Bellary

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For other uses, see Bellari (disambiguation).
Ballari
ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ
Corporation City
Ballari
Ballari Fort
Ballari Fort
Nickname(s): Iron City, Steel city
Ballari is located in Karnataka
Ballari
Ballari
Ballari is located in India
Ballari
Ballari
Location in Karnataka, India
Coordinates: 15°06′N 76°55′E / 15.100°N 76.917°E / 15.100; 76.917Coordinates: 15°06′N 76°55′E / 15.100°N 76.917°E / 15.100; 76.917
Country  India
State Karnataka
Region Bayaluseeme
District Ballari
Founded by Shashank Maheshwari
Government
 • Mayor Ms. Nagamma[1]
 • Deputy Mayor Ms. Malan Bee S[1]
 • Commissioner Sri.P.G.Ramesh[2]
Area
 • Corporation City 89.95 km2 (34.73 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 485 m (1,591 ft)
Population (2011 census)[4]
 • Corporation City 410,445
 • Rank 111
 • Density 4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 555,944
Languages
 • Official Kannada Other Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 583 10x[5]
Telephone code (+91) 8392[6]
ISO 3166 code IN-KA
Vehicle registration KA-34
Sex ratio 1.04[4] /
Literacy 79%[4]%
Distance from Bangalore 306 kilometres (190 mi) (land)
Website www.bellarycity.gov.in

Bellary is a historic city in Ballari district in Karnataka state, India. It is 306 kilometres from Bangalore, the state capital.

Etymology[edit]

There are several legends explaining how Ballari got its name. The first is that a few devout travelling merchants halting in Ballari, could not find a Shiva Linga for their worship. They then installed a balla (a measuring cup or seru used to measure grain) upside down as a Shiva Linga and worshiped it. Eventually, that place was turned into a temple dedicated to Balleshwara or Shiva, which became distorted to Malleshwara', and thus Ballari derives its name from this temple.[7]

The second legend is that the city is named after Indra, the king of Gods, who slew a Rakshasa (demon) named Balla who lived nearby. Balla-ari means 'enemy of Balla' (ari – enemy in Sanskrit).[8] The third legend derives the city's name from the old Kannada word Vallari and Vallapuri.[8]

The Union Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India approved a proposal[by whom?] to rename the city in October 2014 and Bellary was renamed to "Ballari" on 1 November 2014.[9]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bellary
Core area of Western Chalukya monuments, roughly corresponding to Sindavadi-1000

Numerous neolithic archaeological sites have been discovered around Ballari, such as the ash mounds at Sanganakallu, Budhihal, Kudithini, Tekkalakote, Hiregudda and Kupgal. The Sanganakallu settlement, spread over an area of 1,000 acres (4.0 km2), is one of the largest neolithic complexes known around Ballari.

Ballari was ruled in succession by the Mauryas, the Satavahanas, the Pallavas, the Kadambas, the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Kalyani Chalukyas, the Southern Kalachuryas, the Sevuna Yadavas, and the Hoysalas, and also ruled briefly by the Cholas during the wars between Kalyani Chalukyas and the Cholas.

After the Sevuna Yadavas and the Hoysalas were defeated by the Islamic sultanates of Delhi, the Vijayanagara Empire arose under Harihara I and Bukka I, who dominated the Ballari area. Ballari itself was ruled by the family of Hande Hanumappa Nayaka, a Palayagara of the Vijayanagara rulers. After the fall of the Vijayanagara empire, the Hande Nayakas of Ballari were successively subsidiary to the Adilshahi sultanate, the Maratha Empire, the Mughals, the Nizam, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, and finally the British Empire after the Nizam ceded a large part of the southern Deccan to the British East India Company. The Hande Nayakas ceased to be rulers of Ballari after Major Thomas Munro disposed of the palayagars of the ceded districts and established the Ryotwari land revenue system.

In 1808 AD, the ceded districts were split into the Ballari and Kadapa districts, and in 1867 AD the Ballari Municipal Council was created. Further, in 1882 AD, Anantapuram district was carved out of the Ballari District. The Maratha princely state of Sandur was surrounded by Ballari district.

In 1901 AD, Ballari was the seventh largest town in Madras Presidency, and one of the chief military stations in southern India, garrisoned by British and native Indian troops under the British Indian Government. The town included a civil railway station to the east of the Ballari Fort, the cantonment and its railway station on the west, the Cowl Bazaar and the suburbs of 'Bruce-pettah' (currently spelt Brucepet) and 'Mellor-pettah', named after two British officers once stationed in the town. The industries in the town included a small distillery and two steam cotton presses. The steam cotton-spinning mill established in 1894 had 17,800 spindles and employed 520 hands.

