Belgaum

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Belgaum
Belagavi
Rani Chennamma of Kittur
Belgaum is located in Karnataka
Belgaum
Belgaum
Location of Belgaum in Karnataka
Belgaum is located in India
Belgaum
Belgaum
Belgaum (India)
Coordinates: 15°51′N 74°30′E / 15.850°N 74.500°E / 15.850; 74.500Coordinates: 15°51′N 74°30′E / 15.850°N 74.500°E / 15.850; 74.500
Country India
StateKarnataka
DistrictBelgaum
Regions of KarnatakaWestern ghats
Government
 • TypeDistrict Administration
 • BodyBelgaum Municipal Corporation
 • AdministratorShri. S.Ziyaullah[1]
 • MayorBasappa Chikkaldinni[2]
 • Deputy MayorMadhushri Pujari[2]
Area
 • Metropolis94 km2 (36 sq mi)
Area rank4
Elevation
784 m (2,572 ft)
Population
 (2011)[4]
 • Metropolis488,292
 • Density5,200/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
610,350
Language
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (ST)
PIN
590001 to 590020
Telephone code(+91) 831
Vehicle registrationKA-22
Websitebelgaumcity.gov.in

Belgaum (also known as Belagavi)[5][6] is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka located in its northern part along the Western Ghats. It is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Belgaum division and Belgaum district. The Government of Karnataka has proposed making Belgaum the second capital of Karnataka, hence a second state administrative building Suvarna Vidhana Soudha was inaugurated on 11 October 2012.[7]

Belgaum has been selected in first phase out of 20 cities, as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[8]

History[edit]

Belgaum city 1896
Belgaum 1896 map

Belgaum was founded in late 12th century AD by the Ratta dynasty, who shifted from nearby Saundatti. A Ratta official called Bichiraja built a Jain temple dedicated to Neminatha in 1204, which came to be called Kamalabasti. Pillars found inside Belgaum fort have Kannada inscriptions in Nagari scripts, one from 1199 by Ratta King Kartaveerya IV. The city original name was Venugrama, a Sanskrit word which means "village of bamboo". Alternatively, it is referred to as Venupura in early Indian texts, which means "city of bamboo".[9]

Belgaum became a part of the Yadava dynasty kingdom (Sevunas) in early 13th century. An inscription from 1261 of King Krishna belonging to the Yadava dynasty attests to this. The region was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi Sultanate in 14th century. Shortly thereafter, the Vijayanagara Empire was founded, and Belgaum came under the rule of Vijayanagara. In 1474, the Bahmani Sultanate conquered Belgaum with an army led by Mahamood Gawan.[10]

The Belgaum fort was strengthened by the Adil Shah dynasty Sultans and they built the Safa Mosque. A Persian inscription states that the mosque was built by Asad Khan, a Bijapur Commander. In 1518, the Bahamani sultanate splintered into five small states and Belgaum became part of the Bijapur Sultanate. The Adilshahis extended their control to the port of Goa, but retreated after the arrival and wars with the Portuguese. In 1686, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb overthrew the Bijapur sultanate and Belgaum passed nominally to the Mughals, who called it "Azamnagar".[10] However, the Mughal empire control collapsed after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. The Maratha confederacy took control of the area during the rule of the Peshwas. In 1776, the region was overrun by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan after Hyder Ali's coup in the Kingdom of Mysore. The Peshwa regained Belgaum, after Tipu Sultan was defeated by the British forces. In 1818, the British annexed Belgaum and the region in the control of the Peshwa. Kitturu Chennamma (1778–1829) was the queen of the princely state of Kittur in Karnataka and in 1824 she led an unsuccessful armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse.

Belgaum was chosen as the venue of the 39th session of the Indian National Congress in December 1924 under the presidency of Mahatma Gandhiji. The city served as a major military installation for the British Raj, primarily due to its proximity to Goa, which was then a Portuguese territory. Once the British left India, the Indian government continued and still continues to have armed forces installations in Belgaum. In 1961, the Indian government, under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, used forces from Belgaum to end Portuguese rule of Goa.

When India became independent in 1947, Belgaum and its district were part of Bombay State. In 1956, the Indian states were reorganised along linguistic lines by the States Reorganisation Act and Belgaum District (except Chandgad Taluk) was transferred to Mysore State, which was renamed Karnataka in 1972.

