
- Robert Montgomery, actor and director who served as head of the Screen Actors Guild in 1935 and 1946, born in Fishkill Landing (now Beacon). He was also a Lieutenant Commander in the US Navy during WWII and father of actress Elizabeth Montgomery (star of Bewitched).
- Digger Phelps, head basketball coach at Notre Dame (1972–91), won more games (393) than any coach in school history; later a television commentator. For a time early in his career he coached junior varsity basketball in Beacon. A small street off west Main Street is named in his honor.
- Ann Rondeau, retired US Navy Vice Admiral served as the president, National Defense University (NDU), which is the premier center for Joint Professional Military Education and is under the direction of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- Tony Acquaviva,was an American composer, conductor and string instrumentalist, and the founder of the New York Pops Symphony Orchestra. A graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point he married singer Joni James in 1956 at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City. His father, Mike Acquaviva ran a barber shop on Main Street for many years.
- Jacob M. Appel, author, psychiatrist, ethicist, is a long-term summer resident.
- Joseph Bertolozzi, composer, musician, and creator of the Bridge Music and Tower Music projects, is a resident of Beacon
- Mel Birnkrant, toy designer and collector known for his extensive collection of Mickey Mouse and other toys of pre-World War II comics characters. He was the creator of numerous toys such as Weenies, the Outer Space Men, the Magic Diaper Babies, Baby Face and the Trash Bag Bunch - to name but a few. He was also the Creative Director of Colorforms for over two decades 
- Richard Butler, painter, musician, lead singer of the Psychedelic Furs
- William Few, a Founding Father of the United States
- Helen Hayes, actress who won the Academy Award for her performances in The Sin of Madelon Claudet (1931) and Airport (1970)
- Joseph Howland, civil war general and philanthropist
- Bruce Molsky, old-time fiddler, guitarist, and singer
- David Rees, cartoonist and humorist
- Pete Seeger, folk singer, political and social activist
- Toshi Seeger, environmental activist and filmmaker
- Clifford Shull, Nobel Prize-winning physicist
- Doug and Mike Starn
- Elmer Steele, Major League Baseball pitcher who played for Boston, Pittsburgh, and Brooklyn from 1907 to 1911
Major motion pictures:
- War of the Worlds (2005): The movie's production studio, Paramount, stated that a scene was shot in the city during its 2004 filming.
- Drowning Mona: The movie's production studio, Code Entertainment, claims that the movie was based and partially filmed in the city during its 1999 filming. The movie was based in the city and scenes were shot in the city.
- Super Troopers: Film was based in the city and the "Town Cop" scenes as well as most of the inside scenes were filmed in the city in 1999. Started out as an underground film and then became a very popular "teen comedy" movie.
- Nobody's Fool: Filmed largely in the home of the Schneider family. Many other scenes were filmed in the city in 1994, most notably three or four scenes that showed Main Street's "Main St., USA" appeal. The movie featured an all-star cast with Paul Newman and Bruce Willis. Jessica Tandy's last film.
- Transformers: Dark of the Moon: Bannerman's Island seen for a brief moment during movie
- The Winning Season: Various exterior shots were filmed in Beacon.
Short-length black-and-white films:
- The Red Man's View: A cowboy and Indian movie filmed entirely on Mt. Beacon in 1909.
- Down the Mountainside, Turning Panorama of Mt Beacon, A Stern Chase, and Down the Mountainside: A release of the 1902 B&W short films of views from the "World's Steepest Incline Railway", Mt. Beacon's Incline Railway.
- Seinfeld: In the final episode in which Jerry, Elaine, George and Kramer are arrested for a "Duty to Rescue" violation (when they witness an overweight man being robbed yet do nothing to help), the exterior of the jail-house shown was a shot of the former Beacon Police Department at 463 Main Street.
- People of Earth: The TBS show starring Wyatt Cenac is largely set in Beacon.
- Beacon City Schools
- Beacon Correctional Facility
- Sloop Woody Guthrie
- St. Joachim and St. John the Evangelist's Church (Beacon, New York)
Notes and references
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Full text of "Dutchess county"". archive.org. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Verplanck, William E., "The Town of Fishkill" in Hasbrouck's History of Dutchess County
- "Notable Women" (PDF). Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Carthage Landing". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Verplanck, Wm. E. and Collyer, Moses W., The Sloops of the Hudson, G.P.Putnam's Sons, New York, 1908
- Smith, James H., "Matteawan" in History of Dutchess County, Chapter XLIV, 1882
- Smith, James Hadden, History of Dutchess County with Illustrations and Biographical Sketch,Syracuse, D. Mason & Co., 1882
- "Guide to Museums, Historical Organizations, Local Historians, Libraries / Dutchess - Orange - Putnam - Rockland - Ulster - Westchester - Bronx", published by the Lower Hudson Conference in Elmsford, N.Y., second edition, 1989.
- "Denning's Point: History and Brick Works". brickcollecting.com. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Denning's Point: A Hudson River History from 4000 BC to the 21st Century". books.google.com. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Beacon, NY Population". Census Viewer. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "LOOP Bus Schedules". Division of Mass Transit. Duchess County, NY, Government. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
- "Schedule: Route A Northbound - Beacon to Poughkeepskie". Map your LOOP Route. Duchess County, NY, Government. 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
- "Schedule: Route B Northbound - Beacon to Poughkeepskie". Map your LOOP Route. Duchess County, NY, Government. 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-01..
- "Schedule: Route F Eastbound - Beacon to Hopewell Jct". Map your LOOP Route. Duchess County, NY, Government. 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
- "Fitness Center / Pool Beacon High School".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-07-23. Retrieved 2006-02-01.
- Birnkrant, Mel. "Vintage Comic Characters Collection". www.melbirnkrant.com. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Martin, Douglas (2013-07-11). "Toshi Seeger, Wife of Folk-Singing Legend, Dies at 91". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Clifford G. Shull - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Confirmed via Internet Movie Database
- Confirmed via the Internet Movie Database
- Cronin, Brian PJ (30 October 2016). "Star-Crossed Beacon". Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- City of Beacon. Canajoharie, New York: Credits. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Croton-on-Hudson Historical Society. Canajoharie, New York: Credits. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Villages of Canajoharie & Palatine Bridge. Canajoharie, New York: Credits. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Fishkill Landing.|