Belmont Park

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Belmont Park
Belmont Park logo NYRA.PNG
Belmont10 1999-05.jpg
Exterior and tote board in 1999
Location2150 Hempstead Turnpike
Elmont, New York, U.S.
Coordinates40°42′54″N 73°43′22″W / 40.71500°N 73.72278°W / 40.71500; -73.72278Coordinates: 40°42′54″N 73°43′22″W / 40.71500°N 73.72278°W / 40.71500; -73.72278
Owned byState of New York
Operated byNew York Racing Association
Date openedMay 4, 1905 (113 years ago) (1905-05-04)
1968 (renovation)
Screened onMSG Plus (restricted to cable systems in New York City, Northern/Central New Jersey, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Northeastern Pennsylvania)
Capital OTB via WXXA Channel 23.2)
NYRA.com/NYRA Now app (Internet)
Altitude Sports (Rocky Mountains)
Fox Sports 2
Fox Sports Ohio
Fox Sports West and Prime Ticket (Southern California)
Fox Sports San Diego
NBC Sports Network[1]
NBC Television (Belmont Stakes only)
Course typeFlat / Thoroughbred
1.5 miles (2.4 km)
Notable racesBelmont Stakes
Jockey Club Gold Cup
Metropolitan Handicap
Champagne Stakes
Manhattan Handicap
Suburban Handicap
Vosburgh Stakes
Beldame Stakes
Acorn Stakes
Mother Goose Stakes
Ogden Phipps Handicap
Man O' War Stakes
Joe Hirsch Turf Classic Invitational
Frizette Stakes
Vosburgh Stakes
Belmont Derby
Belmont Oaks
Official website
Elmont  is located in the US
Elmont 
Elmont 
Location in the United States
Elmont  is located in New York
Elmont 
Elmont 
Location in New York
Belmont Park  is located in New York City
Belmont Park 
Belmont Park 
Location near New York City

Belmont Park is a major Thoroughbred horse-racing facility in the northeastern United States, located in Elmont, New York, just east of the New York City limits. Opened 113 years ago on May 4, 1905, it is operated by the non-profit New York Racing Association, as are Aqueduct and Saratoga Race Course. The group was formed in 1955 as the Greater New York Association to assume the assets of the individual associations that ran Belmont, Aqueduct, Saratoga, and the now-defunct Jamaica Racetrack.

Belmont Park is typically open for racing from late April through mid-July (known as the Spring meet), and again from mid-September through late October (the Fall meet).[2] It is widely-known as the home of the Belmont Stakes in early June, regarded as the "Test of the Champion", the third leg of the Triple Crown.

Along with Saratoga in Upstate New York, Keeneland and Churchill Downs in Kentucky, and Del Mar and Santa Anita in California, Belmont is considered one of the elite racetracks in North America.

The race park's main dirt track has earned the nickname, "the Big Sandy," given its prominent overall dimensions (1 12 miles (2.4 km)) and the deep, sometimes tiring surface.[3] Belmont is also sometimes known as "The Championship Track" because almost every major champion in racing history since the early 20th century has competed on the racecourse – including all of the Triple Crown winners.

Belmont hosted its largest crowd in 2004, when 120,139 saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone in its Triple Crown bid.[4]

History[edit]

Old Belmont Park[edit]

August Belmont, Jr. and William Collins Whitney, along with other investors, built the original Belmont race track which opened on May 4, 1905. In its first 15 or so years, Belmont Park featured racing clockwise, in the "English fashion"—allowing the upper-class members of the racing association and their guests to have the races finish in front of the clubhouse, just to the west of the grandstand. (A "field stand," at what was then the top of the stretch, was located east of the grandstand). The original finish line was located at the top of the present-day homestretch.[5] In his 1925 book, "The Big Town", Ring W. Lardner refers to the then-recent directional change, when he has a character at Belmont say (speaking of a recent race) "At that time, they run the wrong way of the track, like you would deal cards". A later innovation was created by Joseph E. Widener, who took over track leadership when August Belmont II died in 1924: the Widener Chute. It was a straightaway of just under 7 furlongs (1.4 km) that cut diagonally through Belmont's training and main tracks, hitting near the quarter-pole of the main track; the course was removed in 1958.[citation needed]

