Beechcraft Model 18
|Instructor and pilot in an AT-7 doing navigation training at Kelly Field, Texas.|
|Role||Trainer and utility aircraft|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Beech Aircraft Corporation|
|First flight||January 15, 1937|
|Primary users||United States Army Air Forces
United States Navy
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
D18S: US$78,050 in 1952
The Beechcraft Model 18 (or "Twin Beech", as it is also known) is a six to 11-seat, twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969, (over 32 years, the world record at the time), over 9,000 were produced, making it one of the world's most widely used light aircraft. Sold worldwide as a civilian executive, utility, cargo aircraft, and passenger airliner on tailwheels, nosewheels, skis or floats, it was also used as a military aircraft.
During and after World War II, over 4,500 Beech 18s saw military service—as light transport, light bomber (for China), aircrew trainer (for bombing, navigation and gunnery), photo-reconnaisance, and "mother ship" for target drones—including United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) C-45 Expeditor, AT-7 Navigator, AT-11 Kansan; and United States Navy (USN) UC-45J Navigator, SNB-1 Kansan, and others. In World War II, over 90% of USAAF bombardiers and navigators trained in these aircraft.
In the early postwar era, the Beech 18 was the pre-eminent "business aircraft" and "feeder airliner." Besides carrying passengers, its civilian uses have included aerial spraying, sterile insect release, fish seeding, dry ice cloud seeding, aerial firefighting, air mail delivery, ambulance service, numerous movie productions, skydiving, freight, weapon- and drug-smuggling, engine testbed, skywriting, banner towing, and stunt aircraft. Many are now privately owned, around the world, with over 300 in the U.S. still on the FAA Aircraft Registry in December 2014.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Aircraft on display
- 6 Notable appearances in media
- 7 Specifications (UC-45 Expeditor)
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Design and development
By the late 1930s, Beechcraft management speculated that a demand would exist for a new design dubbed the Model 18, which would have a military application, and increased the main production facilities. The design was mainly conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semimonocoque construction with fabric-covered control surfaces and tailwheel undercarriage. Less conventional was the twin-tailfin configuration. The Model 18 can be mistaken for the larger Lockheed Electra series of airliners which closely resemble it. Early production aircraft were powered either by two 330-hp (250-kW) Jacobs L-6s or 350-hp (260-kW) Wright R-760Es. The 450-hp (336-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985 became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards. The Beech 18 prototype first flew on January 15, 1937.
Prior to the Pearl Harbor attack, the Beech 18 was outsold by the Lockheed 12 by two-to-one. However, war priorities forced Lockheed to concentrate on its heavier aircraft, and Beechcraft received a major boost through wartime contracts.
The aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 600-hp (447-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration. With the added weight of about 200 lb (91 kg) per engine, the concept of a Model 18 fitted with R-1340 engines was deemed unsatisfactory due to the weakest structural area of the aircraft being the engine mounts. Nearly every airframe component has been modified.
In 1955, deliveries of the Model E18S commenced; the E18S featured a fuselage that was extended 6 in (150 mm) higher for more headroom in the passenger cabin. All later Beech 18s (sometimes called Super 18s) featured this taller fuselage, and some earlier models (including one AT-11) have been modified to this larger fuselage. The Model H18, introduced in 1963, featured optional tricycle undercarriage. Unusually, the undercarriage was developed for earlier-model aircraft under an STC by Volpar, and installed in H18s at the factory during manufacture. A total of 109 H18s were built with tricycle undercarriage, and another 240 earlier-model aircraft were modified with this.
Construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with a final Model H18 going to Japan Airlines. Through the years, 32 variations of the basic design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed, and almost 8,000 aircraft were built. In one case, the aircraft was modified to a triple tail, trigear, humpbacked configuration and appeared similar to a miniature Lockheed Constellation. Another distinctive conversion was carried out by PacAero as the Tradewind. This featured a lengthened nose to accommodate the tricycle nosewheel, and the Model 18's twin tailfins were replaced by a single fin.
