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Bella ciao

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"Bella ciao"
Song
LanguageItalian
English title"Goodbye Beautiful"
GenreFolk

"Bella ciao" (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbɛlla ˈtʃaːo]; "Goodbye beautiful") is an Italian protest folk song that originated in the hardships of the mondina women, the paddy field workers in the late 19th century who sang it to protest against harsh working conditions in the paddy fields of North Italy. The song was modified and adopted as an anthem of the anti-fascist resistance by the Italian partisans between 1943 and 1945 during the Italian Resistance, the resistance of Italian partisans against the Nazi German forces occupying Italy, and, during the Italian Civil War, the Italian partisan struggle against the fascist Italian Social Republic and its Nazi German allies. Versions of "Bella ciao" are sung worldwide as an anti-fascist hymn of freedom and resistance.

History

An Italian partisan in Florence, 1944

"Bella Ciao" was originally sung as "Alla mattina appena alzata" by seasonal workers of paddy fields of rice, especially in Italy's Po Valley from the late 19th century to the first half of the 20th century with different lyrics.[1] They worked at monda (weeding) the rice fields in northern Italy, to help the healthy growth of young rice plants. It took place during the flooding of the fields, from the end of April to the beginning of June every year, during which the delicate shoots needed to be protected, during the first stages of their development, from temperature differences between the day and the night. It consisted of two phases: transplanting the plants and pruning the weeds.

Monda was an extremely tiring task, carried out mostly by women known as mondinas, from the poorest social classes. They would spend their workdays with their bare feet in water up to their knees, and their back bent for many hours. The atrocious working conditions, long hours and very low pay led to constant dissatisfaction and led, at times, to rebellious movements and riots in the early years of the twentieth century. The struggles against the supervising padroni was even harder, with plenty of clandestine workers ready to compromise even further the already low wages just to get work. Besides "Bella ciao", similar songs by the mondina women included "Sciur padrun da li beli braghi bianchi" and "Se otto ore vi sembran poche".

Other similar versions of the antecedents of "Bella ciao" appeared over the years, indicating that "Alla mattina appena alzata" must have been composed in the latter half of the 19th century.[2] The earliest written version is dated 1906 and comes from near Vercelli, Piedmont.[3]

"Bella ciao" was revived by the anti-fascist resistance movement in Italy between 1943 and 1945, with modified lyrics.[4] The author of the lyrics is unknown.

In 2015, the song was banned in some municipalities of Northern Italy, ruled by the right-wing League.[5]

Melody

Italian folksinger Giovanna Daffini recorded the song in 1962.[6] The music is in quadruple meter.


\relative c'  {
  \language "deutsch"
  \autoBeamOff
  \clef treble
  \key f \major
  \partial 4. a8 d e
  f8 d4.~ d8 a d e
  f8 d4.~ d8 a d e
  f4 e8 d f4 e8 d
  a'4 a a8 a g a
  b b4.~ b8 b a g
  b a4.~ a8 a g f
  e4 a f e
  d2 r8
  \bar "|."
}
\addlyrics {
  U -- na mat -- ti -- na __
  mi son sve -- glia -- to,
  o bel -- la ciao, bel -- la ciao,
  bel -- la ciao ciao ciao,
  u -- na mat -- ti -- na mi son sve -- glia -- to,
  e ho tro -- va -- to l'in -- va -- sor.
}

Lyrics

Mondine version

Italian lyrics[7] English translation

Alla mattina appena alzata
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao, ciao, ciao
alla mattina appena alzata
in risaia mi tocca andar.

E fra gli insetti e le zanzare
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
e fra gli insetti e le zanzare
un dur lavoro mi tocca far.

Il capo in piedi col suo bastone
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
il capo in piedi col suo bastone
e noi curve a lavorar.

O mamma mia o che tormento
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
o mamma mia o che tormento
io t'invoco ogni doman.

Ed ogni ora che qui passiamo
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
ed ogni ora che qui passiamo
noi perdiam la gioventù.

