Beatrice Shilling and her Norton motorcycle
8 March 1909|
|Died||18 November 1990(aged 81)|
|Engineering discipline||Aeronautical Engineering|
|Institution memberships||Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Women's Engineering Society
|Employer(s)||Royal Aircraft Establishment|
|Significant projects||Rolls-Royce Merlin|
|Significant advance||Aircraft engine|
Beatrice (Tilly) Shilling OBE PhD MSc CEng (8 March 1909 – 18 November 1990) was a British aeronautical engineer and motor racer. During World War II, she invented "Miss Shilling's orifice", a fix for the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines of the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire fighters, which prevented engine flooding in a dive.
Shilling raced motorcycles in the 1930s, and after the war raced automobiles.
Shilling was born at Waterlooville, Hampshire, the daughter of a butcher. At age 14, she bought herself a motorcycle, which she tinkered with; she was already determined to become an engineer. After completing secondary school, she worked for an electrical engineering company for three years, installing wiring and generators. Her employer, Margaret Partridge, encouraged her to study electrical engineering at the University of Manchester; she received a bachelor's degree in 1932 and stayed on for a year to get a Master of Science degree in mechanical engineering. Jobs were hard to find in the Depression; she worked as a research assistant for Professor G. F. Mucklow at the University of Birmingham. In 1936 she was hired as a scientific officer by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), the research and development agency of the Royal Air Force (RAF) in Farnborough, Hampshire. She worked at RAE until her retirement in 1969.
World War II
Shilling worked on many projects for RAE during the war.
During the Battle of France and Battle of Britain in 1940, RAF discovered pilots a serious problem in fighter planes with Merlin engines, such as the Hurricane and Spitfire. When the plane went nose-down to begin a dive, the resulting negative g-force would flood the engine's carburettor, causing the engine to stall.
German fighters used fuel injection engines and did not have this problem. So in combat, a German fighter could evade a pursuing RAF fighter by flying a negative g maneuver which the RAF plane couldn't follow.
Shilling devised the R.A.E. restrictor to solve this problem. It was a small metal disc with a hole in the middle, fitted into the engine's carburettor. The disk limited maximum fuel flow and prevented flooding. By March 1941, she had led a small team on a tour of RAF fighter bases, installing the devices in their Merlin engines. The restrictor was immensely popular with pilots, who affectionately named it 'Miss Shilling's orifice' or simply the 'Tilly orifice.' It continued in use as a stop-gap until the introduction of the pressure carburettor in 1943.
After the war, Shilling worked on a variety of projects including the Blue Streak missile and the effect of a wet runway upon braking. Shilling was once described by a fellow scientist as "a flaming pathfinder of women's lib"; she always rejected any suggestion that as a woman she might be inferior to a man in technical and scientific fields. However, her brusque manner and contempt for bureaucracy led to an uneasy relationship with management. Shilling worked for the RAE until 1969, but never achieved high rank within the organization.
In the 1930s, Shilling raced motorcycles. She beat professional riders, such as Noel Pope, and was awarded the Gold Star for lapping the Brooklands circuit at 106 miles per hour (171 km/h) on her Norton M30.
Shilling married George Naylor, in September 1938. He also worked at the RAE. According to anecdote, she refused to marry him until he also had been awarded the Brooklands Gold Star for lapping the circuit at over 100 mph. During World War II he was a bomber pilot with No. 625 Squadron RAF and reached the rank of Wing Commander.
- Haines, Catharine M. C. (2001). International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 1576070905.
- Hampshire Biographies: Beatrice Shilling 1909 – 1990: Aeronautical engineer and motorcycle racer
- Jakob Whitfield,. "Beatrice Shilling". Thrust Vector. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Lumsden 2003, p.32.
- John de Kruif (24 March 2010). "Beatrice Shilling". Vintage Norton Motorcycles. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Roger Dunbar (6 October 2011). ""ELVA Jottings #2" (August 2006)". Elva.com.
- "Index entry". FreeBMD. ONS. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Application for a Premises Licence - The Tilly Shilling Victoria Road Farnborough" (PDF). Rushmoor Borough Council. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Cheers! Champagne pops at opening of The Tilly Shilling in Farnborough". Alex Crawford – Mayor of Rushmoor. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.