There are presently two features of Old Belmont Park remaining today. First is the display of four stone pillars on Hempstead Turnpike, a gift from the mayor and park commissioners of Charleston, South Carolina. The pillars had stood at the entrance of the Washington Course of the South Carolina Jockey Club in Charleston, which operated from 1792 to 1882. The stone pillars are now found at the clubhouse entrance. Lesser known-but more visible-are the racing motif iron railings seen partially bordering the walking ring. The railings, used as decoration on the south side of the old Belmont grandstand, were salvaged during the 1963 demolition.[citation needed]

The original Belmont Park was not only unprecedented in its size, but also had the then-new innovation of a Long Island Rail Road extension from the Queens Village station, running along the property, tunneling under Hempstead Turnpike, then terminating on the south side of the property. The train terminal was moved to its present location north of the turnpike after the 1956 season.[6]

Near the railroad terminal was yet another track—Belmont Park Terminal, a steeplechase course operated by United Hunts until 1927.[7]

In addition to racing history, Belmont Park made history in another industry native to the Hempstead Plains – aviation. Some 150,000 people were drawn to the track in 1910 on October 30, at the climax of a Wright Brothers-staged international aerial tournament, which had started eight years earlier. The event came at the beginning of a period (1910, 1911, and 1912) in which racing was outlawed in New York State.[citation needed]

Eight years later, Belmont and aviation were reunited when the racetrack served as the northern point of the first U.S. air mail route, between the New York area and Washington, D.C.[8]

Today, two displays in the clubhouse of the current Belmont Park commemorate the history of the racetrack: a long mural by Pierre Bellocq featuring the dominant jockeys, trainers and racing personalities of the track's history; and a series of paintings of Old Belmont Park that were featured at a nearby restaurant before the eatery closed.[citation needed]

Later history[edit]

The last race at the old Belmont Park was run in October 1962. The following spring, NYRA Chairman James Cox Brady announced that two separate engineering surveys found the grandstand/clubhouse was unsafe due to age-induced structural defects and needed to be rebuilt. The book Belmont Park: A Century of Champions noted the comment of NYRA President Edward T. Dickinson: "When you sighted down the stands, you could see some of the beams were twisted. They were in something of an S-shape."[citation needed]

The old structure was demolished in 1963. The new grandstand was built 1964–1968. (The Inner Turf Course was also added during this time.) The Belmont race meetings were moved to Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, Queens, during that time.[citation needed]

The new $30.7 million Belmont Park grandstand, designed by Arthur Froehlich, was opened May 20, 1968 and is the largest in Thoroughbred racing. It has a total attendance capacity of more than 100,000, with the adjoining backyard being able to accommodate more than 10,000. The seating portion totals nearly 33,000. (Ironically, the smaller, more cramped Churchill Downs grandstand has more seats than Belmont, 51,000.) Unlike Churchill and Pimlico, Belmont does not allow paying spectators to picnic in the infield.[citation needed]

Expansion plans[edit]

In May 2007, reports surfaced suggesting that then New York Governor Eliot Spitzer was considering closing Aqueduct Racetrack, which is ten miles west of Belmont in Ozone Park, New York, and turning Belmont into a nearly year 'round race track when the New York Racing Association lease for all three of New York State's tracks expired at the end of 2007. According to the plans being discussed, Belmont's stands would be heated, additional barns built for Aqueduct's 400 horses, and the track modified to accommodate winter racing. In addition, video lottery machines would be introduced. A new entity would operate Belmont from fall to spring while the New York Racing Association would operate Saratoga Race Course in the summer.[9] Any plans the former governor might have had for the track alignment likely left office with him when Spitzer was forced to resign amid a prostitution scandal in March 2008.[citation needed]

In July 2017, New York State officials announced that vacant parking lots behind the Belmont grandstand had been put to tender for two area top-level professional sports teams: the New York Islanders, an NHL professional hockey team; and New York City FC, an MLS soccer team. Both teams were unhappy with their current locations (the Islanders at Barclays Center; New York City FC Yankee Stadium) and proposed to redevelop the land into their own stadiums. The Islanders proposed an 18,000 seat sports arena, 435,000 square feet for retail development, a 225-room hotel, and a 10,000-sq ft community center, while NYCFC's pledge included a 26,000 seat soccer ground, 400,000 sq ft for retail, a 5.2 acre community park, and 2 acre soccer complex: both proposals were fully privately funded and included improved parking and LIRR facilities as well.[10] On December 20, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that the Islanders project had won approval to be built, and the Belmont Park Arena will be opened in time for the 2020-21 hockey season.[11][12] However, the New York City FC proposal was rejected.[13]