Ma verrà un giorno che tutte quante
o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao
ma verrà un giorno che tutte quante
lavoreremo in libertà.

In the morning I got up
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao (Goodbye beautiful)
In the morning I got up
To the paddy rice fields, I have to go.

And between insects and mosquitoes
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and between insects and mosquitoes
a hard work I have to work.

The boss is standing with his cane
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
the boss is standing with his cane
and we work with our backs curved.

Oh my god, what a torment
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
oh my god, what a torment
as I call you every morning.

And every hour that we pass here
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and every hour that we pass here
we lose our youth.

But the day will come when us all
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
but the day will come when us all
will work in freedom.

Partisan version

Italian lyrics[8] English translation

Una mattina mi son svegliato,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao!
Una mattina mi son svegliato
e ho trovato l'invasor.

O partigiano portami via,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao
o partigiano portami via
che mi sento di morir.

E se io muoio da partigiano,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
e se io muoio da partigiano
tu mi devi seppellir.

Seppellire lassù in montagna,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
seppellire lassù in montagna
sotto l'ombra di un bel fior.

E le genti che passeranno,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
e le genti che passeranno
mi diranno «che bel fior.»

Questo è il fiore del partigiano,
o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao,
questo è il fiore del partigiano
morto per la libertà

One morning I awakened,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao! (Goodbye beautiful)
One morning I awakened
And I found the invader.

Oh partisan carry me away,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
oh partisan carry me away
Because I feel death approaching.

And if I die as a partisan,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and if I die as a partisan
then you must bury me.

Bury me up in the mountain,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
bury me up in the mountain
under the shade of a beautiful flower.

And all those who shall pass,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
and all those who shall pass
will tell me "what a beautiful flower."

This is the flower of the partisan,
oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao
this is the flower of the partisan
who died for freedom

Recordings

One of the most famous recordings is that of the Italian folk singer Giovanna Daffini who recorded both the mondina and the partisan versions. It appears in her 1975 album Amore mio non-piangere. Many artists have recorded the song, including Herbert Pagani, Mary Hopkin, Sandie Shaw, and Manu Chao.

International versions

In addition to the original Italian, the song has been recorded by various artists in many different languages, including Albanian, Arabic, Belarusian, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, English, Esperanto, Finnish, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Hebrew, Japanese, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Persian, Macedonian,[20] Malayalam, Norwegian, Occitan, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish, Syriac, Swedish, Tagalog, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, and Ukrainian.[citation needed]