Production got an early boost when Nationalist China paid the company US$750,000 for six M18R light bombers, but by the time of the U.S. entry into World War II, only 39 Model 18s had been sold, of which 29 were for civilian customers. Work began in earnest on a variant specifically for training military pilots, bombardiers, and navigators. The effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB. Further development led to the AT-11 and SNB-2 navigation trainers and the C-45 military transport. The United States Air Force (USAF) Strategic Air Command had Model 18 variants (AT-11 Kansans, C-45 Expeditors, F-2 Expeditors (the "F" standing for "Fotorecon", short for "photographic reconnaissance"), and UC-45 Expeditors) from 1946 until 1951. From 1951 to 1955, the USAF had many of its aircraft remanufactured with new fuselages, wing center sections, and undercarriages to take advantage of the improvements to the civil models since the end of World War II. Eventually, 900 aircraft were remanufactured to be similar to the then-current Model D18S and given new designations, constructor's numbers and Air Force serial numbers. The USN had many of its surviving aircraft remanufactured as well, these being redesignated as SNB-5s and SNB-5Ps. The C-45 flew in USAF service until 1963, the USN retired its last SNB in 1972, while the U.S. Army flew its C-45s until 1976. In later years, the military called these aircraft "bug smashers" in reference to their extensive use supplying mandatory flight hours for desk-bound aviators in the Pentagon.
Beech 18s were used extensively by Air America during the Vietnam War; initially more-or-less standard ex-military C-45 examples were used, but then the airline had 12 aircraft modified by Conrad Conversions in 1963 and 1964 to increase performance and load-carrying capacity. The modified aircraft were known as Conrad Ten-Twos, as the maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) was increased to 10,200 lb (4,600 kg). The increase was achieved by several airframe modifications, including increased horizontal stabilizer angle-of-incidence, redesigned undercarriage doors, and aerodynamically improved wingtips. Air America then had Volpar convert 14 aircraft to turboprop power, fitted with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines; modified aircraft were called Volpar Turbo Beeches, and also had a further increase in MTOW to 10,286 lb (4,666 kg).
The wing spar of the Model 18 was fabricated by welding an assembly of tubular steel. The configuration of the tubes in combination with drilled holes from aftermarket STC modifications on some of these aircraft have allowed the spar to become susceptible to corrosion and cracking while in service. This prompted the FAA to issue an Airworthiness Directive in 1975, mandating the fitting of a spar strap to some Model 18s. This led, in turn, to the retirement of a large number of STC-modified Model 18s when owners determined the aircraft were worth less than the cost of the modifications. The corrosion on unmodified spars was not a problem, and occurred due to the additional exposed surface area created through the STC hole-drilling process. Further requirements have been mandated by the FAA and other national airworthiness authorities, including regular removal of the spar strap to allow the strap to be checked for cracks and corrosion and the spar to be X-rayed. In Australia, the airworthiness authority has placed a life limit on the airframe, beyond which aircraft are not allowed to fly.
Unless otherwise noted, the engines fitted are Pratt & Whitney R-985 radials.
- Model 18A
- First production model with seating for two pilots and seven or eight passengers, fitted with Wright R-760E-2 engines of 350 horsepower (260 kW), MTOW: 6,700 lb (3,000 kg)
- Model S18A
- Version of Model 18A capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg)
- Model 18B
- Improved model with increased range and useful load, fitted with 285 hp (213 kW) Jacobs L-5 engines
- Model S18B
- Version of Model 18B capable of being fitted with skis or floats.
- Model 18D
- Variant with seating for two pilots and nine passengers, fitted with Jacobs L-6 engines of 330 horsepower (250 kW), MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg).
- Model S18D
- Version of Model 18D capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg)
- Model A18D
- Variant of 18D with MTOW increased by 300 lb (140 kg) to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg), fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines with 450 hp each
- Model SA18D
- Seaplane version of Model A18D, but same MTOW as S18D, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats
- Model A18A
- Version fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines of 450 horsepower (340 kW), MTOW: 7,500 lb (3,400 kg)
- Model SA18A
- Seaplane version of Model A18A, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg)
- Model 18R
- Model with Pratt and Whitney R-985-A1 engines with dual-stage blower for increased power at higher operating altitudes, 450 horsepower (340 kW), seven built, one to Sweden as an air ambulance, six to Nationalist China as M18R light bombers
- Model 18S
- Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF C-45C
- Model B18S
- Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF F-2
- Model C18S
- Variant of B18S with seating for eight passengers, and equipment and minor structural changes
- Model D18S
- First post-World War II variant introduced in 1945, with seating for eight passengers and MTOW of 8,750 lb (3,970 kg), 1,035 built
Two hundred and eighty 280 D Models were made for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), given the service name 'Expeditor' and delivered between 1951 and 1952. Seating for RCAF was for five passengers, or two RCAF Navigator students and one RCAF navigator instructor. MTOW for RCAF was 9300 lbs.
