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|Regions with significant populations|
|Tulunadu, Chikmagalur district, Kodagu, Hassan district, Uttara Kannada, Persian Gulf States|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Nawayath, Mappilas, Labbay|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
|Islam in India|
The Beary (also known as Byari) is a community concentrated mostly along the southwest coast of India, in coastal Dakshina Kannada, a district in the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is an ethnic society, having its own unique traditions and distinct cultural identity. The Beary community holds an important place among the other coastal Muslim communities, like Nawayath's of the Uttara Kannada district, Mappilas (Moplahs) of the Malabar coast and Labbay of the Coromandel coast.
The Beary community of Dakshina Kannada or Tulunadu is one among the earliest Muslim inhabitants of India, with a clear history of more than 1350 years. One mosque was built in the Bunder area of Mangalore by Habeeb Bin Malik, an Arab Da'ee, in 644 A.D.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geographic distribution
- 3 Participation in the freedom struggle
- 4 Language
- 5 World Beary Convention
- 6 Ornaments
- 7 Cuisine
- 8 Beary organisations
- 9 References
- 10 Other sources
- 11 External links
The word 'Beary' is said to be derived from the Tulu word 'Byara', which means trade or business. Since the major portion of the community was involved in business activities, particularly trading, the local Tulu speaking majority called them as Beary or Byari.
According to the census of 1891, Dakshina Kannada had 92,449 businessmen consisting of 90,345 Bearys, 2,104 Nawayaths and 2,551 non-Muslims. This means that the district had 95,000 individuals involved in business activities. Records prove that, towards the end of the 19th century, the percentage of Muslim traders in the district was as high as 97.3%, and hence the local Tuluvas rightly named this community as Bearys.
Another popular theory is that the word "Beary" comes from Arabic word "Bahar" (Arabic: بحر). "Bahar" means "ocean" and "Bahri" (Arabic: بحري) means "sailor or navigator". It is said that the Beary community had trade relations with Arab businessmen travelling to coastal South India, especially the coastline of Tulunadu and Malabar. Inscriptions have been found in Barkur that proves the Arab trade links with Tulunadu.
A third theory says that the word "Beary" is derived from the root word "Malabar". The great Islamic Da'ee, Malik bin Deenar had arrived on the coast of Malabar during the 7th century with a group of Da'ees, or Islamic propagators. A member from his group, Habeeb bin Malik travelled through Tulunadu and preached Islam. He had also built mosques in Kasaragod, Mangalore and Barkur.
The Bearys make up around 80% of the Dakshina Kannada Muslims, with others scattered in the neighbouring districts of Chikmagalur, Shimoga, Kodagu, Hassan and Uttara Kannada. Mumbai and Goa also have a considerable Beary population. Also, a good number of Bearys are in the Persian Gulf States of the Middle East doing a variety of jobs. The total Beary population numbers about 1.5 million.
There are several documents available which prove that at least 90 years prior to the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim in North India, Arab Muslim businessmen were thriving in the south. This proves Islam was prevalent in South India much before Muslim conquerors came to North India. These facts are available in a research document Mykal, written by Ahmed Noori, who conducted a research on the Beary community in 1960.
Noori disputes the claim that the first Muslims came to India along with Alauddin Khalji between 1296–1316 AD and points out that according to renowned historian, Henry Miers Elliot, (The History of India as told by its own Historians, Part I) the first ship bearing Muslim travellers was seen on the Indian coast as early as 630 AD. H.G.(Hugh George) Rawlinson, in his book: Ancient and Medieval History of India, claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century AD. Bartholomew also has similar things to say about the early Muslim settlers in India. J. Sturrock in his Madras Districts Manuals: South Kanara, says that Parsi and Arab businessmen settled in different places of the Malabar coast during the 7th century. Ahmed Noori has quoted these and other sources to validate his argument that the Arab and other settlers came to India much before the Arab,Turk and Afghan conquerors came to North India.