  • Azerbaijani Soviet singer Muslim Magomayev performed the song at some of his concerts and he stated that it was Brezhnev's favorite by him.[21][22]
  • The Chinese version of the song featured in the Chinese translation of the Yugoslavian film The Bridge.
  • A rewritten version of the song can be heard on Chumbawamba's acoustic album A Singsong and a Scrap.
  • Another version of the song was recorded by the punk rock band Dog Faced Hermans[23] on their album, Every Day Time Bomb.
  • Former Yugoslav punk rock bands KUD Idijoti and later Goblini recorded their versions of the track.
  • Hungarian punk rock band Aurora has performed the song.
  • Folk musician Leslie Fish has written and performed several versions of the song, one of which can be found on the album Smoked Fish.
  • Folk artist Mirah lent her voice to this song on her 2004 album, To All We Stretch the Open Arm.
  • Anita Lane recorded a version in English for her 2001 album, Sex O'Clock.
  • Breton folk punk band Les Ramoneurs de menhirs recorded a version in Breton and French but called it "BellARB".
  • Danish psychedelic rock group Savage Rose have recorded a version of this song on the albums En Vugge Af Stål from 1982 and Ild Og Frihed (1989).
  • San Francisco punk band La Plebe perform "Bella Ciao" on their album, Brazo en Brazo.
  • French-born musician of Spanish origin Manu Chao has also recorded a version of the song.
  • Singer Ciwan Haco has included the song in his album Çaw Bella 1989 – Bochum – Germany.[24]
  • Music band Koma Dengê Azadî has also included the song with a different style in their album Çaw Bella 1991 – Istanbul – Turkey. The song was revived during ISIS attack on Kobane 2014.[25]
  • The tune has been used in the song "Pilla Chao" from the 2011 Telugu language film Businessman, composed by S. Thaman and also dubbed as "Penne Chaavu" in the Malayalam version of the same film. [26]
  • The 2013 Hindi language film Besharam starring Ranbir Kapoor uses the tune in the song "Love Ki Ghanti."[26]
  • Italian ska punk band Talco recorded the song on their 2006 album Combat Circus.
  • German Liedermacher Hannes Wader recorded a German version on Wader, Hannes (1977). Hannes Wader singt Arbeiterlieder [sings workers' songs] (in German). Mercury.
  • Konstantin Wecker and Hannes Wader performed it live on their collaboration album Was für eine Nacht.
  • Turkish band Grup Yorum have recorded a Turkish translation of the song on their 1988 album Haziranda Ölmek Zor / Berivan.[27]
  • Turkish band Bandista has recorded a Turkish version, "Hoşçakal", on their album Daima!, in 2011.[28]
  • Bosnian musician Goran Bregović has recorded one version on his album Champagne for Gypsies (2012).[29]
  • German folk duo Zupfgeigenhansel recorded a free adaptation on their 1982 album Miteinander[30] that, instead of glorifying the death of the partisan, paints him as a reluctant anti-hero who is scared and despises war, but feels he has no other choice because of the atrocities he has seen.[31]
  • Thai anti-fascism band, "Faiyen" (ไฟเย็น, "Cold Flame") recorded a Thai version of the song called "Plodploy Plianplaeng" (Thai: ปลดปล่อย เปลี่ยนแปลง, "Liberate and Change").[32] It has been used by the Red Shirts anti-fascism group since 2011.
  • Spanish punk rock band Boikot recorded a modified version in Spanish.
  • An a cappela version was recorded by the Swingle Singers in 1991 on their album "Folk Music Around The World"[33]
  • Belarusian folk punk band Dzieciuki recorded a modified version in Belarusian under the name "Трымайся, браце!" ("Hold fast, brother!").
  • Syriac (Aramaic) version created by Beith Souryoye Morounoye under the name "foosh bashlom (Bella ciao)".[34]
  • Patric recorded Bèla Ciaò, a version in Occitan for his 2010 album, Colors.
  • Mike Singer recorded an Electro dance version in June 2018.
  • Hardwell and Maddix released an EDM version of the song in 2018.
  • American DJ Steve Aoki and Marnik also made an EDM version in 2018.
  • Marc Ribot collaborated with Tom Waits to create their own version for 2018. It is the first song Tom Waits has done in 2 years. This appears on the Marc Ribot album Songs of Resistance 1942–2018.
  • Algerian artist, Chibane recorded a swing jazz version with Italian and Algerian lyrics during a live studio session in 2018.[35]
  • In 2019, Extinction Rebellion modified the text to suit their mission and named their new version "Rebella Ciao".
  • In 2019, Spanish singer Najwa released her take on the Spanish version of the song, that later served as the music in the ending credits of the fourth season of Money Heist (in which she plays Alicia Sierra).
  • In September 2019, Lebanese singer Shiraz released her remixed version of the song that topped the Lebanese Singles Chart.
  • On 12 January 2020, Czech folk band Nahoře published the version of the song with czech lyrics.[36]
  • On 24 April 2020, musicians Dragan Spasov - Dac and Aleksandar Mitevski (known as “Dac & Aleksandar“) from North Macedonia released a cover version of the song in Macedonian, named “Corona, ciao”, with lyrics about the coronavirus. Within three days since its release, the video clip of the song (filmed on mobile phones) had generated 922,000 views on YouTube,[37]. A day later a video clip of the Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissov listening to the song, while driving his car was shared on his official Facebook page and in the first 48 hours generated more than 12,000 likes, 3,800 comments, and 4,500 shares.[38]
  • On 17 May 2020 Russian folk-punk Arkadiy Kots Band released new Russian version together with Italian musicians Enza Pagliare and Dario Muci as a part of Transeuropean Partisan Jam project [39]
  • On 3 July 2020 DJ Frenzy released a version titled BHANGRA HEIST (Bella Ciao),[40] a fusion between Punjabi folk music and Bhangra.

