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Beaumaris Castle (8074243202).jpg
Beaumaris Castle
Beaumaris is located in Anglesey
Location within Anglesey
Population1,938 (2011)
OS grid referenceSH6076
  • Beaumaris
Principal area
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtLL58
Dialling code01248
PoliceNorth Wales
FireNorth Wales
UK Parliament
Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament
List of places
53°16′01″N 4°05′35″W / 53.267°N 4.093°W / 53.267; -4.093Coordinates: 53°16′01″N 4°05′35″W / 53.267°N 4.093°W / 53.267; -4.093

Beaumaris (/bjuːˈmærɪs/ bew-MAR-is; Welsh: Biwmares [bɪuˈmɑːrɛs]) is a town and community on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, of which it is the former county town of Anglesey. It is located at the eastern entrance to the Menai Strait, the tidal waterway separating Anglesey from the coast of North Wales. At the 2011 census, its population was 1,938.[1] The community includes Llanfaes.


Beaumaris from the sea in the 1840s

Beaumaris was originally a Viking settlement known as Porth y Wygyr ("Port of the Vikings"),[2] but the town itself began its development in 1295 when Edward I of England, having conquered Wales, commissioned the building of Beaumaris Castle as part of a chain of fortifications around the North Wales coast (others include Conwy, Caernarfon and Harlech).

The castle was built on a marsh and that is where it found its name; the Norman-French builders called it beaux marais which translates as "beautiful marshes".

The castle in 1852

The ancient village of Llanfaes, a mile to the north of Beaumaris, had been occupied by Anglo-Saxons in 818 but had been regained by Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and remained a vital strategic settlement. To counter further Welsh uprisings, and to ensure control of the Menai Strait, Edward I chose the flat coastal plain as the place to build Beaumaris Castle. The castle was designed by the Savoyard mason Master James of Saint George[3] and is considered the most perfect example of a concentric castle. The 'troublesome' residents of Llanfaes were removed en bloc to Rhosyr in the west of Anglesey, a new settlement King Edward entitled "Newborough". French and English masons were brought in to construct the castle and the walled town.

Beaumaris was awarded a royal charter by Edward I,[4] which was drawn up on similar terms to the charters of his other castle towns in North Wales and intended to invest only the English and Norman-French residents with civic rights. Native Welsh residents of Beaumaris were largely disqualified from holding any civic office, carrying any weapon, and holding assemblies; and were not allowed to buy houses or land within the borough. The charter also specifically prohibited Jews (who had been largely expelled from most English towns) from living in Beaumaris.[5] A requirement that all trade in the immediate area be conducted at Beaumaris meant the town became the main commercial centre of Anglesey.

Beaumaris in 1610.

Beaumaris was the port of registration for all vessels in North West Wales, covering every harbour on Anglesey and all the ports from Conwy to Pwllheli. Shipbuilding was a major industry in Beaumaris. This was centred on Gallows Point – a nearby spit of land extending into the Menai Strait about a mile west of the town. Gallows Point had originally been called "Osmund's Eyre" but was renamed when the town gallows was erected there – along with a "Dead House" for the corpses of criminals dispatched in public executions.[6] Later, hangings were carried out at the town gaol and the bodies buried in a lime-pit within the curtilage of the gaol. One of the last prisoners to hang at Beaumaris issued a curse before he died – decreeing that if he was innocent the four faces of the church clock would never show the same time.[7]

According to historian Hywel Teifi Edwards , when the "Provincial Eisteddfod" was held at Beaumaris in 1832, a young Princess Victoria and her mother were in attendance.[8]

Beaumaris has never had a railway station built to the town, although the nearby village of Pentraeth had a station on the former Red Wharf Bay branch line which ran off the Anglesey Central Railway. It was roughly six miles west of the town by road. This station has long since closed.