In 2006, the Government of Karnataka announced that Belgaum would be made the state's second capital, and that the city would be a permanent venue for the annual 15-day session of the state legislature.[11]

City names[edit]

On 1 November 2014, the city's name was changed from Belgaum to Belagavi by the Karnataka government, with approval of the Central government of India along with 12 other cities.[12][13]

Geography[edit]

Belgaum is located at 15°52′N 74°30′E / 15.87°N 74.5°E / 15.87; 74.5.[14] It has an average elevation of 751 metres (2,464 feet). The city is in the northwestern parts of Karnataka and lies at the border of two states, Maharashtra and Goa on the western ghats (50 km from the Goa state border). It is one of the oldest towns in the state, lying 502 km from Bangalore, 515 km from Hyderabad ,500 km from Mumbai, 75 . The district comprises 1278 villages with an area of 13,415 km² and a population of around 4.8 million according to the census of 2011. Belgaum district is the biggest district of Karnataka. Situated near the foothills of the Sahyadri mountain range (Western Ghats) at an altitude of about 779 m, 100 km from the Arabian Sea with the Markandeya river flowing nearby, Belgaum exhibits swift and kaleidoscopic changes in topography, vegetation and climate.

Climate[edit]

Belgaum has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). It is known for its pleasant year-round climate. Belgaum is at its coldest in winter (November - February temperatures dropping to 7 degrees Celsius; the minimum temperature in Karnataka state is usually recorded in Belgaum,[15]) and it experiences almost continuous monsoon rains from June through September. Belgaum sometimes receives hail storms during April.

Climate data for Belgaum
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.2
(91.8)
36.1
(97.0)
37.4
(99.3)
39.5
(103.1)
39.0
(102.2)
37.2
(99.0)
34.3
(93.7)
34.0
(93.2)
35.6
(96.1)
34.1
(93.4)
33.8
(92.8)
33.5
(92.3)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
31.5
(88.7)
34
(93)
36
(97)
34
(93)
28
(82)
25.4
(77.7)
25.5
(77.9)
27
(81)
29
(84)
28
(82)
28
(82)
29.6
(85.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.5
(79.7)
28.3
(82.9)
27.8
(82.0)
24.6
(76.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
23.7
(74.7)
24.2
(75.6)
22.8
(73.0)
21.8
(71.2)
24.3
(75.7)
Average low °C (°F) 13.5
(56.3)
15.4
(59.7)
18.4
(65.1)
20.4
(68.7)
21.1
(70.0)
20.9
(69.6)
20.2
(68.4)
19.4
(66.9)
19.2
(66.6)
18.2
(64.8)
16.4
(61.5)
14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
Record low °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
15.0
(59.0)
14.8
(58.6)
18.0
(64.4)
17.2
(63.0)
16.8
(62.2)
16.0
(60.8)
10.7
(51.3)
9.3
(48.7)
9.1
(48.4)
6.2
(43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
2
(0.1)
10
(0.4)
61
(2.4)
95
(3.7)
294
(11.6)
505
(19.9)
322
(12.7)
119
(4.7)
136
(5.4)
38
(1.5)
6
(0.2)
1,588
(62.6)
Average rainy days 0.0 0.5 1.0 5.0 6.3 15.8 21.6 18.4 13.8 10.0 3.3 1.0 96.7
Average relative humidity (%) 46 40 40 52 63 82 87 88 83 69 57 52 63
Source #1: NOAA (1971-1990)[16]
Source #2: DES[17]

Demographics[edit]

As per the provisional 2011 India census, the population of Belgaum is 588,292, and its urban / metropolitan population is 610,189.[18] Males constitute 51% (309,689) of the population and females 49% (300,500). Belgaum has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 65%; of those literate, 54% are males and 46% are females. Eleven percent of the population is under 6 years of age.[19] The local languages spoken in this city are Kannada and Marathi language and official language is Kannada. There are also minority number of Urdu, Konkani speakers. Hindi and English is also understood by the people of the city.

As per 2011 census, Kannada-speaking population of Belgaum district is nearly 68% of the total population. In Belgaum city, 33% population is Marathi speaking, 37% is Kannada speaking and 20% is Urdu speaking.[20][21][22]

Economy[edit]

Belgaum is an important source of vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, fish, mining production, and wood (due to heavy rainfall, rivers and the abundance of water). Trading in North Karnataka is mainly with Goa and Maharashtra along with major cities like Pune and Bangalore. Rich deposits of Bauxite are found in Belgaum district and have led to the creation of the Indian aluminium-producing company Hindalco Industries of the Aditya Birla Group.[23] Uranium deposits have been found at Deshnur, a small village near Bailhongal town.[24]

A 300-acre (1.2 km2) Special Economic Zone (India's first Private Aerospace SEZ ) is being set up along the Pune-Bangalore National Highway (NH-4) to cater to the precision engineering requirements of the global aerospace, automotive and industrial verticals.[25]

Belgaum border dispute[edit]

The Belgaum border dispute is a dispute involving the Indian states of Karnataka and Maharashtra. Belgaum, currently a part of Karnataka and earlier the erstwhile Bombay Presidency, is claimed by Maharashtra on linguistic grounds.

