Beijing–Guangzhou railway

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Beijing–Guangzhou railway
京广铁路
China Railways logo
Looking from the Snake Hill to the Tortoise Hill along the railway - P1040888.JPG
The Jingguang railway on the Snake Hill in Wuhan. In the far background, the railway crosses the Yangtze over the Wuhan Bridge.
Overview
TypeHeavy rail
SystemChina Railway
StatusOperational
LocaleBeijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong
TerminiBeijing West
Guangzhou
Stations53 active
Operation
Operator(s)China Railway China Railway
Technical
Line length2,324 km (1,444 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Operating speed150–200 kilometres per hour (93–124 mph)
Route map

km
Beijing West Beijing Subway
0
Fengtai
start of
main line
Fengtai West
10
Changxindian
Houlücun
20
Liangxiang
53
Zhuozhou
73
Gaobeidian
111
Xushui
135
Baoding
168
Wangdu
195
Dingzhou
Shuozhou–Huanghua railway
to Shenchi South │ to Huanghua Port
228
Xinle
252
Zhengding
Shijiazhuang Northwest
Circular line
Shijiazhuang tunnel
Shijiazhuang
(
original
site
)
270
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang Metro
Shijiazhuang Southwest
Circular line
298
Yuanshi
317
Gaoyi
332
Lincheng
379
Xingtai
403
Shaheshi
431
Handan
462
Cixian
481
Baizhuang
491
Anyang
513
Tangyin
532
Hebi
550
Qixian
588
Xinxiang North
598
Xinxiang
640
Jiaozuo East
Jiayingguan Bridge│Zhengjiao Bridge
over Yellow River
657
Guangwu
Zhengzhou Northwest
Circular line
673
HaitangsiZhengzhou North
678
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Metro
682
Zhengzhou South
724
Xinzheng
742
Changge
764
Xuchang
790
Linying
818
Luohe
840
Xiping
884
Zhumadian
941
Minggang
980
Xinyang
1,018
Jigongshan
Jigongshan tunnel (5.708 km)
1,039
Guangshui
1,059
Yangzhai
1,124
Xiaogan
Hengdian
1,166
Wuhan North
1,176
Shekou
Wuhan freight bypass line
to Wuchang East
1,185
Danshuichi
Jiang'an
Hankou connection
Dazhimen
Xunlimen
Hankou CRH depot
Hankou Wuhan Metro
1,199
Hanxi
1,205
Hanyang Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Yangtze River
railway ferry
Wuchang North
1,214
Wuchang Wuhan Metro
1,221
Wuchang South
Wuchang South Circular Railway
to Heliu & Lushan
1,294
Xianning
1,332
Chibi
1,398
Linxiang
1,410
Lukou
1,440
Yueyang
Rongjiawan
1,509
Miluo
1,587
Changsha Changsha Metro
1,639
Zhuzhou
Zhejiang–Jiangxi railway
1,722
Hengshan
1,773
Hengyang
Linghu
1,836
Leiyang
1,920
Chenzhou
1,986
Pingshi
2,023
Lechang
2,073
Shaoguan
2,156
Yingde
2,267
Guangzhou North Guangzhou Metro
2,294
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro
km

The Beijing–Guangzhou railway or Jingguang railway (simplified Chinese: 京广铁路; traditional Chinese: 京廣鐵路; pinyin: Jīngguǎng tiělù) is a major trunk railway that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This double-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres (1,444 miles) and spans five provinces through north, central and south China. The line passes through the capitals of each of them: Shijiazhuang (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Wuhan (Hubei), Changsha (Hunan) and Guangzhou (Guangdong). The line's two terminals are the Beijing West railway station and the Guangzhou railway station.

Due to abundance of large and medium-sized cites on its route, this railway is widely recognized as the most important conventional railway line in China.

History[edit]

Dazhimen Station in Hankou, the original southern terminal of the Jinghan railway

The Jingguang railway was originally two independent companies: the Beijing–Hankou railway in the north from Beijing to Hankou, and the Guangdong–Hankou railway in the south from Wuchang to Guangzhou. Hankou and Wuchang were cities on opposite sides of the Yangtze River that became part of the present city of Wuhan in 1927.