Dr. Susheela P. Upadhyaya, a research scholar in Beary bashe and Beary folklore is of the opinion that the Indian west coast came under Islamic influence long before any other part of India was influenced by Islam or Muslims. Historical research also reveals that during the rule of Banga and Chowta dynasty in the 16th century, Beary men had served as seamen in the naval force. The Chowta dynasty queen, Rani Abbakka had personally supervised the construction of dam at Malali; she had appointed Bearys for boulder work.
An ancient historical work – Keralolpathi – reveals that a king of Malabar, Cheraman Perumal, embraced Islam during the very beginning days of the advent of Islam in the Arab land. Thus the Arabs had royal patronage to practice and propagate Islam in the Malabar area. They were also given the permission of sea trading with a royal patronage. Because of the Da'wah activities of Arab traders, many people from the down-trodden section of society embraced Islam and assumed better social status as Muslims.
The Portuguese lost their dominance during the rule of Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan in Mysore. During this period the Beary Muslims again received royal patronage and intensified their sea trade activities.
Participation in the freedom struggle
The Bearys of the coast actively participated in the Indian freedom struggle against Portugal and British colonialism. There were a number of Beary men who served in the naval force, and also as soldiers and military commanders in the army of brave queen of Chowta dynasty, Rani Abbakka (Kannada: ರಾಣಿ ಅಬ್ಬಕ್ಕ) who ruled in the Ullal region. The Bearys had also joined the army of Nawab Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan of Mysore. Historians and researchers have enlisted famous Beary personalities who participated in the freedom struggle of India. Many such freedom fighters were imprisoned by British, and a few died during imprisonment.
A sixteenth-century Arabic work of Malabar, Tuhfah al Mujahideen or Tuhafat Ul Mujahideen compiled by Shaikh Zainuddin Makhdoom II (grand son of Shaikh Zainuddin Makhdoom I) had motivated Malabar Muslims which had influence on Bearys of the Tulunadu as well to fight the foreign invaders. Thus the Bearys had actively participated in the freedom struggle against Portugal and British rule.
The dialect spoken by Beary (Byaris), is known as Beary Bashe. While Muslims of Uttara Kannada, called Nawayaths, speak a dialect of Konkani, and the Mappilas of Kerala speak Malayalam (Mappila Malayalam), the Bearys spoke a language made of Malayalam idioms with Tulu phonology and grammar. This dialect was traditionally known as Mappila Malayalam because of Bearys close contact with Mappilas. Due to vast influence of Tulu for centuries, it is today considered as a language, close to Malayalam and Tulu.
Beary bashe is largely influenced by the Arabic language. Most of the Bearys especially in coastal area still use a lot of Bearified Arabic words during their daily transactions. Saan, Pinhana, Gubboosu, Dabboosu, Pattir, Rakkasi, Seintaan, Kayeen, are the few words used in Beary bashe that have their roots in Arabic language. Beary Bashe also has words related to Tamil and Malayalam. Tamil and Malayalam speakers can understand Beary by about 75%.
World Beary Convention
The World Beary Convention was held 2006 in Dubai under the banner World Beary Sammelana & Chammana 2006.
The word Chammana stands for felicitation. Since the organizers felicitated a few Beary dignitaries during this world convention held in Dubai, UAE, the convention is called World Beary Sammelana & Chammana 2006. The Convention was also attended by several dignitaries which included Dr. B.K.Yusuf, President/Patron of Karnataka Sangha, Dubai, M.B. Abdul Rahiman, Renowned Lawyer and Notary, B.M. Farooque, managing director, Fiza Group, Shiraj Haji. Director Universal Export Tradeways. S.M. Syed Khalil, Galadai Group, Dubai, M.B. Noor Mohamed, MD. Fakruddin, managing director, Ajmal Group, Mel, Abdul Jaleel, Abdussalam Puthige, Editor in Chief, Varthabharathi Kannada Daily, Haju Jamalluddin, Chairman, Crescent School, Shamshudeen, P.T. Abdul Rahiman, General Secretary of Indian Islamic Centre, T.S. Shettigar, Jamalludin, Apsara Group, Dr. Viquar Azeem, Dr. Azad Moopen, Ganesh Rai, M.K. Madhavan, Kumar, Indian Association Dubai, Kanukaran Shetty, President Hotel, Prabhakar, KOD, K.P. Ahmed, Yaseen Malpe etc. Some Beary dignitaries have been facilitated during the convention.
