Belleville, Ontario

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Belleville

Thurlow
City of Belleville
Skyline of Downtown Belleville
Skyline of Downtown Belleville
Official seal of Belleville
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Bellevegas
Motto(s): 
on the Bay of Quinte
Belleville is located in Southern Ontario
Belleville
Belleville
Coordinates: 44°10′N 77°23′W / 44.167°N 77.383°W / 44.167; -77.383Coordinates: 44°10′N 77°23′W / 44.167°N 77.383°W / 44.167; -77.383
CountryCanada
ProvinceOntario
CountyHastings
Settled1789
Named1816
Incorporated1836 (as police village)
Incorporated as city1878
Government
 • MayorMitch Panciuk
 • Federal ridingBay of Quinte
 • Prov. ridingBay of Quinte
Area
 • Land247.21 km2 (95.45 sq mi)
 • Metro
741.36 km2 (286.24 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[3]
 • City (single-tier)50,716
 • Density205.1/km2 (531/sq mi)
 • Metro
103,472
 • Metro density77.4/km2 (200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Postal Code FSA
K8N, K8P, K8R
Area codes613, 343
GDP (Belleville CMA)CA$4.6 billion (2016)[4]
GDP per capita (Belleville CMA)CA$44,930 (2016)
Websitewww.belleville.ca

Belleville is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, located at the mouth of the Moira River and on the Bay of Quinte. Belleville is between Ottawa and Toronto, along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Its population as of the 2016 census was 50,716 (census agglomeration population 103,472[3]). It is the seat of Hastings County, but politically independent of it, and is the centre of the Bay of Quinte Region.

History[edit]

Front Street, 1900
Front Street, 1972
Belleville Armoury is a recognized Federal Heritage building, listed in 1992 on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings[5]
Flowerbed beside Highway 401 near Belleville

Originally the site of an historic Anishinaabe (Mississaugas) village in the 18th century known as Asukhknosk, this area was part of land purchased by the Crown to use for resettlement of United Empire Loyalists forced to leave the Thirteen Colonies in North America, after they achieved independence at the end of the century.

The settlement was first called Singleton's Creek after an early settler, George SingletonM. Next it was called Meyer's Creek, after prominent settler and industrialist John Walden Meyers (1745-1821), one of the founders of Belleville. He built a sawmill and grist mill.[6][7] After an 1816 visit to the settlement by colonial administrator Sir Francis Gore and his wife, Lady Annabella Gore, it was renamed as Belleville in her honour.[6]

Henry Corby, who arrived in 1832 with his new wife Alma Williams (they had married before immigrating), settled in Belleville. He was a merchant, setting up a grocery store and other businesses. He founded the H. Corby Distillery, and promoted the municipality. He also represented it in Parliament.

Their son Henry Corby Jr. (Harry) took over the family business and continued to support the town: he donated funding to create the public library, helped develop the park at Massassaga Point, established the Corby Charitable Fund, helped raise funds to build the first bridge across the Bay of Quinte[8] and donated the land and development of Corby Park.[9]

In 1836 Belleville became an incorporated village.[10] By 1846, it had a population of 2040. Several stone buildings were soon constructed, including a jail and court house, as well as some of the seven churches. Transportation to other communities was by stagecoach and, in summer, by steamboat along the lake. Two weekly newspapers were published. The post office received mail daily. Several court and government offices were located here. In addition to tradesmen, there was some small industry, three cloth factories, a paper mill, two grist mills, three tanneries and two breweries. The seventeen taverns outnumbered the churches and most businesses.[11] The oldest surviving residence within the original boundaries, 67 South Front Street, was built by Alexander Oliphant Petrie in 1814.[12]

With the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1856, Belleville became an important railway junction. Added to a booming trade in lumber and successful farming in the area, the railway helped increase the commercial and industrial growth. Belleville was incorporated as a town in 1850.[13]

In 1858 the iron bridge was completed over the Moira River at Bridge Street; it was the first iron bridge in Hastings County. By 1865, the population reached 6,000.[10] Telephone service to 29 subscribers was in place by 1883; electricity became available in 1885 and in 1886, the town began to offer municipal water service. In 1870, Ontario's first school for the deaf was established in Belleville. Under Dr. Charles B. Coughlin, the school was recognized as making a significant contribution to special education. Originally called the Ontario Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, the facility was renamed as Ontario School for the Deaf. In 1974, it was renamed as the Sir James Whitney School.[14]

Belleville's town hall operates in a building first constructed in 1873 to house the public market and administrative offices. It was designed in the High Victorian Gothic style and retains much of its original appearance.[15][16] In 1877, Belleville was legally incorporated as a city.[13]

In 1998, the city was amalgamated with the surrounding Township of Thurlow to form an expanded City of Belleville as part of Ontario-wide municipal restructuring. The city also annexed portions of Quinte West to the west.