Important races[edit]

Belmont Stakes[edit]

The Belmont Stakes was named after financier and sportsman August Belmont, Sr., who helped fund the race, and most sources say the racetrack itself was also named for him. Other sources say Belmont Park was named in honor of his son—August Belmont II, a key member of the Westchester Racing Association, which established the racecourse.[citation needed]

The race was first run in 1867 at Jerome Park Racetrack in the Bronx. In 1937, the wrought iron gates that bore an illustration of that first Belmont Stakes were donated to the track by August Belmont II's sole surviving son, Perry Belmont. The gates are now on the fourth floor of Belmont Park's clubhouse.[citation needed]

The Belmont Stakes races have been run at Belmont Park since 1905, with the exceptions of 1911–12, when gambling was banned in New York State; and the 1963–67 editions, held at Aqueduct while the grandstands at Belmont Park were reconstructed. The first post parade in the United States was at the 14th Belmont, in 1880.[citation needed]

A statue of Secretariat stands in the middle of the walking ring

Secretariat's finishing time in his 1973 Belmont victory (2 minutes, 24 seconds) set a world record for 1 12 miles (2.4 km) on dirt,[14] a world record which still stands. The 31-length victory clinched the first Triple Crown in 25 years, dating back to Citation in 1948. A statue of Secretariat is in the center of the Belmont paddock.[citation needed]

Another Belmont Stakes achievement is recognized by the "Woody's Corner" display in the first-floor clubhouse lobby, commemorating the five consecutive Belmont Stakes winners trained by Woody Stephens from 1982 to 1986.[citation needed]

Other memorable performances in Belmont Park history include the opening of the track in 1905 with the famous dead heat between Sysonby and Race King in the Met Cap. In 1923, Belmont Park was host to an international duel between the American and English champions: Zev, winner of the Kentucky Derby, against Papyrus, winner of The Derby. Zev won by five lengths in front of the biggest crowd for a match race in a hundred years.[citation needed]

Belmont Park was the site of the tragedy-marred victory of Foolish Pleasure over champion filly Ruffian in a 1975 match race. Ruffian broke down during the race and had to be euthanized; she is buried near the finish line in the infield at Belmont Park, her nose pointed towards the finish pole.[citation needed]

The racetrack was also the site of Affirmed's epic stretch duel with Alydar in the 1978 Belmont Stakes, a victory that gave Affirmed the Triple Crown; and Triple Crown winner Seattle Slew's defeat of Affirmed in the Marlboro Cup in September of that same year. The Marlboro, a key event of the Fall Championship meets in the 1970s and 1980s, included a dramatic come-from-behind win by Forego in the 1976 installment.[citation needed]

Officials of the New York Racing Association made a concerted effort to boost attendance on Belmont Stakes Day after the 1995 installment drew only 37,171. In 1997, NYRA and local officials put together the Long Island Belmont Stakes Festival—featuring parades, food fests and other events in surrounding communities to promote the big race.[citation needed] The effort succeeded in creating a buzz around the Belmont Stakes apart from the chance of seeing a Triple Crown. The 2000 and 2001 Belmonts—both run when there was no Triple Crown on the line—drew announced crowds of 67,810 and 73,857. The Belmont Stakes Festival continues to be held in communities near the track, such as Floral Park and Garden City. In 2004, a record attendance of 120,139 was on hand to see if Smarty Jones would be the first Triple Crown winner since 1978.[15]

American Pharoah won the 2015 Belmont Stakes on June 6, and became the first Triple Crown winner in 37 years. It was announced before the race that attendance would be capped at 90,000. That year's Kentucky Derby and Preakness both set attendance records, over 170,000 and 130,000 respectively.

Early aviation tournaments[edit]

Belmont Park also has a history of early aviation shows and tournaments that dates back to the early 1900s.