World Beary Convention & Chammana 2010
Beary hosts a 2-day event, the World Beary Convention & Mega Cultural Event – Chammana 2010, held during 2 and 3 April 2010 at Zabil Ball Room, Radisson Blu Hotel, Creek Side, Dubai. During this convention Beary Personality of the year 2010 award was given to Mr. Mumtaz Ali, and Star of Bearys award for the year 2010 was conferred on Zakariya Bajpe.
Media of the Year award was jointly awarded to Varthabharathi a renowned Kannada daily (published from Mangalore and Bangalore) and Daijiworld.com, a web based newsportal, for their contribution towards media. Abdussalam Puthige, on behalf of Varta Bharti, and representatives of Daijiworld received the award from Mr. C. M. Ibrahim, Former Union Minister.
List of periodicals brought out by Bearys
|1||Jyothi||Kamal Hyder(editor) owner(Mohammed sherule)|
|2||Swatantra Bharata||Kamal Hyder|
|4||Human Affairs||Kamal Hyder|
|6||Sadakat Post||Raheem Ahmad|
|7||Udaya Chandra||F.H. Odeyar|
|8||Nawa Shakti||B.M.A. Rafeeq|
|9||Shanti Sandesh||Dr. M.M. Salih|
|10||Divya Vani||C.K. Hussain|
|14||Amaanat||Abdul Raheem Haji|
|15||Agni||K.H. Hussain Mulki|
|19||Apsara||Dr. Wahab Doddamane|
|20||Shikshakara Vani||J.M. Mohammed Master|
|21||Dharma Vani||Hameed Kandak|
|23||Nawaneet||Muhsin Haji Caup|
|24||Al Misbah||Dr. K.M. Shah Musliyar|
|25||Aalamul Huda||Dr. K.M. Shah Musliyar|
|26||Sarala Patha||Dr. K.M. Shah Musliyar|
|27||Sandesha||Abu Raihan Ahmed Noori|
|28||Kitaab||Abu Raihan Ahmed Noori|
|29||The Message||Abu Raihan Ahmed Noori|
|30||Mesco Varthe||Abul Hasan Muhammad Moulavi|
|31||AL Miftaah||B.M. Mohammed Mangalanti|
|32||Al Muneer||Saletore Aboobaker Faizi|
|33||Al Ihsan||Mohammed Ullal|
|34||Tawa Nidhi||Prof. B.M. Ichlangod|
|35||Media Times||Prof. B.M. Ichlangod|
|38||Al Ansar||Haji Ibrahim Bawa |
|39||Moilanji||Hamza saqafi Bantwal|
|40||Pavitra Sandesha||([South Karnataka Salafi Movement Mangalore])|
|42||Hi Puttur||Mittur Hameed Kandak|
|43||Ishara Patrike||Ismail Shafi|
|44||AL Aqsa||T.M. Haneef Maulavi|
|45||Puttur Mitra||Ibbatulla Kadaba|
|46||Pushpa Mandaara||Aziz Bajpe|
|47||Asar Vani||Aziz Bajpe|
|48||Jana Vahini||K.M. Khaid|
|51||Hasiru Bhoomi||T.H. Ibrahim Musliyar|
|52||Al Qamar||Shareef Moodabidri|
|53||Kodagu Kesari||B.A. Shamsuddin|
|54||Janadesha Patrike||U. Muhammad Nazeer|
|55||Nawa Keerti||B. M. Idinabba|
|56||Karawali Maruta||Iqbal Ahmed Kuthar|
|57||Encounter||Iqbal Ahmed Kuthar|
|58||Eye Special News||Iqbal Ahmed Kuthar|
|59||Lathi Charge||Ismail Moodushedde|
|60||Hello Mangalooru||Raheem Uchil|
|61||Noble Universe||B.M. Haneef|
|62||Islam and Science||S.E. Abdul Rahman|
|63||The Islamic Guidance||M Anwar Bajpe|
|64||Payaswini Sullia||M.B.M. Madani|
|65||Sunni Sndesha||K.M.S. Faizi|
|66||Baala Sandesha||K.M.S. Faizi|
|67||Samyukta Prabha||Mohammed Rafi|
|70||Beary Varthe||Basheer Baikampady|
|71||Beary Times||Kuwainda Hamzatullah|
|72||Kittale Naadu||Kuwainda Hamzatullah|
|74||Indian News||A.S. Anduka|
|75||Special News||Bawa Padrangi|
|76||Varthabharathi (kn:ವಾತಾ೯ ಭಾರತಿ)||Abdussalam Puthige|
|77||Mesco Varthe||Moulavi Abul Hasan|
|79||Sunni Vani||Muhyuddeen Kamil Saqafi Thoke|