Late 20th-century franchises founded here include the Dixie Lee Fried Chicken chain in 1964 and, in 1978, Journey's End Corporation's economy, limited-service hotel chain.

Geography[edit]

Belleville is located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario between the cities of Quinte West to the west and Napanee to the east. These cities are connected by both Ontario's Highway 2 and the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway (Highway 401); The city is also served by Highway 37, running north–south from Belleville towards Tweed to the east of the Moira River; and Highway 62 (once Highway 14 south of 401), northwards towards Madoc, and southward to Prince Edward County over the Bay Bridge.

Belleville is located in a transitional zone which may be considered part of the Central Ontario or Eastern Ontario regions by different sources. Officially, Belleville is properly considered part of the Central Ontario region as it is located west of the St. Lawrence River's starting point, but the city is popularly considered part of Eastern Ontario as it shares the eastern region's area code 613 and K postal code.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

In addition to the Belleville city centre, the city of Belleville also comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Bayshore, Cannifton, Corbyville, Foxboro, Frink Centre, Gilead, Halloway, Honeywell Corners, Latta, Loyalist, Philipston, Plainfield, Pointe Anne, Roslin (partially), Thrasher's Corners, Thurlow, Thurlow South and Zion Hill.

Climate[edit]

Belleville's climate has four distinct seasons. The city's traditional humid continental climate (Dfb)(hot summers, cold winters) is moderated by its location near Lake Ontario. The lake moderates temperature extremes, cooling hot summer days and warming cold days during the fall and winter.[citation needed] Because of this, winter snowfall is somewhat limited due to the increased frequency of precipitation falling as rain during the winter months. In the summer months, severe thunderstorm activity is usually limited because of the non-favourable lake breeze conditions. The city, being located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is also in an unfavourable location for lake effect snow. One notable exception, however, was in December 2010 when 14 cm of snow occurred in one day as a result of a snow band from Lake Ontario. The summer months do not typically experience exceedingly hot temperatures, however, humidity levels can make daytime highs uncomfortable. Summer rainfall is usually modest and delivered by passing thunderstorms or warm fronts. Remnants of tropical systems do pass through on occasion towards summer's end, resulting in one or two days of consistently wet weather. The winter season is highly variable, with the record setting winter of 2007–08 experiencing near 270 cm of snow. Four years later, the winter of 2011–12 experienced only 60 cm of snow. Winter temperatures are also highly variable, even in one season. Air masses change frequently, and while a few days may see above freezing temperatures at a time in January, the next week may bring cold and snowfall. Autumn is usually mild, with an increase in precipitation starting in late September as conditions for fall storms develop. The highest temperature ever recorded in Belleville was 104 °F (40.0 °C) on 9 July 1936.[17] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −39 °F (−39.4 °C) on 9 February 1934.[17]