Crowd watching seven planes in air at Belmont Park air show, New York, year 1910 (courtesy Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.)
Glenn Curtiss monoplane at Belmont Park meet with Eugene Burton Ely at wheel, year 1910 (courtesy New York Public Library archives)

Harriet Quimby, the first USA woman to obtain a pilot's license, learned of the excitement of flight at the Belmont Park International Aviation Tournament on Long Island, New York in 1910 where she met famed aviator John Moisant and his sister.[16][17][18]

Other key races at Belmont[edit]

In addition to the Belmont Stakes, other major races held at Belmont have included the Jockey Club Gold Cup, the Woodward Stakes, the Suburban Handicap and the Memorial Day standby—the Metropolitan Handicap, also known as the "Met Mile." (NYRA moved the Woodward to Saratoga Race Course, in 2006.)[citation needed]

Two important races for fillies, the Mother Goose Stakes and the Coaching Club American Oaks, are also run at Belmont as the first two installments of the New York Racing Association's Triple Tiara series for fillies. The third is the Alabama Stakes, run at Saratoga. In years past, the New York Filly Triple Crown consisted of the Mother Goose, CCA Oaks and another Belmont race, the Acorn Stakes (which is still run at the track).[citation needed]

All of the above races are contested on dirt; notable turf (grass) races include the Belmont Derby, Belmont Oaks, Manhattan Handicap, Just A Game Handicap, Bowling Green Handicap, Man O' War Stakes, Flower Bowl Invitational Stakes and the Joe Hirsch Turf Classic Invitational.[citation needed]

Belmont's Fall Championship meet includes New York Showcase Day in late October, with seven stakes races for New York-bred horses. The richest race on that program is the $250,000 Empire Classic Handicap.

Belmont Park today[edit]

Horses and lead ponies in a pre-race post parade at Belmont. The race track was the site of the first post parade in the United States.

Racing at Belmont Park is conducted in two annual installments, or "meetings": The "spring-summer meeting," which usually begins on the second Wednesday in May and lasts through the fourth Sunday in July, followed by a "fall meeting" commencing on the Friday after Labor Day and ending the fourth Sunday in October. Racing is held at Saratoga Race Course, during the time between these two meetings. Prior to 1977 a summer meeting was contested at Aqueduct from mid-June until the Saratoga meet began; its abolition led to the Belmont spring meeting being lengthened to its present duration (and eventual renaming).

The autumn installment is known as the Fall Championship meet, since many of the eventual Eclipse Award title winners have earned key victories in some of the meeting's races, such as the Jockey Club Gold Cup. Before the advent of the Breeders' Cup series in the mid-1980s, the Belmont Fall Championship races themselves helped determine the divisional championships.[citation needed]

Belmont has been home to the daylong Breeders' Cup championship in 1990, 1995, 2001 (the first major sports event to be held after the September 11 Attacks in the metropolitan area) and most recently in 2005.[citation needed]

Belmont's backyard is well known as a gathering place for racing fans to see their horses saddled before they hit the track. The center of the paddock is dominated by a white pine that predated the track itself—it turned 180 years old in 2006. A stylized version of the pine has been the centerpiece of Belmont Park's corporate logo since 1968.[citation needed]

The "Woody's Corner" display in the first-floor clubhouse lobby commemorates the five consecutive Belmont Stakes winners trained by Woody Stephens from 1982 to 1986.

The paddock area also serves as a picnic area for the increasing numbers of fans who make Belmont Stakes Day—the Saturday that falls within the range of June 5 through June 11—a tourist attraction.[citation needed]

Physical attributes[edit]

Horses race down the stretch on Belmont Park's main track, nicknamed "Big Sandy" by owners, trainers, jockeys and fans. The main track is the longest dirt racecourse in North American thoroughbred racing—at 1 12 miles (2.4 km).