|81||Sirathe musthaqeem||Da'wa Publications |
|82||Kusuma bala masika||-|
|84||Bearys of Tulunadu||Prof.B.M. Ichlangod|
Some of these periodicals are still being published and reaching to the hands of a sizeable population of Tulunadu and other adjacent districts and to the Persian Gulf States.
Paunaraga of Maikala
Before the advent of the Portuguese, Maikala or Mangalore was one of the main centres of Jains with many Jain Muts, Basadis and also palaces. Especially the Bunder area Maikala was dominated by rich Jain houses. The Jains who enjoyed economical and social status maintained a system known as Jaina Beedu, which literally means Jain House.
Later when these Jains embraced Islam, they still maintained this Beedu system as status symbol. Beedu can be translated in Beary bashe as Aga which means House. The Paunar Aga or Paunaraga – which literally means sixteen houses – of high status are listed in the table below.
16 Houses of Beedu
These houses enjoyed supreme social status amongst Bearys throughout the 19th century and treated other Bearys as second-class citizens. The people belonging to these houses were identified as Agakkar which means the People of the House. The history of these houses has a short-lived glory that these houses enjoyed socially and economically. Many of the social customs that the people of Paunaraga observed were special to them and had no roots in Islam.
Thus the lifestyle of Agakkar of the Beary community was largely influenced by Jains. Most of the ornaments used by Agakkar was of Jain pattern and had Jain names. Kharjana is the jewel box used by both Jains and Bearys. Today the people of Paunaraga or Agakkar have lost their social and economic status but some of the houses still remain in Bunder area. Their surnames tell the glory once they enjoyed.
Next to Agakkar comes Taalakkar and then Taala-illatavar. All these system the Bearys maintained in the olden days which they inherited from local people. However these systems are vanished with the advent of Islamic literature of late.
Some peculiar names of Bearys
Typically, Muslim community people name their children for Arabic roots. But olden day Bearys had some strange names which are not seen anywhere else in the Muslim world. Although those peculiar names are now vanishing, here are some such examples:
Kayiri, Sayiri, Sayirabba, Cheyya, Cheyyabba, Saunhi, Kayinhi, Sekunhi, Baduva, Mayabba, Puthabba, Hammabba, Cheyyabba, Ijjabba, Kunha, Kunhi, Bava, Bavunhi, Kunhibavu, Puttubavu, Unha, Unhi, Unhimon,, Iddinabba, Podiya, Podimonu, Pallikunhi, Kunhipalli, Kidavaka, Abbu, Abbonu, Chakaka, Addiyaka (Addi), Pudiyampule.
|1||Muslims in Dakshina Kannada||Dr. A. Wahab Doddamane|
|2||English – Kannada – Beary: dictionary*||Dr. A. Wahab Doddamane|
|3||Maikala*||Abu Raihan Ahmed Noori|
|4||Beary bashe matthu Jaanapada Kathegalu*||Dr. Susheela Upadhyaya|
|5||Tulunada Muslimaru*||Prof. B.M. Ichlangod|
Mallige Balli (The Jasmine Shrub)
Abdul Raheem Teekay
U.A. Kasim Ullal
- These books are available at the largest library in the world, the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., US.
