Bell, Book and Candle
|Bell, Book and Candle|
Promotional film poster
|Directed by||Richard Quine|
|Produced by||Julian Blaustein|
|Written by||Daniel Taradash|
|Based on||"Bell, Book and Candle"
by John Van Druten
|Music by||George Duning|
|Cinematography||James Wong Howe|
|Edited by||Charles Nelson|
Phoenix Productions, Inc.
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures|
|December 25, 1958|
|Box office||$2.5 million (estimated US/ Canada rentals)|
Bell, Book and Candle is a 1958 American romantic comedy Technicolor film directed by Richard Quine, based on the successful Broadway play by John Van Druten and adapted by Daniel Taradash. It stars Kim Novak as a witch who casts a spell on her neighbor played by James Stewart. Rounding out the supporting cast are Jack Lemmon, Ernie Kovacs, Hermione Gingold and Elsa Lanchester. The film is considered Stewart's last as a romantic lead.
During the Christmas holiday season, Greenwich Village witch Gillian Holroyd (Kim Novak), a free spirit with a penchant for going barefoot, has been unlucky in love and restless in life. She admires from afar her neighbor, publisher Shep Henderson (James Stewart), who one day walks into her gallery of African art to use the telephone, after Gillian's aunt Queenie (Elsa Lanchester) put a spell on his phone. When she learns he is about to marry an old college enemy of hers, Merle Kittridge (Janice Rule), Gillian takes revenge by casting a love spell on Shep, and she eventually falls for him herself. She must make a choice, as witches who fall in love lose their supernatural powers. When she decides to love Shep, Gillian's cat and familiar, Pyewacket, becomes agitated and leaves.
Sidney Redlitch (Ernie Kovacs), the author of the best-selling book Magic in Mexico, arrives in Shep's office (thanks to a little magic) after Gillian discovers Shep's interest in meeting him. Redlitch is researching a book on witches in New York, and he acquires an "inside" collaborator when Gillian's warlock brother Nicky (Jack Lemmon) volunteers his services in exchange for a portion of the proceeds.
Gillian uses her magic to make Shep lose interest in Nicky and Redlitch's book, and then confesses her identity as a witch to Shep. Shep becomes angry, believing she enchanted him just to spite Merle, and the two quarrel. Gillian threatens to cast various spells on Merle, such as making her fall in love with the first man who walks into her apartment, but she finds that she has lost her powers because of her love for Shep. Meanwhile, Shep finds he literally cannot leave Gillian, because of the spell. To escape, he turns to another witch, Bianca De Pass (Hermione Gingold), who breaks the spell. Shep confronts Gillian and leaves her heartbroken. He then tries unsuccessfully to explain to Merle that Gillian is a witch. Months later, Shep returns and discovers Gillian has lost her magic powers because of her love for him. When he realizes her love is true, the two reconcile.
- James Stewart as Shepherd "Shep" Henderson
- Kim Novak as Gillian "Gil" Holroyd
- Jack Lemmon as Nicky Holroyd
- Ernie Kovacs as Sidney Redlitch
- Elsa Lanchester as Aunt Queenie Holroyd
- Hermione Gingold as Bianca De Pass
- Janice Rule as Merle Kittridge
- Howard McNear as Andy White, Shep's co-publisher
- Dick Crockett as Ad-lib Bit
- Bek Nelson as Tina, Shep's Secretary
- Pyewacket the cat, as himself
David O. Selznick purchased the rights to Van Druten's play in 1953,[a] planning to cast his wife, Jennifer Jones, in the part of Gil. At the urging of Daniel Taradesh and Julian Blaustein, Columbia purchased the property from Selznick in 1956.
Taradash, who had adapted From Here to Eternity (1953) for Columbia with great success, augmented the story slightly by incorporating characters who are only names in the play (notably Mrs. De Pass, and Shep's fiancee Merle) and expanding the action to locations beyond Gil's apartment.
For the lead roles, Taradash and Blaustein hoped to get Rex Harrison and Lilli Palmer, who had starred in the play, but Columbia chief Harry Cohn decided on Kim Novak for the female lead. Novak was on loan to Paramount making Vertigo and the scheduling conflict put Harrison out of consideration as well. Taradash and Blaustein also suggested Cary Grant and Grace Kelly as the leads and Alexander Mackendrick to direct; Kelly got married, however, and there were creative differences between the studio and both Grant and Mackendrick. Since the arrangement with Paramount for Novak's appearance in Vertigo included reciprocity, Cohn advanced James Stewart for the role of Shep. Bell, Book and Candle is generally recognized as Stewart's final romantic leading role.
