||This article uses first-person ("I"; "we") or second-person ("you") inappropriately. (January 2011)|
Behavior management is similar to behavior modification. It is a less intensive version of behavior therapy. In behavior modification the focus is on changing behavior, while in behavior management the focus is on maintaining order. Behavior management skills are of particular importance to teachers in the educational system. Behavior management include all of the actions and conscious inactions to enhance the probability people, individually and in groups, choose behaviors which are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable.
There is a great deal of research related to "behavior change" and "behavior management". B.F. Skinner and Carl Rogers have given two distinctly different approaches for addressing behavior. Skinner's approach says that anyone can manipulate behavior by first identifying what the individual finds rewarding. Once the rewards of an individual are known, then those rewards can be selected that the manager is willing to give in exchange for good behavior. Skinner calls this "Positive Reinforcement Psychology". Rogers proposes that in order to effectively address behavior problems, individual must be persuaded to want to behave appropriately. This is done by teaching the individual the difference between right and wrong including why he or she should do what is right. Rogers believes that the individual must have an internal awareness of right and wrong.
Uses of behavior management
Many of the principles and techniques used are the same as behavior modification yet delivered in a less intensively and consistent fashion. Usually, behavior management is applied at the group level by a classroom teacher as a form of behavioral engineering to produce high rates of student work completion and minimize classroom disruption. In addition, greater focus has been placed on building self-control. Brophy (1986) writes:
"Contemporary behavior modification approaches involve students more actively in planning and shaping their own behavior through participation in the negotiation of contracts with their teachers and through exposure to training designed to help them to monitor and evaluate their behavior more actively, to learn techniques of self-control and problem solving, and to set goals and reinforce themselves for meeting these meetings." (p. 191)
In general behavior management strategies have been very effective in reducing classroom disruption. In addition, recent efforts have focused on incorporating principles of functional assessment into the process.
While such programs can come from a variety of behavioral change theories, the most common practices rely on the use of applied behavior analysis principles such as positive reinforcement and mild punishments (such as response cost and child time-out). Behavioral practices such as differential reinforcement are commonly used. Sometimes, these are delivered in a token economy or a level system. In general the reward component is considered effective. For example, Cotton (1988) reviewed 37 studies on tokens, praise and other reward systems and found them to be highly effective in managing student classroom behavior. The most comprehensive review of token procedures to match to children's level of behavioral severity was Walker's text "The acting out child."
There are three main parts to behavior management systems: Whole group, table group, and individual. These can be things such as marble jars for the class, prize charts for the tables, and a grid chart with 25 spaces for individual students. There are many different types of charts you can find to use for each part.
Over the years, behavioral management principles such as reinforcement, modeling and even the use of punishment have been explored in the building of prosocial behavior. This area is sometimes referred to as "Behavioral Development" or Behavior analysis of child development. Midlarsky and colleagues (1973) used a combination of modeling and reinforcement to build altruistic behavior. Two studies exist in which modeling by itself did not increase prosocial behavior; however, modeling is much more effective than instruction giving (such as "preaching"). The role of rewards has been implicated in the building of self-control and empathy. Cooperation seems particularly susceptible to rewards. Sharing is another prosocial behavior influenced by reinforcement.
Recent research indicates that behavioral "interventions" produce the most valuable results when "applied" during early childhood and "early adolescence."
More controversial has been the role of punishment in forming prosocial behavior. One study found that donation rates of children could be increased by punishing episodes of failure to donate.
The socialization process continues by peers with reinforcement and punishment playing major roles. Peers are more likely to punish cross-gender play and reinforce play specific to gender.
Behavior management is used when an individual tries to stop problem behavior from another individual. Behavior modification and behavior therapy are two ways to help with behavior management. Behavior therapy is used when an individual is trying to find the course of the behavior, why the individual is behaving the way they are. Behavior modification is a technique to increase or decrease behavior. Using these techniques, one can achieve behavior management. (Goal: Making audience more informed on the topics and using proper grammar and neutral language)
Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment are all forms of Operant Conditioning. Reinforcements are when you try to increase behavior, either positively or negatively. If you use positive reinforcement, you add a wanted stimulus for desired behavior (e.g. awarding good behavior with a treat). Negative reinforcement is when you increase behavior by removing something unwanted. (e.g., The child’s room is messy and his mom nags him to clean it up, he eventually keeps it clean to remove his mom’s nagging.) Punishment is trying to decrease behavior, either by using negative or positive. Positive punishment is when you add an unwanted stimulus to decrease the target’s behavior. (e.g., spanking a child when he behaves badly.) Here, spanking is being added to decrease his bad behavior. Negative punishment is when you remove something the target enjoys or likes to remove his or her bad behavior. (e.g. your child comes home past curfew every weekend, you remove watching TV when he is past curfew, therefore, your child’s behavior of coming past curfew will decrease.) This is negative punishment because your child likes to watch TV, so when you take that away from him for being late, he doesn’t like it, therefore, wanting to come home on time to not get that privilege taken away. (Goal: to elaborate and give more background to help reinforce the theory.)