The beary women has excessive love for ornaments and uses it on every possible occasion such as Mangila, Sunnat Mangila, Appate Mangila, Birnd, Moilanji and other social gatherings. There were different types of ornaments used by beary community in past which is at the verge of vanishing today due to the cultural invasion and urbanisation. These ornaments are made out of mainly gold and silver and used for the ornamentation of head, ears, neck, waist, wrist, fingers and feet. Beary research scholars are of the opinion that Beary ornaments were largely influenced by Jain ornament patterns. The ornament storage box used by Bearys was made out of brass and other metals was also used by Jain community and was called Kharjana by both Bearys and Jains.
Beary cuisine is highly influenced by the South Indian Cuisine. Just like Mangalorean cuisine it uses a lot of coconut, curry leaves, ginger, chilli and spices like pepper and cardamom. Beary cuisine boasts of a special kind of biryani, which is very different from the other types made elsewhere. Rice preparations, both fresh and dry fish, meat and eggs enjoy top place in Beary daily menu.
A few traditional dishes very popular amongst all the Tulu communities have unique names in Beary dialect. Pindi/pinde, basale-pinde, kunhi-pinde, erchiro-pinde, bisaliyappa (bisali beetiye appa/kaltappa), tondaredo-appa (syame), guliyappa, muttere-appa, neiyappa/nei-appa, chekkero-appa, manhel elero appa, acchi-appa, daliyappa, baale-appa, pondatte-appa, sank-roli, pattir (a distorted version of Arabic fatirah), nei pattir, pole, poo-pole, pulcho-pole, vodu-pole, uppu-molavu, kanhi, methero-kanhi, nei-kanhi, kulte kanhi, manni, nombure kanchi, pirni etc. are to name a few.
Today the Beary community of coastal Karnataka is surging ahead in diverse fields like international business, education, medicine and technology. Bearys have also formed various social and cultural organisations of diversified interests. Beary's Welfare Association, Bangalore Beary's Welfare Association is based in Bengaluru the capital of Karnataka state. The association came into being on 21 March 1988 with a motive to provide a means of communication and integration, and also to provide a platform to work towards the betterment of the Beary community in all aspects of life.[better source needed]
Beary Welfare Association has organised a number of cultural programs every year right from its very inception. Beary Prakashana is its sister concern and involved in print and publication activities. It has published a number of titles on Beary culture, Beary bashe, Beary history, and also on research studies on Bearys.
Bearys Welfare Forum (BWF), Abu Dhabi
Bearys Welfare Forum of Abu Dhabi, popularly known as BWF is an association of Beary expatriats in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. It does community activities and mainly community welfare activities.,
BWF was established in the year 2004 with an intention of working for all sections of the society. It has helped the victims of communal riots in Mangalore by providing medical assistance and other aids. The BWF gained popularity when it held mass marriage ceremony of twelve pairs of poor and deserving youth at the Shadi Mahal of Mangalore city.
Bearys Welfare Forum, Abu Dhabi, organised a mass wedding ceremony at Milagres Auditorium, here on Monday 13 July 2009. Sixteen couples were solemnised in marriage by Kazi Al Haj Abdulla Musliar Chembarika.
Bearys Cultural Forum (BCF), UAE
Bearys Cultural Forum (BCF), UAE was constituted to provide education to the poor masses of the coastal parts of the State of Karnataka. BCF's main objective is to promote, educate and create social, cultural and educational awareness amongst the Bearys and the downtrodden population of the coastal Karnataka State and the UAE. The BCF regularly conducts cultural, sports, talent search, educational activities, Career Guidance Seminars, Iftar Party, etc. every year. BCF also provides educational scholarship to the poor downtrodden students for pursuing their higher studies in the field of Medicines, Engineering, Pharmacy, business, nursing, Journalism, Dentistry, etc. BCF is now committed to conduct "World Beary Convention & Chammana 2010" in Dubai, U.A.E.