Climate data for Belleville, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1866−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
13.0
(55.4)
23.0
(73.4)
29.0
(84.2)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
40.0
(104.0)
36.1
(97.0)
35.0
(95.0)
28.3
(82.9)
22.2
(72.0)
16.5
(61.7)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
4.1
(39.4)
11.7
(53.1)
18.7
(65.7)
23.9
(75.0)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
21.0
(69.8)
13.7
(56.7)
7.2
(45.0)
1.2
(34.2)
12.6
(54.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−5.1
(22.8)
−0.4
(31.3)
7.0
(44.6)
13.7
(56.7)
19.0
(66.2)
21.8
(71.2)
20.8
(69.4)
16.3
(61.3)
9.5
(49.1)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.6
(27.3)
8.1
(46.6)
Average low °C (°F) −11.1
(12.0)
−9.7
(14.5)
−5
(23)
2.3
(36.1)
8.7
(47.7)
14.0
(57.2)
16.9
(62.4)
15.9
(60.6)
11.7
(53.1)
5.3
(41.5)
0.1
(32.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
3.6
(38.5)
Record low °C (°F) −37.8
(−36.0)
−39.4
(−38.9)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−17.2
(1.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
0.0
(32.0)
6.1
(43.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
−10
(14)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−39.4
(−38.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.3
(2.65)
58.1
(2.29)
62.4
(2.46)
75.8
(2.98)
81.3
(3.20)
74.5
(2.93)
65.1
(2.56)
75.5
(2.97)
91.9
(3.62)
85.2
(3.35)
95.7
(3.77)
79.1
(3.11)
911.6
(35.89)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 30.6
(1.20)
29.4
(1.16)
40.3
(1.59)
69.2
(2.72)
81.2
(3.20)
74.5
(2.93)
65.1
(2.56)
75.5
(2.97)
91.9
(3.62)
84.9
(3.34)
84.7
(3.33)
44.6
(1.76)
771.9
(30.39)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 36.8
(14.5)
28.6
(11.3)
22.1
(8.7)
6.5
(2.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.1)
11.0
(4.3)
34.5
(13.6)
139.7
(55.0)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.4 11.8 12.0 12.2 12.4 11.6 9.7 10.5 11.3 13.5 14.0 14.2 148.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.3 4.9 7.4 11.0 12.3 11.6 9.7 10.5 11.3 13.4 11.4 7.5 116.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 11.7 8.5 6.4 2.1 0.04 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.12 3.7 8.8 41.2
Source: Environment Canada[17][18]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18412,040—    
18514,593+125.1%
18717,305+59.0%
18819,516+30.3%
18919,916+4.2%
19019,117−8.1%
19119,876+8.3%
192112,206+23.6%
193113,790+13.0%
194115,498+12.4%
195119,519+25.9%
196130,655+57.1%
197135,128+14.6%
198134,881−0.7%
199137,243[a]+6.8%
199637,083[b]−0.4%
200145,986+24.0%
200648,821+6.2%
201149,454+1.3%
201650,716+2.6%
[19] The 1991 and 1996 populations are 44,858 and 45,069 respectively when adjusted to the 2001 boundaries. The 2001 population is 46,029 when adjusted to the 2006 boundaries.

Belleville is the largest urban centre in a much larger market area generally known as the Quinte Region. According to the 2020 World Population Review,[20] the population of Belleville is 50,716, a 2.6% increase from 2011. The population density is 205.1 people per square km. The median age is 44.7 years old, a bit higher than the national median at 41.2 years old. There are 22,744 private dwellings with an occupancy rate of 95.6%. The median value of a dwelling in Belleville is $229,630 which is a fair bit lower than the national average at $341,556. The median household income (after-taxes) in Belleville is $53,365, somewhat lower than the national average at $61,348.

Belleville's population is mostly of European descent. The racial make up of Belleville is 87.0% White, 7.4% Aboriginal and 5.6% visible minorities. The largest visible minority groups in Belleville are South Asian (1.5%), Black (1.0%), Chinese (0.6%) and Filipino (0.5%). Most of Belleville is either a Christian (67.1%), or affiliates with no religion (30.3%). The remaining 2.6% affiliate with another religion.[21] In 2016, 91.7% of residents spoke English as their first language while 1.5% spoke French and 6% had a non-official language as their mother tongue.

Bridge Street United Church

Economy[edit]

Procter & Gamble, Kellogg's, Bardon Supplies Limited, Redpath, W.T. Hawkins Ltd, Sigma Stretch Film Canada, Hexo Cannabis, Autosystems Manufacturing (Magna International), Amer Sports Canada, and Avaya (formerly Nortel) are corporations operating in Belleville. Many other manufacturing sector companies operate within the City of Belleville, including Bioniche Life Sciences, Sprague Foods, Airborne Systems Canada Ltd, Berry Plastics Canada, CPK Interior Products, Hanon (formerly Halla) Climate Control Canada, Reid's Dairy, Parmalat Canada – Black Diamond Cheese Division and Norampac Inc.

Belleville is home to two shopping malls: The Bay View Mall in east-end Belleville and the Quinte Mall along Bell Boulevard (south of Highway 401) in North Belleville. In January 2017 a Shorelines Casino opened on Bell Boulevard.

