Beerwah, Jammu and Kashmir
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
|Beerwah, Jammu and Kashmir
جامع مسجد بیروہ
|Territories of India||Jammu and Kashmir|
|• Total||5,000 km2 (2,000 sq mi)|
|• Density||1.3/km2 (3.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Beerwah, (Urdu, بیروہ) Jammu and Kashmir is a subdistrict in Central Kashmir. It is one of the oldest tehsils with one of the largest constituency, towns, and municipal areas committees in the Budgam district of the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir.
The name Beerwah means "be roi " in Sanskrit, and means that the people do not have a one face and is derived from the name for the springs of Beerwah known as "Behroop."
Beerwah is located at a height of 5200 ft above sea level, between 75° E longitude and 34° N latitude at the base of the Pir Panjal mountain range. It is surrounded by plains to the north, east, south, and southwest. The landscape is made up of plateau-like terraces known as karewas.
The region contains forested areas with several mountain rivers and streams, including the Mala Kol, Lear Kol, Ahij Kol, Laen, Zaen, Mean and Sona Mean. The Ahij Kol, Laen and Sona Maen share a source at Sukhnag. The Mala Kol is locally known as the "deaf and dumb stream" due to a legend that when saint Syed Taj-ud-Din arrived in Khag, the stream silently followed him from Sukhnag to Sikandarpora. Local elders continue to tell stories about other local streams.
Tosamaidan is a large pasture with a historical background. Bounded by dense forests of deodars, it is situated about 10 km from Khag in the Himalayas. Many countries' shepherds used to visit the area in ancient times, and it was a frequent route for Mughals travelling to Poonch and Punjab. Today the area is frequently used by local shepherds and the Gujjar community.
Pehjan is an alpine pasture near the Wular Lake. It features local flowers and plant life and scenic views from the Nanga Parbat peak (26,696 ft).
The Khag pasture is located in the southwest of Kashmir, 8,000 to 14,000 ft above sea level. It is surrounded by mountains whose average height reaches 17,000 ft. It is frequently scenic in the summer season, when Nomadic Bakarwals bring their cattle to graze.
The region has a number of springs of local and tourist significance.
Sutharan is located near Tosamaidan and the Line of Actual Control. According to local legend, (Vanvas) Ram Chander stayed here during his 12-year-long exile with Lakshman and Sita. The spring's name comes from Sita who is said to have bathed in the spring.
Naranag spring, or Narain Nag, is located near the Khag village. According to local legend, an ascetic passing through once dropped a bag full of sheep dung into the lake. When he reached Khag several days later, he saw the dung floating on the surface of the Naranag. He returned to Tosamaidan and sprinkled some turmeric powder into the lake, which appeared in the water in the Naranag.
The Sukhnag (Sokhanag), known locally as the "spring of solace," cascades in a 20 ft high waterfall at Kanj Zubji.
Pushkar Nag is located to the east of Poshker village between Khag and Ferozpora, and is named for the village of its origin. According to local history, during the month of Sawan, Kashmiri Pandits would offer prayers and take a ritual dip in the spring. Some devotees continue to perform the ritual today.
Gandhak Nag is a sulfur spring in the Darang Khaipora village of Khag. The healing properties of the sulfur make the spring locally significant.
Nakwaer Pal (the "nostril rock") is located near the Pehjan pasture. It is 14,000 ft high and is the highest peak of the range. According to local history, when Kashmir valley was a lake (Sati Sar), boats would be anchored to this rock. Today there is an iron hook within it (Ded Bal), also known as Lal Khanen Gher. Today, shepherds and Gujjars come from adjacent villages with their livestock.
In 1766, a fort was built in the region by Governor Lal Mohammad Khatak. It was repaired in 1801 by Governor Abdullah Khan but was destroyed in an earthquake in 1884.
The region consisting of Budgam, Beerwah and Baramullah achieved tehsil status as Tehsil Ranbir Singh in 1962, under Sir Syed Sani Mawlana Syed Ali Shah Bukhari. The tehsil of Budgam was split off later in 1979.
The region was granted subdistrict status in the 1970s with the support of Mawlana Syed Ali Shah Bukhari, but it was not fully implemented until 2013 by Chief Minister Omar Abdullah and Mirwaiz of Central Kashmir Mawlana Latief Bukhari.