- 3N: Fitted as a navigation trainer with astrodome and two trainee stations in the cabin; 88 built
- 3NM: Fitted primarily as a navigational trainer, and is fitted with floor lugs to accept transport seats on removal of navigation equipment; 59 built
- 3NMT: Basically a 3NM, converted to a transport aircraft; 67 built
- 3NMT(Special): Fitted as a navigation trainer personnel transport. First navigation training position retained, slightly modified ie: removal of air position indicator and replaced with radio compass and indicator from removed second navigation position; in addition, three reclining-type chairs fitted; 19 built
- 3TM: Normally fitted with transport type seats, but has the necessary wiring, plumbing, and fittings for conversion to a navigation trainer, including provisions for fitting an astrodome; 44 built
- 3TM(Special): Specifically modified RCAF Expeditor under Project WPB6, and refers specifically to overseas Expeditors; three built
- Model D18C
- Variant with Continental R9-A engines of 525 horsepower (391 kW) and MTOW of 9,000 lb (4,100 kg), introduced in 1947, 31 built.
- Model E18S
- Variant with redesigned wing and MTOW of 9,300 lb (4,200 kg); 403 built
- Model E18S-9700
- Variant of E18S with MTOW of 9,700 lb (4,400 kg); 57 built
- Model G18S
- Model H18
- Last production version, fitted with optional tricycle undercarriage developed by Volpar and MTOW of 9,900 lb (4,500 kg); 149 built, of which 109 were manufactured with tricycle undercarriage
- Redesignation of all surviving F-2, F-2A, and F-2B aircraft by the USAF in 1948
- Based on C18S, but with modified internal layout; 223 ordered, redesignated UC-45B in 1943
- Two Model 18S aircraft impressed into the USAAF, redesignated UC-45C in January 1943
- Designation given to two AT-7 aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45D in January 1943
- Designation given to two AT-7 and four AT-7B aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45E in January 1943
- Standardized seven-seat version based on C18S, with longer nose than preceding models; 1,137 ordered, redesignated UC-45F
- AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S with autopilot and R-985-AN-3 engines; 372 aircraft rebuilt
- Multiengine crew trainer variant of C-45G; AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, 96 aircraft rebuilt
- AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, with no autopilot and R-985-AN-14B engines; 432 aircraft rebuilt
- TC-45H 
- RC-45J 
- In 1962, all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5Ps were redesignated RC-45J.
- TC-45J 
- In 1962 all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5s were redesignated TC-45J.
- UC-45J 
- AT-7 Navigator
- Navigation trainer based on C18S, with an astrodome and positions for three students, powered by 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 engines; 577 built
- Floatplane version of AT-7; six built
- Winterised AT-7; nine built
- AT-11 Kansan
- Bombing and gunnery trainer for USAAF derived from AT-7, fuselage had small, circular cabin windows, bombardier position in nose, and bomb bay; gunnery trainers were also fitted with two or three .30-caliber machine guns, early models (the first 150 built) had a single .30-cal AN-M2 in a Beechcraft-manufactured top turret, later models used a Crocker Wheeler twin .30-cal top turret, a bottom tunnel gun was used for tail gunner training, 1,582 built for USAAF orders, with 24 ordered by Netherlands repossessed by USAAF and used by the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School at Jackson, Mississippi.
- Conversion of AT-11 as navigation trainer; 36 converted
- Conversion of UC-45F, modified to act as drone control aircraft, redesignated as DC-45F in June 1948
- Photo-reconnaissance version based on B18
- Improved version
- Photographic aircraft for the U.S. Navy, based on the C18S, fitted with fairing over cockpit for improved visibility, 11 built
- Photographic version, similar to C-45B; 23 built
- Utility transport version, equivalent to UC-45F'; 328 built.
