|14-13 Cruisair Senior|
|Role||Civil utility aircraft|
|First flight||November 13, 1945|
|Number built||Around 600|
|Developed from||Bellanca 14-7|
The Bellanca 14-13 Cruisair Senior and its successors were a family of light aircraft that were manufactured in the United States by AviaBellanca Aircraft after World War II. They were a follow-up to the prewar Bellanca 14-7 and its derivatives.
Design and development
While retaining the Bellanca 14-7's basic design, the 14-13 featured an enlarged cabin, a horizontally opposed Franklin 6A4-335-B3 150 hp (112 kW) engine in place of the earlier models' Le Blond radial and an oval vertical endplate on each horizontal stabiliser. This latter feature gained the type the affectionate nickname "cardboard Constellation", because the arrangement was similar to the contemporary Lockheed Constellation airliner.
Taking its name from the Bellanca tradition of identifying the series from the wing area in square feet, dropping the final digit, while the second number was the aircraft's horsepower, again dropping the final digit, the 14-13 did not quite fit the naming convention. The Bellanca 14-13 wing was constructed of wood, while the fuselage was welded steel-tube framework with a fabric covering.
The 14-13 was introduced in 1946; in its improved 14-13-3 version the aircraft remained in production until 1956.
A higher-performance design revision was granted FAA approval as the 14-19 Cruisemaster on September 26, 1949. The new model featured structural upgrades, a 190 hp (142 kW) Lycoming O435-A engine, an increased gross weight of 2,600 lb (1,179 kg), hydraulically operated landing gear and flaps, and a deluxe interior. 99 of these airplanes were produced between 1949 and 1951. Externally, a near-look-alike to the earlier models, this version was distinguished by its larger, oval-shaped endplates. All production ceased in 1956 as Bellanca wound up its operations.
The 14-19 design was revived by Northern Aircraft and granted FAA approval on January 7, 1957 as the 14-19-2 Cruisemaster. The new model featured a 230 hp (172 kW) Continental O-470K engine, an increased gross weight of 2,700 pounds, an updated instrument panel as well as new paint and upholstery schemes. A total of 104 of these aircraft were produced between 1957 and 1958.
The company was renamed Downer Aircraft in 1959. Inter-Air acquired the production rights in 1962 and was renamed as the Bellanca Sales Company, a subsidiary of Miller Flying Service. Further development of the design by Inter-Air resulted in the modernized Viking series introduced in 1962.
Designed and produced in the post-World War II era, the Bellanca 14-13 Cruisair Senior was aimed at a general aviation market. Pilot/owners were offered a combination of performance, low engine power and a modest price. Its performance and structural strength also made it attractive for utility work, but in many ways the Bellanca design was an anachronism, relying on a conventional landing gear configuration and wood-and-fabric construction that harkened back to an earlier age. Postwar economics along with a glut of surplus military aircraft precluded heavy sales although about 600 were produced.
Despite its introduction into a period where private aircraft sales were stagnant, the aircraft remained popular through all of its incarnations and today is considered a classic cabin monoplane and is much in demand.
- Initial model introduced in 1946
- Improved model introduced in 1947. Featured a longer-span stabilizer with smaller endplates and an external baggage door.
- Improved model introduced in 1948, which remained in production until 1956
- "Wagon" version with plywood-lined cabin and removable rear seats
- 190 hp (142 kW) version introduced in 1949
- 230 hp (172 kW) version introduced in 1957
- 260 hp (194 kW) tricycle gear version introduced in 1959 by Downer Aircraft
- Downer 260B Model 14-19-3A
- Last version built by Downer Aircraft priced at $19,500 in 1962 - Powered by a 260 hp (194 kW) Continental IO-470-F engine
- Downer 260C Model 14-19-3C
- Version built by Inter-Air with revised empennage and 260 hp (194 kW) Continental IO-470-F engine
Specifications (14-13 Cruisair Senior)
Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1947
- Crew: 1
- Capacity: 3 pax
- Length: 21 ft 4 in (6.5 m) tail up
- Wingspan: 34 ft 2 in (10.41 m)
- Height: 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) tail down
- Wing area: 161 sq ft (15.0 m2)
- Airfoil: Bellanca B
- Empty weight: 1,200 lb (544 kg)
- Gross weight: 2,100 lb (953 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 40 US gal (33 imp gal; 150 l) in two tanks
- Powerplant: 1 × Franklin 6A4-150-B3 6 cyl. horizontally-opposed air-cooled piston engine, 150 hp (110 kW) at 2,600 rpm
- Propellers: 2-bladed Sensenich fixed pitch airscrew
- Maximum speed: 169 mph (272 km/h, 147 kn) at 2,700 rpm
- Cruise speed: 154 mph (248 km/h, 134 kn) at 2,435 rpm
- Stall speed: 45 mph (72 km/h, 39 kn) with flaps
- Rate of climb: 1,130 ft/min (5.7 m/s)
- Wing loading: 13 lb/sq ft (63 kg/m2)
- Power/mass: 14 lb/hp (2.875 kg/kW)
- Take-off run: 162 yd (148 m)
- 1978 Aircraft Directory 1977, p. 20.
- "Specification 1A3." Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft.
- Bellanca Champion Club Literature.
- 1957 Bellanca 14-19-2 Owners Manual.
- Palmer 2001, p. 51.
- "Bellanca 14-13 Cruisair history." Pilotfriend.com, 2009. Retrieved: May 17, 2009.
- Flying Magazine, November 1962, p. 24.
- Bridgman, Leonard, ed. (1947). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1947. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. p. 187c.
- Davisson, Budd. "We Fly the Cardboard Constellation." Air Progress Vintage Buyer's Guide, 1989.
- Mondey, David. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of the World's Aircraft. Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books Inc, 1978. ISBN 0-89009-771-2.
- Palmer, Trisha, ed. "Bellanca Viking Series". Encyclopedia of the World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. New York: Crescent Books, 2001. ISBN 0-517-36285-6.
- "Plane and Pilot." 1978 Aircraft Directory. Santa Monica, California: Werner & Werner Corp, 1977. ISBN 0-918312-00-0.
- Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989, p. 150.
- World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing, File 890, Sheet 24.
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