Arts and culture[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Annual events[edit]

January

  • Civic Levee

February

  • Downtown Docfest

March

  • Quinte Sportsman Boat & RV Show

May

  • Quinte Trash Bash
  • 5k Fun Run
  • Front Street Farmers Market

June

  • Berrylicious
  • Rockfest

July

  • Belleville's Canada D'Eh
  • Waterfront and Ethnic Festival
  • Belleville Poutine Feast

August

  • Quinte Ribfest
  • Dragon Boat Festival

September

  • Quinte Fall Fair and Exhibition
  • Porchfest Belleville

November

  • Belleville Festival of Trees
  • Belleville Nighttime Santa Claus Parade
  • Christmas at the Pier

December

  • Christmas at the Pier

Sports[edit]

The Belleville Senators play in the American Hockey League (AHL) that began play in the 2017–18 season as the top minor league affiliate of the National Hockey League's Ottawa Senators.[22] They play at the CAA Arena, formally Yardmen Arena, located on 265 Cannifton Road.

Belleville Bulls played in the Ontario Hockey League from 1981 to 2015. The team was then sold and relocated to Hamilton, Ontario. Belleville was also previously home to two senior hockey teams, the Belleville Macs and the Belleville McFarlands. Belleville is also home the Bay of Quinte Yacht Club, which challenged for the America's Cup in 1881. Belleville also sports minor hockey league teams such as the Belleville Bearcats (female) and the Belleville Jr. Bulls (male).

The Belleville McFarlands were a men's senior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey Association Senior division from 1956 to 1961. The McFarlands were Allan Cup champions in 1958, defeating the Kelowna Packers four games to three, and the World Championship in 1959. The team name was revived by a later team in the Eastern Ontario Senior Hockey League from 2003 to 2006, known as the Belleville Macs

Shannonville Motorsport Park has hosted rounds of the Canadian Touring Car Championship, the Canadian Superbike Championship and the CASC Ontario Region championships.

Government[edit]

Belleville City Hall

Local government is represented by Belleville City Council with a mayor and eight councillors. There are two city wards with Ward 1 (Belleville) represented by six councillors and Ward 2 (Thurlow) by two councillors. Ward 1 consists of the historic city and Ward 2 was created in 1998 with the amalgamation of Township of Thurlow. City Council sits at Belleville City Hall.

Police Service[edit]

The city has had its own police force since 1834, and constables since 1790.[23] The force has about 116 members headed by a chief of police and a deputy chief. The service is stationed out of one location only. Policing on provincial highways is provided by the Ontario Provincial Police from the Napanee detachment.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Belleville is serviced by the 401 highway system, and bus service to and from Toronto Pearson International Airport is provided by Megabus. Deseronto Transit provides public transportation services to destinations including Deseronto, Napanee, and Prince Edward County.[24]

Belleville is located on the Toronto-Montreal main rail lines for both Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway; both companies provide freight access. VIA Rail also operates five daily passenger services each way along its Windsor–Québec rail corridor.

Major routes in Belleville[edit]

Hospital[edit]

Belleville General Hospital is located near Highway 2 and is Belleville's main healthcare facility. The hospital is one of the four hospitals in the region under Quinte Health Care. The corporate headquarters of Quinte Health Care is located in the Belleville location.[25]

Education[edit]

Post-secondary[edit]

The Academy of Learning College is a local college located on the east end of Belleville.

Loyalist College is a local public community college located on the border of Belleville and Quinte West on Wallbridge Loyalist Road.

Public schools[edit]

The public school system is served by the Hastings & Prince Edward District School Board. The Catholic School system is served by the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board.

Secondary schools:

Elementary schools:

  • Susanna Moodie Elementary School
  • Parkdale Public Elementary School
  • Queen Elizabeth Elementary School
  • Prince of Wales Elementary School
  • Harry J. Clarke Elementary School (French immersion)
  • Queen Victoria Elementary School
  • Sir John A Macdonald School
  • Prince Charles Elementary School
  • Foxboro Public School
  • Bayside Elementary School] (French immersion}
  • Harmony Public School

Separate schools[edit]

The following are Belleville area schools managed by the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board.