Abraham Maslow is a very well-known humanist psychologist with his work for hierarchy needs, in this he describes that humans have basic needs, and they are not met, that individual will not desire anything else. Maslow also states that humans are never really satisfied, in that our needs are never fully fulfilled, therefore, can impact on how we can behave. (e.g., if our needs are never fully fulfilled, then we might not always behave well, even if we do get a treat for good behavior.) The effect, "Hawthorne Effect" is the manipulation of behavior to make somebody perform even better. For example, if you’re being studied in an experiment, you might perform better or work harder because of the attention they are getting. This effect of manipulation is called the "Hawthorne Effect". This is interesting because if we take a child who is behaving very poorly, no matter what, and they were put in an experiment, they might increase their good behavior because they are getting attention from the researcher. The point of operant conditioning in behavior modification is to regulate the behavior. It is a method to use different techniques and tie them all together to monitor how one behaves. It can cause a problem when talking about Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs because in this model Maslow goes on to explain how no one’s needs are fully met. The highest point on Maslow’s pyramid is self-actualization which Maslow argues is the goal in which we do not reach. This can pose a problem when it comes to behavior modification because one might think, if that individual can not reach that ultimate goal, why try at all. Self-actualization is the goal in which humans have this sense of belonging or accomplishment. Humans have needs, just like any other breed of animal and when one type of animal does not attain those goals or needs, there is this feeling of dissatisfaction. When a person does not meet that top goal there is a void and that person might feel depressed that he or she can not get to that ultimate step. Using these behavioral modifications or techniques one can train or teach oneself how to better attain these goals. (Goal: to elaborate and give more information on different psychologists to help people better understand behavior management.)
|Library resources about
- Baldwin J.D. and Baldwinn J.I. (1986). Behavior principals in everyday life (2nd Edition), Engle Wood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Brophy, J. (1986). "Classroom Management Techniques." Education and Urban Society 18/2, 182–194
- Brophy, J.E. (1983) "Classroom Organization and Management." The Elementary School Journal 83/4, 265–285.
- Angela Waguespack, Terrence Vaccaro & Lauren Continere (2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 2 (4), 463–474. 
- Rosemarie Daddario, Karla Anhalt & Lyle E. Barton (2007). Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior Applied Classwide in a Child Care Setting. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3 (3), 342–348. BAO
- Cancio, E. & Johnson, J.W. (2007). Level Systems Revisited: An Impact Tool For Educating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3 (4), 512–527 
- Cotton, K. (1988). Instructional Reinforcement. Close-Up No. 3. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
- Walker, H. (1990). The Acting Out Child. Sorporis West.
- "3 Part Classroom Management System". SuperTeacherWorksheets.com. Maryann. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Midlarsky, E., Bryan, J.H., & Brickman, P. (1973). Aversive approval: Interactive effects of modeling and reinforcement on altruistic behavior. Child Development, 44, 321–328
- Harris, M.B.(1970). Reciprocity and generosity: Some determinants of sharing in children. Child Development, 41, 313–328.
- Elliot, R., & Vasta, R. (1970). Effects associated with vicarious reinforcement, symbolization, age, and generalization. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 10, 8–15
- Bryan, J.H. & Walbek, N.H. (1970). Impact of words and deeds concerning altruism upon children. Child Development, 41, 747–759
- Bryan, J.H. & Walbek, N. (1970). Preaching and practicing generosity: Children's action and reaction. Child Development, 41, 329–353.
- Barry, L.M. & Haraway, D.L. (2005). Self-Management and ADHD: A Literature Review. The Behavior Analyst Today, 6 (1), 48–64 BAO
- Maccoby, E.M. (1968). The development of moral values and behavior in childhood. In J.A. Clausen's (Ed). Socialization and Society. Little Brown Books: Boston
- Aronfreed, J.(1968). Conduct and conscience: The socializing of internalized control of overt behavior. New York: Academic Press
- Aronfreed, J. (1970). The socialization of altruistic and sympathetic behavior: Some theoretical and experimental analysis. In J. Macauley & L. Berkowitz (Eds.) Altruism and helping behavior. New York: Academic Press.
- Azrin, N. & Lindsley, O. (1956). The reinforcement of cooperation between children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 2, 100–102
- Mithaug, E.D., & Burgess, R.L.(1968). The effects of different reinforcement contingencies in the development of social cooperation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 6, 402–426.
- Vogler, R.E., Masters, W.M. & Merrill, G.S.(1970). Shaping cooperative behavior in young children. Journal of Psychology, 74, 181–186.
- Vogler, R.E., Masters, W.M., & Merrill, G.S.(1971). Extinction of cooperative behavior as a function of acquisition by shaping or instruction. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 119, 233–240.
- Doland, D.J. & Adelberg, K.(1967). The learning of sharing behavior. Child Development, 38, 695–700
- Gelfand, D.M., John Hartmann, D.P., Cromer, C.C., Smith, C.L., & Page, B.C.(1975). The effects of instructional prompts and praise on children's donation rates. Child Development, 46, 980–983
- Fisher, W.F.(1963). Sharing in preschool as a function of the amount and type of reinforcement. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 68, 215–245.
- Altman, K. (1971). Effects of cooperative response acquisition on social behavior during free play. Journal of Experimental Ch Psychology, 12, 387–395
- Januaw.nasponline.org/publications/spr/40-2/spr402january.pdf "A meta-analysis of classroom-wide interventions to build social skills: do they work?", School Psychology Review, 2011.
- Hartmann, D.P., Gelfand, D.M., Smith, C.L., Paul, S.C., Cromer, C.C., Page, B.C. & Lebenta, D.V. (1976). Factors affecting the acquisition and elimination of children's donating behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 21, 328–338
- Fagot, B.I., & Patterson, G.R. (1969). An in vivo analysis of reinforcing contingencies for sex role behaviors in the preschool child. Developmental Psychology
- Lamb, M.E. & Roopnarine, J.L. (1979). Peer influences on sex role development in preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 1219–1222
- Lamb, M.E., Easterbrooks, M.A., & Holden, G. (1980). Reinforcement and punishment among preschoolers: Characteristics and correles. Child Development, 51, 1230–1236