On 1 October 1953 AD, the Ballari district of Madras Presidency was divided on a linguistic basis. Areas with a significant Kannada speaking population were transferred to Mysore state, which later became Karnataka state.

The Ballari city municipal council was upgraded to a city corporation in 2004.[10]

Geography and climate[edit]

Bellary Fort
Bellary Fort

Granite rocks and hills form a prominent feature of Bellary. The city is spread mainly around two hills of granite composition, the Ballari Gudda (Kannada: ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ ಗುಡ್ಡ ) and the Kumbara Gudda (Kannada: ಕುಂಬಾರ ಗುಡ್ಡ ).[citation needed]These two hills are dominant features and visible from every part of the city.[citation needed]

Ballari Gudda (Kannada: ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ ಗುಡ್ಡ ) has a circumference of nearly 2 miles (3.2 km) and a height of 480 feet (150 m). The length of this rock from north-east to south-west is about 1,150 ft (350 m). To the east and south lies an irregular heap of boulders, to the west there is an unbroken monolith, and the north is walled by bare, rugged ridges.[11]

Kumbara Gudda (Kannada: ಕುಂಬಾರ ಗುಡ್ಡ ). When viewed from the south-east it looks like the profile of a human face and is therefore also known as Face Hill.[11]

Climate data for Bellary
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.0
(96.8)
38.0
(100.4)
41.5
(106.7)
44.7
(112.5)
44.2
(111.6)
41.6
(106.9)
37.0
(98.6)
38.5
(101.3)
37.8
(100)
38.0
(100.4)
34.5
(94.1)
35.0
(95)
44.7
(112.5)
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
33.4
(92.1)
36.0
(96.8)
37.6
(99.7)
37.2
(99)
32.5
(90.5)
29.9
(85.8)
30.3
(86.5)
30.9
(87.6)
30.7
(87.3)
29.4
(84.9)
29.0
(84.2)
32.22
(90)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
25.5
(77.9)
27.6
(81.7)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
28.2
(82.8)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
26.7
(80.1)
26.2
(79.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.0
(71.6)
26.52
(79.74)
Average low °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
17.2
(63)
20.9
(69.6)
24.3
(75.7)
25.0
(77)
23.5
(74.3)
22.5
(72.5)
22.2
(72)
21.9
(71.4)
21.4
(70.5)
17.0
(62.6)
15.5
(59.9)
20.61
(69.09)
Record low °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
8.5
(47.3)
10.0
(50)
15.0
(59)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59)
14.0
(57.2)
12.0
(53.6)
8.4
(47.1)
8.0
(46.4)
7
(44.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
(0.106)
3
(0.12)
15
(0.59)
24
(0.94)
65
(2.56)
75
(2.95)
82
(3.23)
88
(3.46)
131
(5.16)
108
(4.25)
44
(1.73)
14
(0.55)
651.7
(25.646)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.4 1.0 2.3 5.2 5.8 7.2 8.0 10.0 7.9 3.5 1.4 53
Average relative humidity (%) 54 46 40 41 48 58 63 66 67 71 67 63 57
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.5 275.5 288.0 300.0 270.0 178.0 140.0 144.0 165.0 196.0 210.0 252.0 2,698
[citation needed]

Bellary is located at 15°09′N 76°56′E / 15.15°N 76.93°E / 15.15; 76.93.[3] It has an average elevation of 495 meters (1459 ft).[3] The city stands in the midst of a wide, level plain of black cotton soil.[11]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 Census of India, the total population of Bellary was 410,445; of whom 206,149 were male and 204,296 female. 280,610 of the population were literate and 52,413 of the population were under 6 years of age,Majority of the population is bilingual speak both Kannada and Telugu and some speak Urdu and Hindi as well.[12]

Population Growth of Bellary 
Census Pop.
1871 51,766
1881 53,460 3.3%
1891 59,467 11.2%
1901 58,247 -2.1%
2001 316,766
2011 410,445 29.6%
source:1871-1901 [13] 2001 [14] 2011 [15]

City features[edit]

Ballari fort[edit]

The Indian flag painted on a fort wall is visible from many parts of the city.