The 1,215-kilometre (755 mi) long Beijing–Hankou railway (Jinghan railway) was built between 1897 and 1906.[1] The concession was originally awarded to a Belgian company that was backed by French investors. A strong desire to bring the route under Chinese control led to the formation of the Bank of Communications to secure the financing needed to repatriate the railway. The successful redemption of the railway in 1909 enhanced the prestige of the Communications Clique, which became a powerful political force in the early Republic.[2]

Construction of the Guangdong–Hankou railway (Yuehan railway) began in 1900 and progressed more slowly.[1] The concession was originally awarded to the American China Development Company, but a diplomatic crisis erupted when the Belgians purchased a controlling interest in it. The concession was cancelled in 1904 to prevent Franco-Belgian interests from controlling the entire Beijing–Guangdong route.[2] The Guangzhou–Sanshui branch line was completed in 1904.[3] The ChangshaZhuzhou section was then completed in 1911, followed by the Guangzhou–Shaoguan section in 1916, and the Wuchang–Changsha section in 1918.[1] Work on the final section between Zhuzhou and Shaoguan began in 1929 but was not completed until 1936.[1][4]

On 7 February 1923, workers of the Beijing-Wuhan Railway Workers' association launched a massive strike demanding better workers' rights and protesting oppression by warlords. The strike, organized by Shi Yang and Lin Xiangqian, was an early example of worker mobilization by the Communist Party of China.[5]

Major stations[edit]

An SS8 locomotive hauling a passenger train at Huaishuling in Fengtai District, Beijing.

From north to south:

km Station Province
0,000 Beijing West or Fengtai
0,135 Baoding Hebei
0,270 Shijiazhuang
0,431 Handan
0,598 Xinxiang Henan
0,678 Zhengzhou
0,818 Luohe
0,980 Xinyang
1,000 Hankou Hubei
1,214 Wuchang
1,440 Yueyang Hunan
1,587 Changsha
1,639 Zhuzhou
1,773 Hengyang
2,073 Shaoguan Guangdong
2,294 Guangzhou

Service[edit]

The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, built in 1957, connected the Beijing–Hankou railway and Guangzhou–Wuchang railways to form the Jingguang railway.

Currently, the nonstop Beijing–Kowloon "Jingjiu" through train operates on this line. Prior to 2003, this train called at stops along the route before they were eliminated to create a through service directly from the capital to Hong Kong.

Parallel lines[edit]

The Beijing–Kowloon railway, completed in 1996, is another "conventional" railway connecting Beijing with the Pearl River Delta. It runs mostly within a corridor 100–300 kilometres (60–190 miles) to the east of the Beijing–Guangzhou railway.

The Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway runs through the same major cities as the original railway, on a slightly different route that avoids built-up areas and has a greater curve radius allowing for higher speeds and a somewhat shorter overall length. In most cities along the line, the high-speed trains stop at different, purpose-built stations, rather than the older stations served by the original line.[6] The Wuhan–Guangzhou section of the high-speed railway opened in 2009, and the Beijing–Wuhan section in 2012.

As consecutive sections of the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway became operational, the railway authorities shifted much of passenger traffic from the original railway to the new high-speed line. This allowed an increase in the amount of freight volume transported over the original route. For example, according to preliminary estimates, after the entire Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway opens, the annual freight capacity of the northern half of the Beijing–Guangzhou railway (between its two main freight stations, Beijing's Fengtai West Station and Wuhan North railway station) would increase by 20 million tons.[7]

Accidents[edit]

On June 29, 2009, two passenger trains collided at Chenzhou station, leaving three people dead and 63 injured.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d 京广铁路. Tieliu.com.cn (in Chinese). 8 January 2007.
  2. ^ a b Lee, En-han (1977). China's Quest for Railway Autonomy, 1904-1911: A Study of the Chinese Railway-Rights Recovery Movement. Singapore University Press.
  3. ^ The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c. for the Year 1912. The Hongkong Daily Press Office. 1912. p. 1026. Work upon the branch line from Canton to Samshui (about 30 miles) commenced in December, 1902, and a length of ten miles, as far as Fatshan, was opened on November 15, 1903. The line was extended to Samshui the following year.
  4. ^ "Canton–Hankow Railway". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 June 1936. English newspapers announce that the last rail has been laid of the railway link between Hankow and Canton.
  5. ^ "Anniversaries of important events -- Feb. 7 Great Strike"
  6. ^ Hung, Wing-tat; Brunello, Lara; Bunker, Jonathan, Critical Issues of High Speed Rail Development in China (PDF), p. 4[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ 京广高铁座位分四档 武汉赴京最低约500多元 Archived 22 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Seats on Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway will come in four classes; lowest Wuhan to Beijing fare around 500 yuan), 2012-12-15 (in Chinese)
  8. ^ "Three killed in passenger train collision in C China". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.