- JRB-6 
- Navigation trainer for the U.S. Navy, similar to AT-7, 299 built
- Variant for the U.S. Navy, similar to AT-7C
- Ambulance conversion for the U.S. Navy
- Photo-reconnaissance trainer for the U.S. Navy
- Variant for the U.S. Navy, similar to AT-7C
- Electronic counter-measures trainer for the U.S. Navy
- SNB-5 
- SNB-2s and SNB-2Cs were remanufactured, and designated SNB-5 by the U.S. Navy.
- SNB-5P 
- Photo-reconnaissance trainer for the U.S. Navy
- PAC Super 18S Tradewind
- Custom conversion of Beech D-18S/C-45 to five- to 11-seat executive transport by Pacific Airmotive
- Hamilton HA-1
- conversion of a TC-45J aircraft
- Hamilton Little Liner
- Modification of D18S with aerodynamic improvements and new, retractable tailwheel, capable of carrying 11 seats
- Hamilton Westwind
- Turboprop conversions with various engines
- Hamilton Westwind II STD
- two 840-hp PT6As
- Hamilton Westwind III
- two 579-hp PT6A-20s or 630-hp PT6A-27s or 630-hp Lycoming LTS101s.
- Hamilton Westwind IV
- two 570-hp Lycoming LTP101s or 680-hp PT6A-28s or 750-hp PT6A-34s or 1020-hp PT6A-45s
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Model 18
- Conversion of Model 18 with nosewheel undercarriage
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Super 18
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Turbo 18
- Beech Model 18s fitted with the Volpar MkIV tricycle undercarriage and powered by two 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101B turboprop engines, flat-rated to 605 hp (451 kW), driving Hartzell HC-B3TN-5 three-bladed, reversible-pitch, constant-speed feathering propellers
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Super Turbo 18
- 2x 705 hp (526 kW) Garrett TPE331
- Volpar (Beechcraft) C-45G
- C-45G aircraft modified with tricycle undercarriage
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner
- 15-passenger version of the Turbo 18 with extended fuselage, powered by 2 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101Bs
- Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner II
- Turboliners modified to meet SFAR 23
As of 2012[update], the Beechcraft Model 18 remains popular with air charter companies and small feeder airlines worldwide.
- Royal Canadian Air Force 394 examples from 1941–1972
- Royal Canadian Navy 10 examples from 1952–1960
- United States Army
- United States Air Force
- United States Marine Corps
- United States Navy
Aircraft on display
- Alberta Aviation Museum, Edmonton, Alberta, Beech D18S-3NM
- Canadian Air Sea Land Museum, Toronto/Markham Airport
- Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, UC-45A, tail code CF-MJY
- Canadian Museum of Flight, Langley, British Columbia, civil registration: CF-CKT
- Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Hamilton, Ontario, model D18S, c/n A156
- North Atlantic Aviation Museum, Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, s/n CA110
- TransCanada Highway, Ignace, Ontario
- Western Canada Aviation Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba
- Museu do Ar, Sintra, Portugal
- Leiria, Portugal: Força Aérea Portuguesa AT-11 serial 2508 preserved in a local park.
- 1941 Historical Aircraft Group Museum, Geneseo, New York, UC-45H
- Aerospace Museum of California, Sacramento, California, UC-45J BuNo 51291
- Air Mobility Command Museum, Dover, Delaware, C-45G, ser. no. 51-11795
- Alaska Aviation Heritage Museum, Anchorage, Alaska, UC-45F, FAA no. N1047B, Air Force ser. no. 44-4734.
