Beaver & Krause

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Beaver & Krause were a musical duo made up of Paul Beaver and Bernie Krause. Their 1967 album The Nonesuch Guide to Electronic Music was a pioneering work in the electronic music genre.[citation needed]

Beaver introduced Monkees singer-drummer Micky Dolenz to the Moog, which became a featured instrument on the fourth Monkees album, Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd., and Beaver himself performed on one track, "Star Collector" in 1967. In addition, he led workshops at the Beaver & Krause LA studio attended by film composers and session keyboardists.

In June 1967, Beaver and Krause set up a booth at the Monterey Pop Festival, demonstrating their newly purchased electronic synthesiser, one of the first constructed by Bob Moog. Following Monterey, Beaver and Krause introduced the instrument to a number of other American pop and rock acts, including The Doors, Simon & Garfunkel and The Byrds, helping to create the vogue for the Moog that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Krause introduced the instrument to George Martin, producer of the Beatles, and then to George Harrison during the latter's 1968 visit to California, where Harrison was producing an album by Apple Records artist Jackie Lomax. Harrison used the Moog to generate his 1969 solo album Electronic Sound for the Apple spin-off label Zapple. Side two of this disc consisted of an edited treatment of Krause's initial Moog demonstration, which Harrison had recorded without his consent. Before the album's release, Krause expressed his objection at Harrison's appropriation of his material and said he wanted nothing to do with the project. Harrison then removed Krause's name from the LP's front cover but left in an inner-sleeve credit acknowledging "the assistance of Bernie Krause".

In 1968, Beaver & Krause released an album for Mercury Records imprint Limelight Records, Ragnarok. They then released a series of three albums for Warner Bros. Records: In a Wild Sanctuary (1970), Gandharva (1971) and All Good Men (1972). The final chord of the track "Spaced" from In a Wild Sanctuary bears a similarity to the later synthesizer THX Sound Logo heard in cinemas and named deep note. The THX performance begins on the same first note (a G pedal tone), splits into an 8-tone glissando with four notes rising and four descending, and ends on the same open (D Major) chord.

The duo ended with Beaver's premature death in January 1975, at age 49. Krause released at least two more solo albums: Citadels of Mystery in 1979 and Gorillas in the Mix in 1988. He also scored music and/or effects for many films, including Apocalypse Now, on synthesizer.

In 1995 Krause released an album of Holiday music with Phil Aaberg composed entirely of sampled animal noises recorded in the wild titled A Wild Christmas. Since earning his Ph.D. in Creative (Sound) Arts with an internship in bioacoustics (1981), Krause has specialized almost exclusively in the recording and archiving of natural soundscapes from wild habitats worldwide and has been a major influence in the introduction to bioacoustics of the fields of soundscape ecology and ecoacoustics.

In 2014, Krause collaborated with Richard Blackford, former composer-in-residence at Balliol College Oxford, to compose a symphony titled, The Great Animal Orchestra Symphony for Orchestra and Wild Soundscapes, commissioned and performed by the BBC National Orchestra of Wales. Echoing the pioneering ecoacoustic approach in Beaver & Krause's In A Wild Sanctuary, the symphony featured the first full orchestration combining wild soundscapes performed live as a component of orchestration. In 2015, Blackford and Krause were commissioned by the Alonzo King LINES Ballet, an internationally known corps based in San Francisco, to score the ballet Biophony, which premiered in April of that year.