Early in 1957 producers also launched a somewhat promotional search for Siamese cats to play Pyewacket. According to one release, as many as 12 cats were needed to perform the number of stunts in the film.
Production began February 3, 1958, and was completed April 7.
The movie was scored by George Duning, another Columbia veteran who earned praise for his work on From Here to Eternity. The main theme melds bongos and violins, evoking elements of the plot; heard during the opening credits, a few staves of "Jingle Bells" are incorporated to set the Christmas tone of the initial action. Each witch, including Pyewacket the cat, is identified by a musical signature. Duning used creative means such as recording sounds and replaying them at high speed to achieve an eerie background effect for the score.
The soundtrack was released in January 1959 by Colpix (CT-506).[b] Most of the recording took place in Munich with Duning conducting the Graunke Symphony Orchestra. The segments featuring the Brothers Candoli, who appear in the film playing at the Zodiac Club, were recorded in Hollywood at Columbia; on these tracks, John Williams can be heard on piano.
Philippe Clay makes a cameo appearance in the film performing "Le Noyé Assassiné" at the Zodiac Club, but this performance is not included on the soundtrack album.
Release and reception
Bell Book and Candle was considered a "blockbuster" by Columbia and prior to its release it was promoted accordingly. Novak appeared with Pyewacket on the November 25 cover of Life, along with a write-up that highlighted a tie-in with Life photographer Eliot Elisofon who was the color consultant on the film. There were favorable write-ups in other major magazines and a production number on The Steve Allen Show featured the theme music.[c]
On November 11, 1958, the movie made its world premiere in Los Angeles at the Warner Beverly Theatre. It played an exclusive engagement there until its New York premiere on December 25.
Bell, Book and Candle received Academy Award nominations in two categories: Best Art Direction (Cary Odell and Louis Diage); and Best Costume Design (Jean Louis). It also received a Golden Globes nomination for Best Motion Picture – Comedy.
- "1959: Probable Domestic Take". Variety. January 6, 1960. p. 34.
- Van Druten, John (1951). Bell, Book and Candle: Comedy in Three Acts. Dramatists Play Service. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8222-0104-5.
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- Eliot, Marc (2006). Jimmy Stewart: A Biography. Crown/Archetype. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-307-35268-2.
- Green, Paul (2011). Jennifer Jones: The Life and Films. McFarland. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-7864-8583-3.
- Erskine, Thomas L.; Welsh, James M., eds. (2000). Video Versions: Film Adaptations of Plays on Video. ABC-CLIO. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-313-03203-5.
- Dick, Bernard F. (2015). The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-8131-4753-6.
- Quirk, Lawrence J. (1999). James Stewart: Behind the Scenes of a Wonderful Life. Applause. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-55783-416-4.
- Mosby, Aline (January 7, 1957). "Film Producers Launch Search for Cat With Ava's Personality". The Deseret News. p. A13. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- Johnson, Erskine (March 4, 1958). "Hollywood Today". The Spencer Daily Reporter. p. 3. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- "Bell, Book and Candle". Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-09-13.
- Hischak, Thomas S. (2015). The Encyclopedia of Film Composers. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-4422-4550-1.
- "Reviews and Ratings of New Popular Albums". Billboard. 71 (1): 20–21. January 5, 1959. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Pitts, Michael R. (2010). Columbia Pictures Horror, Science Fiction and Fantasy Films, 1928–1982. McFarland. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-0-7864-5766-3.
- Thomas, Tony (1978). "Back cover". Bell, Book and Candle LP (Media notes). George Duning. Citadel Records. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- "Col. to Push 7 Top Films". Motion Picture Daily. 83 (64): 1. April 2, 1958. Retrieved 2015-09-14 – via Internet Archive.
- "Bewitching Tale About Witches". Life. 45 (21): cover; 66–69. November 24, 1958. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- "Values in Pre-Selling Touted by Rosenfield". Motion Picture Daily. 84 (110): 1, 6. December 9, 1958. Retrieved 2015-09-14 – via Internet Archive.
- Allen, Steve (1999). Steve Allen's Songs: 100 Lyrics with Commentary. McFarland. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7864-0736-1.
- For the Los Angeles premiere see "'Book' Opens Big". Motion Picture Daily. 84 (93): 3. November 13, 1958. Retrieved 2015-09-14 – via Internet Archive. For the New York premiere see "'Candle' Here Dec. 25". Motion Picture Daily. 84 (112): 3. December 11, 1958. Retrieved 2015-09-14 – via Internet Archive.
- "Bell, Book and Candle". Movies. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- Saks, Sol (1991). Funny Business: The Craft of Comedy Writing. Lone Eagle Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-943728-45-2.