Notable buildings in the town include the castle, a courthouse built in 1614, the 14th-century St Mary's and St Nicholas's Church, Beaumaris Gaol,[9] the 14th-century Tudor Rose (one of the oldest original timber-framed buildings in Britain) and the Bulls Head Inn, built in 1472, which General Thomas Mytton made his headquarters during the "Siege of Beaumaris" during the second English Civil War in 1648. The hill leading north from the town is named Red Hill from the blood spilled in that conflict.

A native of Anglesey, David Hughes, founded Beaumaris Grammar School in 1603. It became a non-selective school in 1952 when Anglesey County Council became the first authority in Britain to adopt comprehensive secondary education. The school was eventually moved to Menai Bridge and only the ancient hall of the original school building now remains.

Beaumaris Pier, opened in 1846, was designed by Frederick Foster and is a masonry jetty on wooden and concrete pilings. The pier was rebuilt and extended to 570 feet (170 m) after storm damage in 1872, and a large pavilion containing a cafe was built at the end. It was once the landing stage for steamships of the Liverpool and North Wales Shipping Company, including the Snowdon, La Marguerite, St. Elvies and St. Trillo, although the larger vessels in its fleet – the St. Seriol and St. Tudno – were too large for the pier and landed their passengers at Menai Bridge. In the 1960s, through lack of maintenance, the pier became unsafe and was threatened with demolition, but local yachtswoman and lifeboat secretary Miss Mary Burton made a large private donation to ensure the pier was saved for the town. A further reconstruction was carried out between 2010 and 2012. This included the addition of a floating pontoon .Today, the impressive old steamers have long since gone, but Beaumaris Pier is still a busy base for yachts and pleasure vessels of all kinds.

The Old Courthouse

A marina on the western shore of Gallows Point has been proposed, but at present all moorings at Beaumaris are tidal.

The Saunders Roe company set up a factory at Fryars (the site of the old Franciscan friary to the east) when it was feared that the company's main base on the Isle of Wight would be a target for World War II Luftwaffe bombers. The factory converted American-built PBY Catalina flying boats.[10] After the war, the company focused on their ship building produced at the site with fast patrol boats, minesweepers and an experimental Austin Float Plane.[11] They also produced buses for London Transport (RT Double deckers) and single deck buses for Cuba.[11]


The first recorded rescue of people in difficulty at sea was in 1830 when 375 people were rescued from a foundered emigrant ship. A lifeboat station was established in 1891 and closed four years later when a neighbouring station was provided with a more powerful lifeboat. The station was reopened in 1914 and is operated by the RNLI.[12]


Beaumaris is served by one primary school. Its 300-year-old grammar school moved to nearby Menai Bridge in 1963 and became the comprehensive Ysgol David Hughes.


The Beaumaris Food Festival is an annual food festival that has been held since 2013 in the town and castle grounds.

Notable residents[edit]


Beaumaris, the suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, was named after the town. Beaumaris, the neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada was named after the castle.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Community/Ward population 2011". Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Beaumaris".
  3. ^ Taylor, A. J. (1950). "Master James of St. George". The English Historical Review. 65 (257): 433–457. ISSN 0013-8266.
  4. ^ "More about Beaumaris Castle | Cadw". Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Jews' role in Edward I's castles". 15 September 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  6. ^ "Anglesey's Beaumaris Gaol". Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  7. ^ Winn, Christopher (2007). I never knew that about Wales. Mai Osawa. London. ISBN 978-1-4070-2823-1. OCLC 867134298.
  8. ^ Edwards (2016), The Eisteddfod, page 17.
  9. ^ Harris, Penelope, "The Achievements of Joseph Aloysius Hansom 1803-82), Designer of the Hansom Cab, Birmingham Town Hall and Churches of the Catholic Revival", Edwin Mellen Press, 2010, ISBN 0-7734-3851-3, p.13.
  10. ^ "English". Coflein. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Beaumaris - Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust UK". Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  12. ^ "RNLI" Beaumaris". Retrieved 16 February 2016.

External links[edit]