On 11 November 2005, Karnataka Rakshna Vedike (KRV) activists daubed Belagaum Mayor Vijay More's face with black paint (and later surrendered to the police)[26] in the wake of Belgaum City Corporation (BCC) passing a resolution[27][28] to include the district of Belgaum into Maharashtra, a neighbouring state. Upon his return to Belgaum, Vijay More was served with several show-cause notices by the Government of Karnataka and later dissolved the council.[29]

Following this incident, in the following year's election, Prashanta Budavi, wife of KRV (Karnataka Rakshana Vedike) City President Shantinath Budavi was appointed as mayor of the Belgaum City Corporation. Maharashtra has asked to bring 865 disputed villages including Belgaum under centre's rule until Supreme court's final verdict. N.D. Patil, head of legal-committee appointed by Maharashtra government said that Karnataka is intensifying the problem. He added that Marathi people of border region are not able to live with honour and dignity under Karnataka's rule pointing out to the 'unconstitutional' dissolution of Belgaum mahanagar palike and manhandling of Belgaum mayor by Kannada activists at Bangalore.[30]

Defence training centres[edit]

Belgaum's salubrious climate, proximity to the coast and strategic position near Portuguese Goa commended it to the British as a suitable location for an army training centre and cantonment, which it continues to be today for the Indian Armed Forces, along with an air force station of the Indian Air Force. The British had a sizeable infantry post here, having realised the military importance of its geographical location.

Development of a rail network for movement of resources and later troops was one of the means employed by both the East India Company and the British to exert control over India. Belgaum houses the Maratha Light Infantry Regimental Centre (MLIRC). It also houses the Commando Training Wing which is a part of the Infantry School, Mhow, where the country's infantry commandos are trained in endurance, escape and evasion, guerrilla and commando warfare techniques and to live off the land. The commando course at Belgaum is mandatory for all infantry officers. Officers of other arms and services and even some foreign officers undertake the course. In between the military hospital and the commando training centre there lies the eminent Belgaum Military School, established in 1945 spread over an area of 64 acres (26 ha).

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police, ITBP, is building a full-fledged recreation and training centre in Belgaum at Halbhavi. Belgaum provides an excellent climate for recreation and ITBP will have large family bases in Belgaum for its soldiers after high altitude stressful duty.

The Central Reserve Police Force Institute of elite central paramilitary forces is setting up a national-level training institution (for jungle warfare) at Khanapur in Belgaum.

Cuisine[edit]

Belgaum is known for kunda, a sweet made from milk.[31] A special sweet called mandige in Kannada and in Marathi as maande,[32] is a prerequisite for weddings. There are few kunda manufacturers in and around Belgaum, famous among them is Camp Purohit sweets. Other well known sweets are karadant and ladagi laadu, which are delicacies that originate in Gokak , a taluk of Belgaum. North Karnataka meal is famous in the city.

Educational institutions[edit]

VTU[edit]

Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU), named after Bharat Ratna Sir M Visweshwariah, is located in Machhe in Belgaum. It has more than 208 affiliated colleges. Over 67,000 students graduate from VTU every year.[33]

Rani Channamma University[edit]

Rani Channamma University was established in 2010 by upgrading the post-graduate centre of Karnatak University, Dharwad. Before the Rani Channamma University came into being in 2010, Karnatak University KRCPG Centre of Karnatak University, Dharwad was functioning at Belgaum. The Karnatak University PG Centre was established at Belgaum in the year 1982, to provide an opportunity to develop access to the students for higher education hailing from North Karnataka Region. In 1994 the PG centre was shifted to the present campus of 172 acres of land at Bhutramanahatti adjacent to the Pune-Bangalore National Highway – 4 NH 4, about 18 km from Belgaum. Karnatak University PG Centre has been declared as Rani Channamma University in the month of July 2010 with the jurisdiction of Belgaum, Vijaypur, and Bagalkot districts.

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Belgaum is connected by road via national highways 4 (connecting Maharashtra (now part of the Golden Quadrilateral), Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) and 4A (connecting Karnataka and Goa). North Western Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) run buses to all corners of Karnataka and to neighbouring states. There are many prominent private bus companies providing services to all major destinations in Karnataka and surrounding states. KSRTC services almost all villages in Karnataka. 92% villages are served by KSRTC (6,743 out of 7,298 Villages) and 44% in other areas. KSRTC operates 6463 schedules in a day covering an effective distance of 23.74 lakh km with a total fleet of 7599 buses. It transports, on an average, 24.57 lakh passengers per day.

The North Western Karnataka Road Transport Corporation was established in the year 01-11-1997, under provision of the Road Transport Corporation Act 1950, on the auspicious day of Karnataka Rajyotsava upon bifurcation from Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation to provide adequate, efficient, economic and properly coordinated transport services to the commuters of North Western part of the Karnataka. The Corporation jurisdiction covers the Belgaum, Dharwad, Karwar, Bagalkot, Gadag & Haveri districts.