In popular culture

As an internationally known hymn of freedom, it was intoned at many historic and revolutionary events. The song originally aligned itself with Italian partisans fighting against Nazi German occupation troops, but has since become to merely stand for the inherent rights of all people to be liberated from tyranny.[41][42]

Renewed popularity

In 2017 and 2018, the song received renewed popularity due to the singing of "Bella ciao" multiple times in the Spanish television series Money Heist.[43] The character Tokyo recounts in one of her narrations, "The life of the Professor revolved around a single idea: Resistance. His grandfather, who had fought against the fascists in Italy, taught him the song and he taught us."[43] The song is played in emblematic moments in the series as a metaphor for freedom.[43] The part 2 finale is also titled "Bella ciao."

As a result of the popularity of the series, there was a flood of music releases in 2018:

  • El Profesor and Berlin original version from the series
  • "Bella ciao (Hugel Remix)" using the rendition of The Professor
  • Separate versions by The Bear, by Sound of Legend and by Manu Pilas.
  • Rapper Rémy sampled the song in a rap freestyle version
  • New Brazilian bass version of the song by Alok, Bhaskar, Jetlag Music, André Sarate and Adolfo Celdran
  • In April 2018, Dutch hardstyle DJ duo Gunz For Hire remixed "Bella Ciao".[44]
  • On 18 May 2018, a completely revamped French version with new French-language lyrics keeping a few lines in Italian was released by Maître Gims, Vitaa, Dadju, Slimane and Naestro. The version topped SNEP, the official French Singles Chart.
  • In June 2018, the German pop singer Mike Singer released his own version that charted on the German Singles Chart.
  • In June 2018, DJs Steve Aoki and Marnik released an EDM cover of "Bella Ciao".
  • In June 2018, Dominican singer El Chuape remixed the original into a dembow song titled "La Malondra."
  • In August 2018, Dutch DJs Maddix and Hardwell released their own twist on the popular song.
  • In February 2020, Los Elegantes de Jerez released the song as a Huapango, a typical genre of music in Northern Mexico.
  • On 21 May 2020, a version from Grup Yorum, of which two members had died due to a hunger strike, was aired instead of the Adhan from some Minarets in İzmir; the authorities arrested a woman for the act the same day.[45]
Chart positions (2018)
Date Title Performer(s) Charts
FRA AUT BEL
(Fl)
BEL
(Wa)
GER NLD POL
[46]
SWI
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao (La Casa de Papel Remix) Meder
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao Bella Ciao 119
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao The Bear 45
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao (1995 version) Thomas Fersen 153
14 April 2018 Bella Ciao Red Army Choir (Les Chœurs de l'Armée rouge) 147
21 April 2018 Bella Ciao Sound of Legend 29
21 April 2018 Bella Ciao (Hugel Remix) El Profesor 11 1 13 4
(Ultratip)
2 27 14
28 April 2018 Bella Ciao Ska J 159
5 May 2018 Bella Ciao Manu Pilas 27
12 May 2018 Bella Ciao Rémy 66 Tip
12 May 2018 Bella Ciao El Profesor & Berlin 4 35 21
(Ultratip)
19 May 2018 Bella Ciao Naestro, Maître Gims, Vitaa, Dadju, Slimane 1 13 57
25 May 2018 Bella Ciao Young Ellens 27
29 June 2018 Bella Ciao Mike Singer 59 44 80

Miscellaneous

In 2012, the melody of "Bella ciao" has also been adopted with adapted lyrics as a worldwide environmental activist song ("Do it now"), demanding political action against global warming.[47][48]

The melody is often used as a football chant by Italian ultras groups of Cosenza Calcio, A.S. Livorno and also outside of Italy by A.E.K., Portland Timbers, Motherwell, Aris Thessaloniki, Panathinaikos F.C. and FC Zürich fans.