Bellary Fort (Kannada: ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿ ಕೋಟೆ ) is located on top of Ballari Gudda ("Fort Hill"). The fort was built around the hill during Vijayanagara times by Hande Hanumappa Nayaka. Hyder Ali, who took possession of the fort from the Hande Nayaka family in 1769, renovating and modifying it with the help of a French engineer. The lower fort was added by Hyder Ali around the eastern half of the hill. Legend has it that the unfortunate French engineer was hanged for overlooking the fact that the neighbouring Kumbara Gudda is taller than Ballari Gudda, thus compromising the secrecy and command of the fort.[11] His grave is believed to be located near the east gate of the fort, though some locals believe it to be the grave of a Muslim holy man instead.[16]

The fort was ranked as 1st class by the British Administration.[map 1] This fort gave Bellary its ancient importance, and led to its selection by the British rulers as the site for a cantonment.[11]

British colonial buildings[edit]

The following is a partial list of buildings built during the British colonial period. Although many of them having been partially modified, they retain a typical colonial British style of architecture.

  • Bellary Central Jail
  • City Railway station
  • The Wardlaw High School Complex
  • St. Philomena's School Complex
The old school building has been demolished to give way to a modern building. However, the facade of the older structure has been retained as a 'heritage structure'. The adjoining convent and church remain intact.
  • St. John's School Complex
  • Govt Polytechnic Bellary, 1st railway gate road
The old school building has been retained as a 'heritage building' but it is not used. Classes are held in newer buildings.
  • St. Joseph's School Complex
  • The main building of VIMS ((Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences))[17][18]
Originally a part of the British cantonment's infantry barracks, this building was later converted into a military jail, called the Alipore (Allipura) jail, towards the end of the 19th century. The jail lodged prisoners of war from various First World War theatres, including France, Denmark and Turkey. Even the crown prince of Turkey was an inmate of the jail; his body was buried in Bellary's Turkish martyrs' cemetery.
In 1920, this military jail became an additional civilian prison, Bellary Central Jail, when over 2,000 Mappilas from Travancore were imprisoned there. Famous personalities of the freedom movement were imprisoned, such as C. Rajagopalachari, V. V. Giri, Tekur Subramanyam, Kamaraj Nadar, Potti Sri Ramulu, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Bezawada Gopala Reddy, E.V. Ramasamy, O. V. Alagesan, Bulusu Sambamurti and Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao.
This jail was closed (the only other in the subcontinent to be closed, apart from the Cellular Jail at Port Blair) in 1958 and the old buildings and the entire area of 173 acres (0.70 km2) was converted into a medical college campus in 1961. However, unlike the cellular jail, the entire Alipore jail with over 14 jail blocks was not considered for the status of a National Heritage Museum. The records pertaining to this historic jail in Madras Presidency were sent to the National Archives in Chennai. The jail blocks were assigned to the Government Medical College. All the blocks except one were converted into laboratories and hostels.
Mahatma Gandhi spent about eight hours on 1 October 1921 at the City Railway station during his visit to Bellary.[19]

Parks, gardens and green spaces[edit]

Borey fruit
Jaali
Whirlnut

Situated in a naturally arid region with semi-desert flora, the city has slowly accumulated greenery over the past few decades due to the collective efforts of the city residents, the regional forest department and the municipal council/corporation. The following is a short list of major green spaces in the city:

  • The Ballari and Kumbara rock hills
These hills form the major natural lung spaces in the city, accommodating a host of flora including various species of ber (Kannada: borey), thorny acacias (latronum, nilotica , pennata, ferruginea, catechu, chundra, etc. locally classified as jaali in Kannada), and the interesting whirlnut (Gyrocarpus americanus jacquiniillustration), which is not found elsewhere in the city.
  • Kuntegadda Park
Officially called the Golden Jubilee Park or the Dr. Rajkumar Park, this former slum area has been changed into a beautiful urban park due to the efforts of a succession of district commissioners starting with Ms. Gouri Trivedi and Ms. Manjula. The park features an artificial lake formed out of a disused granite quarry, a fountain with a daily musical show,[19] a children's play area and a variety of garden flora.
  • Bellary Zoo
Established in 1981, this zoo and children's park covers nearly 2.4 hectares and hosts a variety of fauna including blackbuck, spotted deer (chital), jackal, crocodile, Indian peafowl, cobra, python, bear, panther, boar, etc. This zoo is due to be relocated to a new facility.[20]
  • Kaategudda Park
This hill hosts a variety of trees and is famous for its resident flock of crows. This park is better known among the older residents of the city as 'kaage park' (kaage in kannada means crow)
  • Nagaruru Narayanarao Park in Vaddarabanda
This has now fallen into disuse.
  • Basavanakunta Park
A disused granite quarry is being filled up to form an urban park.
  • Parvathinagar Park
Operates with funds donated by the Jindal Vijayanagar Steels corporation.