As of 2011[update] India census, Beerwah had a population of 6295, consisting of 53% men and 47% women. Beerwah has an average literacy rate of 43%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. 61% of men and 39% of women are literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Beerwah is the largest constituency in the Badgam district by number of voters.
Much of the local economy is agricultural. Crops grown include rice, mustard, vegetables, apples, walnuts, pears, apricots, cherries and almonds.
Beerwah has a number of post offices, fire stations, banks, police stations, and regional courts. There are three subdivision hospitals and multiple health care units in the villages. A subdivision magistrate (SDM) office opened in Beerwah in 2013 on the establishment of subdistrict status. The Magam market is the central business hub of the area.
The economy in Beerwah includes smaller businesses such as carpet design (Kaleen in the Kashmiri language), shawl design and knitwork, and embroidery. Kashmiri carpets and shawls are marketed internationally, but due to increasing prices, family pressure and low income, local textile makers have shifted to other businesses.
Beerwah is home to a number of tourist locales, and the administration is working on a major road connectivity plan to improve regional accessibility. In addition to the springs, pastures, and scenic features of the region, there are markets at Magam, Beerwah, and Narabal.
Every zone of Beerwah employs a Zonal Education officer. The schools in the area include both government-run and private schools of varying levels.
- Government schools
In Beerwah there are two higher secondary schools run by the government of Jammu and Kashmir: Boys Higher Secondary School, and Girls Higher Secondary School. Approximately two thousand students attend these institutions. The government also runs three middle schools and six primary schools within the municipal limits.
- Other schools
==Syed Ali Memorial Institute of Education (SAMIE SCHOOL)== Beerwah was founded in the memory of Sir Syed Sani Mawlana Syed Ali Shah Bukhari. The institution consists of the SAM College of Education and Training affiliated with University of Kashmir, SAM Higher Secondary School, and SAM Elementary Teacher Training and Nursery Teacher Training College.
Mazhar Ul Haq High School, Beerwah is an age old school which was founded by Sir Syed Sani Moulana Syed Ali Shah Bukhari r.a long back in 1934, which served whole Beerwah area and has brought out eminent engineers doctors and Businessmen. till date it has brought out near about 80 batches.This School has played an important role in carving the future of Beerwah. The founder of the school was given title of Sir Syed Sani by the then Prime Minister and a building was given as a grant in aid to run the school when its mud made building was drowned by the floods. Unfortunately due to some of the miscreants of the allaqa the building was snatched from the management leaving it in lurch. But the Social Reformer, a political leader and religious preacher didn't lose heart and continued to serve the people and then a concrete building was made.The school is touching new heights under the patronship of Moulana Syed Abdul Lateef Bukhari Mirwaiz Central Kashmir.
Other regional schools include the District Institute of Education and Training (DIET), a teacher training and education center, the CED College of Education, which is located in Narbal and affiliated with University of Kashmir, and Government Degree College, Beerwah and Government Degree College, Magam, which functions under the Ministry of Higher Education. 
The majority of Beerwah residents have private means of transportation. A public transportation system also exists that includes buses and cars.
The closest airport to Beerwah is the Srinagar Airport (SXR), which is 30 km away.
The nearest railway station to Beerwah is the Mazhama Railway Station Narbal, which is 11 km away.
The Jammu and Kashmir State Road Transport Corporation (J&K SRTC) connects most major towns and cities to Beerwah through Srinagar via National Highway 1A.
A number of private organisations also run transport companies and 24-hour taxi service.
- Parray, Khursheed Ahmad. "Karewas: a geological treasure and heritage of Kashmir" (PDF). Current Science.
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- "Boys Higher Secondary School Beerwah". onefivenine.com. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- "Syed Ali Memorial Institute Of Education". Onefivenine.com. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- "Pincode of Govt. Degree College, Beerwah, J&K". Getpincode.info. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "Beerwah Tehsil". Onefivenine.com. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "How to Reach Beerwah,by Bus, by Train, by Air, by Flight, by Road, Reaching Beerwah". Hoparoundindia.com. Retrieved 2012-10-19.