In April 2018, supporters from the Portuguese soccer club F.C. Porto adapted the song with the lyrics "Penta Xau" ("Bye bye fifth"), referring to the lost opportunity by rival club S.L. Benfica to win a fifth national championship in a row, a feat only F.C. Porto has achieved in the country.[49]

The song was also adapted by Brazilian fans during World Cup 2018 to tease and taunt Argentina about their possible exit in the first round, which eventually did not occur, with references to Argentine players Di María, Mascherano, and Messi (Brazil and Argentina have a well-known football rivalry).[50]

The song was the inspiration for the #EleNão movement against extreme right wing Brazilian presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro.[51]

The song was adapted by people in Colombia, who in 2019, participated in nationwide protests against the government.[52][53]

In March 2020, the song once again gained international attention after Europeans and Italians in lockdown due to the coronavirus pandemic in Italy and Europe sang "Bella ciao" from the balconies of their housing complexes.[54][55][56][57]

Filmography

"Bella Ciao" has been used many times in soundtracks of films. Examples include:

See also

References

  1. ^ Silverman, Jerry (2011). Songs That Made History Around the World. Mel Bay Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-61065-016-8.
  2. ^ Bermani, Cesare (2003). Guerra guerra ai palazzi e alle chiese. Odradek Edizioni.
  3. ^ D. Massa, R. Palazzi and S. Vittone: Riseri d'al me coeur
  4. ^ Marchenkov, Vladimir L. (26 June 2014). Arts and Terror. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443862370 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Bennett, Dianne; Graebner, William (27 April 2015). "Liberation Day: The Politics of "Bella Ciao"". Rome the Second Time. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020. In parts of Northern Italy, where the extreme rightists-separatists of the Northern League govern, the song was banned this year on April 25, Liberation Day.
  6. ^ Recording made by musicologists Gianni Bosio and Roberto Leydi in 1962. Giovanna Daffini: "Alla mattina appena alzata", from the CD: Giovanna Daffini: L’amata genitrice (1991)
  7. ^ "Bella Ciao (delle Mondine)". www.antiwarsongs.org.
  8. ^ "UNA DICHIARAZIONE D'AMORE" (PDF). ANPI.
  9. ^ Ina.fr, Institut National de l’Audiovisuel-. "Yves Montand "Bella ciao"". Ina.fr. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Bella Ciao". Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  11. ^ "Bella Ciao - Modena City Ramblers" – via www.youtube.com.
  12. ^ "Banda Bassotti - Bella Ciao" – via www.youtube.com.
  13. ^ "Bella Ciao - La Casa de Papel (Thomas Fersen) Letra" – via www.youtube.com.
  14. ^ "Diego Moreno Bella Ciao (Bella Chao)". YouTube.com.
  15. ^ "Red Army Choir: Bella Ciao" – via www.youtube.com.
  16. ^ "Talco - Bella Ciao" – via www.youtube.com.
  17. ^ "Goran Bregovic - Bella Ciao - ( LIVE ) Paris 2013" – via www.youtube.com.
  18. ^ Barsanti, Sam. "Tom Waits releases anti-fascist folk ballad, his first new song in 2 years". News.
  19. ^ Bella Ciao - Flamenco Interpretation by Juan Pinilla and Amparanoia for the European Left Congress, retrieved 16 December 2019
    • 2020: Daniele Vitale played Bella Ciao in this "BALCONY SAX PERFORMANCE" in ITALY during the COVID-19 period of self-isolation during the Spring.
  20. ^ "Mila znaj - O bella ciao na makedonski". YouTube. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  21. ^ Magomayev interview at "Russian Week", 2005.