Secondary schools:

Elementary schools:

  • Our Lady of Fatima Catholic School
  • St Michael's Catholic School (French immersion)
  • St Joseph's Catholic School
  • Georges Vanier Catholic School
  • Holy Rosary Catholic School

Provincial demonstration schools[edit]

Private schools[edit]

  • Academy of Learning College
  • Quinte Ballet School of Canada
  • Quinte Christian High School
  • Belleville Christian School
  • Belleville Montessori School
  • Albert College

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

Radio[edit]

Frequency Call sign Branding Format Owner Notes
AM 800 CJBQ CJBQ 800 Full service Quinte Broadcasting
FM 91.3 CJLX-FM 91X Campus radio Loyalist College
FM 94.3 CJBC-1-FM Ici Radio-Canada Première Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Rebroadcaster of CJBC (Toronto)
FM 95.5 CJOJ-FM 95.5 Hits FM Adult hits Starboard Communications
FM 97.1 CIGL-FM Mix 97 Hot adult contemporary Quinte Broadcasting
FM 100.1 CHCQ-FM Cool 100.1 Country music Starboard Communications
FM 102.3 CKJJ-FM UCB Radio Christian radio United Christian Broadcasters Canada
FM 104.7 CBO-FM-1 CBC Radio One Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation *Rebroadcaster of CBO-FM (Ottawa) (Moving to 90.3 FM - Pending CRTC approval)[26]
FM 107.1 CJTN-FM Rock 107 Classic rock Quinte Broadcasting

Television[edit]

OTA virtual channel (PSIP) OTA actual channel Call sign Network Notes
26.1 26 (UHF) CICO-DT-53 TVOntario Rebroadcaster of CICA-DT (Toronto)
OTA virtual channel (PSIP) OTA actual channel Call sign Network Notes
4 4 (Cable TV only) YourTV Quinte YourTV Part of Cogeco Community TV

Internet[edit]

  • Quinte News
  • QNet News
  • Inquinte
  • The Belleville Local, a local site and mobile app

Sister cities[edit]

The City of Belleville has three sister city arrangements with communities outside of Canada which include:[27]

  • Germany Lahr, Germany – established in 1971
  • South Korea Gunpo, South Korea – established in 1996
  • China Zhucheng, People's Republic of China – established in 1996

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Population is the sum of Belleville (city) 37,243, and Thurlow (township): 7,615
  2. ^ Population is the sum of Belleville (city): 37,083, and Thurlow (township): 7,986

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Belleville census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  2. ^ "Belleville (Census agglomeration) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  3. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Belleville, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Belleville [Census metropolitan area], Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  4. ^ "Table 36-10-0468-01 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA) (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  5. ^ "Armoury - Recognized Federal Heritage Building - Belleville, Ontario". Parks Canada. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Captain John W. Meyers 1745-1821". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  7. ^ Boyce, Gerry (2008). Belleville - A Popular History. ISBN 9781770703667. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  8. ^ Sangma, Benzie. "Swing bridge changed region". The Belleville Intelligencer. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017.
  9. ^ "Corby Park (Plaque #18)". Wayne Cook. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Belleville Ontario History". www.beautifulbelleville.com.
  11. ^ Smith, Wm. H. (1846). Smith's Canadian Gazetteer - Statistical and General Information Respecting all Parts of The Upper Province, or Canada West. Toronto: H. & W. Rowsell. p. 14.
  12. ^ Gerry Boyce, Belleville: A Popular History. Dundurn. 2009. p. 68
  13. ^ a b "Belleville Historical Plaque". ontarioplaques.com.
  14. ^ "The Ontario School for the Deaf". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  15. ^ "Belleville City Hall, Belleville". Ontario Heritage Trust. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Belleville City Hall". OntarioPlaques.com. Alan L. Brown. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c "Belleville, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  18. ^ "Daily Data Report for January 2013". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  19. ^ Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006 census
  20. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2017-02-08). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Belleville, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Hastings, County [Census division], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  21. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-05-08). "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  22. ^ Foote, Andrew (26 September 2016). "Senators moving minor league team to Belleville, Ont". CBC News Ottawa. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  23. ^ "History of the Belleville Police Service" (PDF). Belleville Police Service. October 25, 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Transit". deseronto.ca. Town of Deseronto. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  25. ^ "Quinte Health Care Contact Us". Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  26. ^ CBO-FM-1 CRTC application 2021-0158-3
  27. ^ "Cultural Exchange Committee". City of Belleville. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  28. ^ Ciarula Taylor, Lesley (2012-05-03). "Cheezies inventor dies in Belleville, Ont., at 90". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
  29. ^ "New Miss Universe studied in Ont". Cnews.canoe.ca. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2014-06-13.

External links[edit]