Travel and transport[edit]

Road[edit]

This is a major route for mining trucks transporting iron and manganese ore from the Sanduru hill ranges to the sea port at Mangalore and Karwar. This highway also connects the city to Hubli, Hospet and Hampi.
This highway connects the city to Raichur, Gulbarga and Bidar in the north and Bangalore and Mysore in the south.
    • State Highway 132, connecting the city with Adoni, Kurnool, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada.
    • The city is served by the North East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NEKRTC), offering travel services to almost all parts of Karnataka, many parts of Andhra Pradesh, Chennai, Pune and many parts of Maharashtra. Additionally, a sizeable number of private businesses offer travel services to important destinations.
  • The main inter-city bus station is located in the now empty Nalla Cheruvu (నల్ల చెరువు) (Telugu – Black Lake or Tank) basin. At the time of its construction, it was ranked second largest bus station in Karnataka. The old bus stand still serves the intra-city and rural buses.

Railway[edit]

Air[edit]

Bellary Airport has no commercial air service. In the mid-2000s, Jindal Vijaynagar Airport in Toranagallu was instead used to serve Bellary because of its longer and wider runway. The airport once received Air Deccan flights from Bangalore and Goa, but as of January 2017 it is not served by any airline either. A new airport is being planned.

Intra-city[edit]

Ballari's City Service
  • The intra-city transport network is serviced by Bhuvana Vijaya Nagara Sarige a division of NEKRTC(North East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation) city buses connecting important points in the city
  • The city is also served by private but unregulated auto rickshaw

Industries[edit]

Steel industry[edit]

The city is surrounded by numerous iron and steel plants, owing to the availability of huge deposites of iron and manganese ore in the Sanduru hill ranges and surroundings. The following is an abridged list :

  • The Arcelor Mittal group and Brahmani Industries Karnataka Ltd. have signed individual MoUs to invest in Steel plants in the district to invest 30,000 crore (US$4.5 billion)and 36,000 crore (US$5.3 billion)respectively, each to set up 6 million tonne per annum integrated steel plants with captive power plants on site. The projects of both companies will be located in and around Bellary district and will provide employment to 10,000 and 25,000 people, respectively.[21]
  • Bhushan Steel will be establishing a 6 million tonne per annum integrated steel manufacturing facility in the district, at an investment of 27,928 crore (US$4.2 billion).[21]

Textiles and garments[edit]

The growth of the famed cotton and silk Ilkal saree is attributed to the patronage provided by the local chieftains in and around the town of Bellary.[22] Additionally, the nearby town of Rayadurgam, formerly in Bellary district but now in Andhra Pradesh, is also renowned for its silk and cotton sarees. Similarly, Molakalmuru, a town in Chitradurga district but much closer to Bellary than its district headquarters, is known for its silk sarees branded by the town's name. However, Bellary itself has no saree manufacturing industry.
  • Cotton processing
With cotton being one of the major agricultural crops around Bellary historically, the city has had a thriving cotton processing industry in the form of ginning, spinning and weaving plants. The earliest steam cotton-spinning mill was established in 1894 AD, which by 1901 AD had 17,800 spindles, and employed 520 hands.[11]
The city continues to thrive in this sector with one spinning mill and numerous cotton ginning and pressing mills, hand looms and power looms.[23]
  • Garment manufacture
Bellary has a historic garment industry dating back to the First World War period, when the Marathi speaking "Darji" (tailor) community with its native skills in tailoring migrated from the current Maharashtra region to stitch uniforms for the soldiers of the colonial British Indian Army stationed at Bellary. After the war, the community switched to making uniforms for school children, and gradually the uniforms made here became popular all over the country.[24][25]
Currently, Bellary is well known for its branded and unbranded denim garments, with brands like Point Blank, Walker, Dragonfly and Podium being successfully marketed nationally and internationally.[25] There are about 260 denim garment units in Bellary with nearly 3000 families working in these units.[23] The Karnataka State Government has proposed to build an apparel park at Bellary at the cost of 27 crore (US$4.0 million), setting aside 154 acres (0.62 km2) of land for the purpose at Mundargi and Guggarahalli villages towards the south of Bellary city.[26][27][28]

Rice industry[edit]