  22. ^ "Bella Ciao - Muslim Magomaev". YouTube. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  23. ^ "Dog Faced Hermans". Pyduc.com. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Çaw Bella". Ciwan Haco. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  25. ^ "Çaw Bella (ji bo kobanê)- Ciao Bella for Kobani - Ciao Bella para Kobanê". Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  26. ^ a b Srinivasan, Karthik (7 August 2018). "What Connects Netflix's La Casa De Papel, Ranbir Kapoor and Mahesh Babu?". Film Companion. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  27. ^ "Bella Ciao of Grup Yorum".
  28. ^ "Bandista". Tayfabandista.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  29. ^ "Goran Bregovic - Official Website - Beta". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013.
  30. ^ "Zupfgeigenhansel - Miteinander (Vinyl, LP, Album) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  31. ^ "Canzoni contro la guerra - Bella Ciao". Antiwarsongs.org. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  32. ^ "ปลดปล่อย..เปลี่ยนแปลง". Youtube. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  33. ^ The Swingle Singers* - Around The World - Folk Music - An A Cappela Song Collection (CD, Album) at Discogs
  34. ^ Beith Souryoye Morounoye (4 May 2018). "foosh bashlom (Bella ciao) - Musical - Lyrics in Syriac (Aramaic) w/English" – via YouTube.
  35. ^ "Chibane - Bella ciao (Algerian version) | live studio session" – via www.youtube.com.
  36. ^ "Song with czech lyrics on youtube channel Hudební skupina Nahoře".
  37. ^ YouTube channel Dac&Aleksandar YouTube channel
  38. ^ Video official Facebook page of Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissov.
  39. ^ YouTube channel Arkadiy Kots Band youtube channel.
  40. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X4z9pHa1x8
  41. ^ http://pstream.lastampa.it.dl1.ipercast.net/lastampa/2015/01/23/d37A1QUG.mp4
  42. ^ "Non solo Tsipras: "Bella ciao" cantata in tutte le lingue del mondo Guarda il video - Corriere TV". video.corriere.it.
  43. ^ a b c ""Bella Ciao": música em "La Casa de Papel" é antiga, mas tem TUDO a ver com a série" (in Portuguese). 19 February 2018.
  44. ^ Veiga, Paulo (26 April 2018). "GUNZ FOR HIRE REMIX OF BELLA CIAO IS AVAILABLE". WIDEFUTURE. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  45. ^ "Turkey arrests woman after 'hacked' mosques play WWII anti-facist song". Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  46. ^ Peak chart positions for singles in Poland:
  47. ^ "Sing for the climate - Because we must raise our voices NOW". Sing for the Climate.
  48. ^ www11be (20 August 2012). "Sing for the Climate : Do it Now - De Clip" – via YouTube.
  49. ^ Ferreira, Marta Leite. "Com raízes na Alemanha, esta é a origem do novo cântico do FC Porto". Observador.
  50. ^ "Brasileños adaptan 'Bella ciao' para burlarse y 'despedir' a Messi" (in Portuguese). msn.om. 22 June 2018.
  51. ^ Simone Soares and Flavia Simão (24 September 2018). "EleNão: Aprenda a letra da música dos atos da Primavera feminista" [NotHim: Learn the lyrics of the anthem of Feminist Spring] (in Portuguese). Esquerda On-line. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  52. ^ "¡Que belleza, "Duque ciao"!" (in Spanish) – via Twitter.
  53. ^ "¿Qué cantó la gente que marchó el 21N en el paro nacional?" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  54. ^ "View from Rome's rooftops: Singing offers hope but it doesn't hide fear and frustration". thelocal.it. 16 March 2020.
  55. ^ "Coronavirus: Italy resists disaster with cultural pursuits". irishtimes.com. 15 March 2020.
  56. ^ "Coronavirus, tedeschi dal balcone cantano "Bella ciao". "Amici italiani vi siamo vicini"" (in Italian). video.repubblica.it. 17 March 2020.
  57. ^ "Coronavirus: Germans in Bamberg sing Bella Ciao from rooftops in solidarity with Italy". Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  58. ^ "Bella Ciao!". Bella Ciao!.
  59. ^ "Bella Ciao!" – via www.imdb.com.

External links