- Beechcraft Heritage Museum, Tullahoma, Tennessee
- 1938 S18D, c/n 178, CF-BKO – Prairie Airways Twin Beech
- 1952 D18S, c/n A-935, N4477 – Parish Twin Beech
- 1954 C-45H, c/n AF-824, N7916A – Morton Lester Twin Beech
- 1959 Super E18S, c/n BA-453, N712JS – "Miss Maine" – Cianchette Twin Beech 
- Castle Air Museum, Atwater, California, model C-45G, ser. no. 51-11897
- Jimmy Doolittle Air & Space Museum, Travis AFB, California,
- Laughlin AFB, Del Rio, Texas, C-45, ser. no. 23774
- Lone Star Flight Museum, Galveston, Texas
- Minnesota Air National Guard Museum, St. Paul, Minnesota, UC-45J BuNo 51338
- Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington, s/n 51-11696
- National Museum of the USAF, Dayton, Ohio
- North Carolina Aviation Museum, Asheboro, North Carolina
- Tennessee Museum of Aviation, Sevierville, Tennessee
- Tri-State Warbird Museum, TC-45H, Air Force serial no. 51-11529, N7826L
- Vintage Flying Museum, Fort Worth, Texas
- Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum, Denver, Colorado, UC-45 version, ser. no. 42-37496 (originally an AT-11)
Notable appearances in media
Specifications (UC-45 Expeditor)
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II.
- Crew: 2 pilots
- Capacity: 6 passengers
- Length: 34 ft 2 in (10.41 m)
- Wingspan: 47 ft 8 in (14.53 m)
- Height: 9 ft 8 in (2.95 m)
- Wing area: 349 ft² (32.4 m²)
- Empty weight: 6,175 lb (2,800 kg)
- Loaded weight: 7,500 lb (3,400 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 8,727 lb (3,959 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-985-AN-1 "Wasp Junior" radial engines, 450 hp (336 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 225 mph (195 knots, 360 km/h)
- Range: 1,200 mi (1,000 NM, 1,900 km) at 160 mph (260 km/h)
- Service ceiling: 26,000 ft (7,930 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,850 ft/min (9.4 m/s)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Airspeed Oxford
- Avro Anson
- Barkley-Grow T8P-1
- Cessna AT-17 Bobcat
- De Havilland Dove
- Evangel 4500
- Fairchild AT-21 Gunner
- Lockheed Model 10 Electra
- Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior
- Siebel Si 204
- Related lists
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- "Beech B18 Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
- "Long Description: Beechcraft D18S Twin Beech." National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
- "Factsheets: Beech C-45H Expeditor." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
- "Twin Beech: The 1930's airplane that set Beech Aircraft Corporation on a course towards 50 years of success", in Flying Magazine, Feb. 1982, pp.26-30, Retrieved: Dec. 17, 2014 from Google Books.
- "Factsheets: Beech AT-11 Kansan." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
- Bauschspies, James S. and William E. Simpson, "Research and Technology Program Perspectives for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft", NASA Contract NASW-3554 for NASA, Sept. 1982, N83-17454#. Retrieved: Dec. 18, 2014. (In particular, see: Table 2.4 "COMMUTER CARGO FLEET IN 1981 - TOP TEN AIRCRAFT MODELS - NUMBER IN FLEET," which notes Beech 18 units are more than the next two aircraft combined (Convair 500/680 and Douglas DC-3), and more than the next three general aviation aircraft combined.
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- "Description and Maintenance Instructions Expeditor 3." RCAF, September 12, 1967, pp. 1–5.
- "FAA Type Certificate A-765 (Beech D18/E18/G18/H18 Series)." Federal Aviation Administration, p. 48.
- For the particular breakdown of each model for the RCAF, Refer to RCAF Data Record Cards CA-1 to CA-280.
- "EO 05-45B-6A/130." RCAF, March 10, 1959.
- "EO 05-45B-2 Description and Maintenance Instructions Expeditor 3." RCAF', September 12, 1967, p. I-1.
- "EO 05-45B-1 Aircraft Operating Instructions." RCAF, September 26, 1966, Supplement B, p. 2.
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- Donald 1995, p. 7.
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- Donald 1995, pp. 7–8.
- Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 37.
- Taylor 1965, p. 280.
- Taylor 1965, p. 316.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. Lopndon: Jane's Publishing Company, 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
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- Griffin 1969, pp. 5–6.
- Pettipas 1986, pp. 42–43.
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- Ogden 2007, p. 18.
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- "Beech UC-45 J Expediter" Aerospace Museum of California Retrieved: May 11, 2014.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beechcraft Model 18.|
- Experimental Aircraft Association (Chapter 1000) Beech E18S overview and pictorial tour
- 1941 AT-11, 'Tantalizing Takeoff'. A hi-res panoramic look inside