  • Mahaveer rice mill operated by j sathyanarayana
  • Ahobila Industries operated by Sreepad Kanugovi (pioneer in producing One Polish Rice)
  • S.S.Sai Pavan Rice Mill (SPRM)
  • Sri Gurunath Rice Mill
  • Srinavas modern rice industries operated by the Grandhi family
  • Sri SAI Rice Mill, Located at Anathapur Road, operated by the Raju family
  • Sri Balaji Rice Mill
  • Thirumula Rice Mill
  • Sri Veera Satyanarayana Rice Industries in Siruguppa, owned by B Thippaiaha Shetty

Other industry[edit]

  • The 500 MW Bellary Thermal Power Station (BTPS) is located 19 km away from the city at Kuditini village. This is the second thermal plant in Karnataka, after the Raichur Thermal Power Station.[29]

As Bellary area is richly deposited with Steel and other metal deposits, Many Sponge Iron industries are spread across all the district.

Notable people[edit]

See- Category:People from Bellary

In popular culture[edit]

  • Bellary is best known for its dry and hot climatic conditions. Beechi, a famous humorist who also hailed from the same district, joked about Bellary's climate in one of his books as:

" ಬಳ್ಳಾರಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವುದು ಕೇವಲ ಎರಡೇ ಕಾಲ: ಒಂದು ಬೇಸಗೆ, ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಕಡುಬೇಸಗೆ!! "

Translation: "There are only two seasons in Bellary. One is summer and the other one is intense summer!! "

  • In the past the Central Jail of Bellary was known to be a horrendous place for criminals. Many novels and plays portrayed the "Bellary jail" as an extremely horrible experience for thieves.
  • Malayalam film Rajamanikyam starring Mammootty shows him as a cattle dealer in Bellary.
  • Kannada film star Vishnuvardhan's last film was titled Bellary Naga in which his character hailed from Bellary.
  • Back in 1999, the city was the centre of attraction due to a rare and interesting contest of the 13th Lok Sabha elections between Sonia Gandhi and Sushma Swaraj which Sonia of Indian National Congress eventually went on to win.
  • During the last decade, Bellary also earned a negative public image due to the iron mine scam by the local ministers.[32] Though the illegal mining activities have been stopped now, the city still holds the tag "ಗಣಿ ನಾಡು" (place of mines).

References[edit]

Maps[edit]

  1. ^ "Military map of India in 1893, showing the Presidency boundaries". Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2007. 

General[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Bellary City Corporators". Retrieved 5 Feb 2015. 
  2. ^ "Bellary City Staff". Retrieved 5 Feb 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Falling Rain Genomics-Bellary, India Page". 
  4. ^ a b c "District Census Handbook – Guntur" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. p. 22. Retrieved 6 November 2016. 
  5. ^ "Indiapost PIN Search for 'bellary'". Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 
  6. ^ "PPP India STD Code Search for 'bellary'". Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007. 
  7. ^ "Origins of the City's Name". Panical Realtors. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "Sloth Bear Foundation". 
  9. ^ New City, Names to Karnatka. "New name for cities". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  10. ^ "The Hindu: Karnataka. Bellary City Municipal Council upgraded to corporation". The Hindu. 26 September 2004. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908-1931 [vol. 1, 1909]. pp. 158–176.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. ^ "Census of India 2011". Census Commission of India. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  13. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7,. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2016-12-08. p. 175. 
  14. ^ "Census of India 2001" (PDF). Census Commission of India. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  15. ^ "Census of India 2011". Census Commission of India. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  16. ^ Lewis, Barry. "Bellary District Graves". 
  17. ^ "Vims Bellary". 
  18. ^ a b "This jailhouse has a rich past". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "Bellary Tourism". Retrieved 2 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "Bellary Zoo". Retrieved 2 June 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c "Karnataka wins mega steel, power investments". Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "Ilkal saree's story". Economic Times. 12 December 2002. Archived from the original on 28 August 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  23. ^ a b "Karnataka Handloom". Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  24. ^ "Bellary Portal". Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  25. ^ a b "Jeans Industry in Bellary". Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  26. ^ "Apparel Park to fill yarning gap". The Times of India. India. 16 December 2004. 
  27. ^ "Bellary to get Rs. 27-cr. apparel park soon". The Hindu. India. 3 November 2004. 
  28. ^ "Textile Parks". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  29. ^ "KPCL Power Projects". Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  30. ^ "A Congress bastion since 1952". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  31. ^ "Caste will play a vital role in Bellary". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  32. ^ [1]

External links[edit]