M.G Rahim (Capman Media Makers )
M.G Rahim has been active in 'Beary Movement' for the last eight years. It has felicitated Beary poets, writers and others who have come up with remarkable achievements in the society. "beary naseehath majlis", "Surmatho Kannu", "Maafi Mushkil", "Pernal nilaavu", "Moilanjipoo", "Maikalthoraja", and stage programme beary oppane kali, beary kolkali, pernal nilaavu, Eid special programme on costal T.V channel yearly are some of the productions of Capman Media Makers.
- Newspaper: The Hindu, Saturday, 13 Oct 2007 Archived 5 February 2012 at WebCite
- Ahmed Noori, Maikala, Preface to 1st edition (1960)
- Ichlangod B.M., Tulunada Muslimaru – Byari Samskruti p.19 (1997)
- Gopalan Nair C, Moplas of Malabar p.20-21
- Ahmed Noori, Maikala, II edition, p.11 (1997)
- Ahmed Noori, Maikala p.17 (1960)
- Ichlangod B.M., Tulunada Muslimaru – Byari Samskruti p. 39 (1997)
- The Hindu, Saturday, 13 Oct 2007 Archived 5 February 2012 at WebCite
- ISBN 81-86050-79-5 Ancient and Medieval History of India
- Dr. Susheela P. Upadhyaya, Beary Bashe mattu Janapada Kathegalu, p. 5 (1997)
- Dr. Susheela P. Upadhyaya, Beary Bashe mattu Janapada Kathegalu, p. 7 (1997)
- Dr. Susheela P. Upadhyaya, Beary Bashe mattu Janapada Kathegalu, p. 9(1997)
- Upadhyaya, U. Padmanabha. Coastal Karnataka: Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 1996.P- ix . ISBN 81-86668-06-3 . First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvananthapuram, 1973
- Arabic and other language influence Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Daijiworld Online, Tuesday, 6 November 2007
- Dubai : World Beary Convention Kicks off in Style
- Dubai: Beary Fraternity comes together at the World Beary Convention
- World Beary Convention in Dubai on 1, 2 April
- Ichlangod B.M., Tulunada Muslimaru – Byari Samskruti p.50 (1997)
- Ichlangod B.M., Tulunada Muslimaru – Byari Samskruti p.76 (1997)
- Beary's Welfare Association
- BWF Felicitates U T Khader at Mangalore
- Bearys Welfare Forum holds Iftar at Abu Dhabi
- Anupama monthly, March 2008, page 28
- Capman Media Newly started Online News Named http://www.bearyvoice.com News about of Capman Media Makers
- Bearys of the coast, Article in Deccan Herald 12 December 1997 by B.M Hanif.
- H.G. Rawlinson, Ancient and Medieval History of India
- Sturrock, J., Madras District Manual. South Kanara (2 vols., Madras, 1894–1895).
- Influence of Muslim thought on the east  retrieved 21 May 2006.
- Muslims in Dakshina Kannada: a historical study up to 1947 and survey of recent developments, Author Wahab Doddamane, A. Green Words publication. Mangalore, 1993 
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Zeenath Baksh Juma Masjid
- Another link on Zeenath Baksh Juma Masjid
- Web page with information on Bearys
- Vijay Times' Article on Ahmed Noori
- Article on Beary's claim to a distinct ethnic identity
- Bearys Welfare Association Home Page
- The Arabi-Malayalam Script
- Arabi-Malayalam history
- References to Zainudhin Makhdum II
- More references to Zainudhin Makhdum II
- The Beary Welfare Association press release
- Beary lyricist and composer
- Beary book on Namaz (Islamic prayer)
- Article which refutes claim that Beary bashe is only spoken by Muslims
- Beary community mentioned in Coorg based website
- Kudroli Jamia Masjid website