NWKRTC operates its services to all villages, which have motorable roads in its jurisdiction and also covering intra and inter state operations. The entire jurisdiction of the corporation is totally nationalised sector.

The Government of Goa operates KADAMBA bus service from Goa to Belgaum city and some other parts of the Belgaum District.

The Government of Maharashtra also operates MSRTC buses from various parts of Maharashtra to Belgaum City and some other parts of the Belgaum District.

Air[edit]

The city is served by Belgaum Airport at Sambra, which is the oldest airport in North Karnataka and lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city on State Highway 20. Belgaum airport is included in UDAN 3 scheme. Now, Air india, Air Alliance, Spice Jet, Star Air have daily flights to Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmadabad. More flights and routes like Pune, Mumbai, Mysore and few other cities will be added in coming months under UDAN scheme. [34][35]

Rail[edit]

Belgaum railway station is on the Indian Railways grid, being part of the South Western railways, and is well connected by rail to major destinations.

Assembly session[edit]

In 2006, the Government of Karnataka decided to hold one week sessions of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly every year during the winter season at the Suvarna Vidhana Soudha administrative building, constructed and inaugurated in Belgaum in 2012.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "DC Rule". City Corporation of Belgaum, Govt. of Karnataka. 23 April 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
  2. ^ a b "Belagavi gets 1st Kannada mayor in 5 yrs". The Times of India. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  3. ^ "city/town summary". Archived from the original on 29 September 2006.
  4. ^ "Cities ohaving population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). Government of India.
  5. ^ "Official Website of Belgaum District". www.belgaum.nic.in. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  6. ^ Belgavi, Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. ^ "Decision on second capital status for Belgaum soon". Times of India, Bangalore. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  8. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 28 August 2015.
  9. ^ Michael W. Meister; Madhusudan A. Dhaky (1996). Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture. American Institute of Indian Studies. p. 255. ISBN 978-81-86526-00-2.
  10. ^ a b "History of Belgaum". Central Excise Belgaum. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  11. ^ outlookindia.com | wired Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "It'll be 'Bengaluru' from Nov 1". Deccan Herald. 8 October 2006. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  13. ^ New City, Names to Karnatka. "New name for cities". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  14. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Belgaum, India". www.fallingrain.com.
  15. ^ Lowest temperature in Belgaum
  16. ^ "Belgaum Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  17. ^ "DES" (PDF). DES. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  18. ^ "Provision Population Totals, Census of India 2011". Census Commission of India. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  19. ^ Census of India
  20. ^ Abhiram Gadhyapatil. "In Marathi-speaking areas of Karnataka, bid for merger with Maharashtra gets election push". Live Mint News. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  21. ^ Prachi Pinglay. "Kannada or Marathi? The Belgaum issue flares up again but are the people up for it?". Outlook India. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  22. ^ Jyotsna Raman. "All you need to know about calls for a separate North Karnataka state". The News Minute. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  23. ^ Natural Resources in the State of Karnataka - Directorate of Industries and Commerce, Government of Karnataka Archived 6 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Patil, Vijaykumar (16 July 2010). "Belgaum poised for further growth in industrial and farm sectors". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  25. ^ Sen, Chiranjoy (4 July 2007). "Quest plans 300-acre aerospace SEZ in Belgaum" – via The Economic Times.
  26. ^ "Ten Vedike Members Surrender". The Hindu. 13 November 2005. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  27. ^ "The Hindu : Karnataka / Belgaum News : Supersession of BCC came as no surprise". www.thehindu.com.
  28. ^ "The Hindu : Front Page : Belgaum corporation: decision today". www.thehindu.com.
  29. ^ Frontline - A dispute revived Archived 12 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "Bring border region under centre's rule until problem is solved" (in Marathi). Maharashtra Times. 9 December 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2006.[dead link]
  31. ^ Amit Jadhav (17 June 2012). "खिम्याचे उंडे, बेसन चटणीची भेळ, कुंदा..." [Khimyācē Uṇḍē, Bēsan Caṭaṇīcī Bhēḷ, Kundā...]. Sakal (in Marathi). Solapur. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  32. ^ Anant Manohar (8 April 2012). "'लावलेले पोहे', दाळीतोय, मांडे..." ['Lāvlēlē Pōhē', Dāḷītōy, Māṇḍē...]. Sakal (in Marathi). Belgaon. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  33. ^ "About VTU". VTU. 15 October 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  34. ^ "Kingfisher Airlines starts daily Belgaum-Mumbai flights". The Hindu. 11 January 2011.
  35. ^ Dwarakanath, Nagarjun (11 July 2018). "Air India introduces new flight from Bengaluru to Belgaum". India Today.

External links[edit]