The 430-acre (170 ha) racing, training and barn complex is located on the western edge of the Nassau County region known as the Hempstead Plains. Just a few miles (kilometers) east on the same plains, the first racing meet in North America was held in 1665, supervised by colonial governor Richard Nicolls.[19]

The dirt racecourse, known officially as the Main Track and nicknamed "Big Sandy" by racing followers, has a circumference of 1 12 miles (2.4 km), the longest dirt thoroughbred racetrack in North America. Immediately inside of this is the Widener Turf Course (named after the Widener family that has a long and prestigious history in American horse racing) spanning 1 516 miles (2.1 km) plus 27 feet (8.2 m), which in turn encircles an Inner Turf Course with a circumference of 1 316 miles (1.9 km) plus 103 feet (31 m). On the Main Track, it is 1,097 feet (334 m) from the top of the stretch to the finish line, and the segment between the wire and the start of the first (clubhouse) turn covers 843 feet (257 m); this latter segment is shorter by approximately 165 feet (50 m) on both of the turf courses, in order to accommodate the two chutes that exist on the Widener Turf Course, from which turf races of 1 mile (1.6 km) and 1 116 miles (1.7 km) are started; an additional chute exists for races of 1 116 miles (1.7 km) on the Inner Turf Course.[citation needed]

A straightaway chute leads on to the backstretch of the Main Track and permits races on the dirt up to 1 18 miles (1.8 km) long to be run with one turn. The chute used to extend further back across the training track, permitting races of up to a mile and a quarter, but was shortened because a crossover is now infeasible given the clay base of the Main Track and stone-dust base of the training track. Before the 1990 Breeders' Cup, the outer rail of the Main Track was moved back to widen the middle of the clubhouse turn and soften the angle of the start of the 1 14 miles (2.0 km) Classic.[20] The training track is 1 mile (1.6 km) in circumference and abuts the east end of the main track. In March 2009, lights were added to the training track as a safety measure to prevent early morning workouts from occurring in the dark.[21]

Geopolitical status[edit]

The racetrack, grandstand, training, and barn facilities are located entirely in the community of Elmont in Nassau County, New York. According to the City of New York's own map portal, the Long Island Rail Road station on the property, the ramp between the grandstand and the train station, and some of the adjoining parking fields straddle the Queens County line.

Belmont Park has direct on- and off-ramps to the Cross Island Parkway, which runs north-south and is just to the west of the park. Belmont Park's physical address is given as 2150 Hempstead Turnpike (New York State Route 24).

The Belmont Park property originally totaled some 650 acres (2.6 km2). Because the property stretched slightly into Queens, bookmakers in the track's early days—when bookmaking was illegal—could escape arrest from one county's authorities by jumping over the border. It was once even believed that horses rounding the far turn crossed into Queens and then came back to Nassau for the stretch run. After the 1956 season, the construction of a wider bus road beyond the main course's final turn forced the turn to be shortened. According to the Belmont publication commemorating the track's 1968 reopening, that move cut 96 feet (29 m) off its circumference. The current layout has the entire racing course inside Nassau County.

In popular culture[edit]

NYRA bugler Sam Grossman plays "Call to the Post," heralding the horses as they enter the track before a race at Belmont Park.

Belmont and NYRA TV personalities[edit]

Because of Belmont's role hosting big, nationally televised races on broadcast and cable TV, its track announcers have been among the best known in the sport. Among the famous race callers who've served as Belmont PA announcers are Fred Capossela, Dave Johnson, Chic Anderson, Marshall Cassidy, Tom Durkin, and present voice Larry Collmus.[citation needed]

Contrary to popular belief, Johnson, not Anderson, was Belmont Park's PA announcer during Secretariat's 1973 romp in the Belmont Stakes. It was on TV that Anderson called the 1973 Belmont Stakes aired by CBS Television, where he famously described Big Red as "moving like a tremendous machine". Anderson was the TV "voice of horse racing" in the 1970s and the announcer at Churchill Downs during Secretariat's racing career. Johnson went on to be TV's voice of horse racing in the 1990s.[citation needed]

Anderson would succeed Johnson as announcer at Belmont and the other NYRA tracks in May 1977, serving until his death on March 24, 1979. Anderson was followed by frequent backup voice Marshall Cassidy, who was the lead caller of NYRA races until Durkin replaced him in September 1990.[citation needed]

Sources: New York Racing Association (NYRA), City of New York

  • Paul Corman (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • John Imbriale (1995–present)[citation needed]
  • Rich McCarthy (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • Harvey Pack (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • Jan Rushton (1995–2009)[citation needed]
  • Mary Ryan (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • John Veitch (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • Mike Watchmaker (1995–1999)[citation needed]
  • Michael Sherack (1997–2000)[citation needed]
  • Kelly Gecewicz (2000–2005)[citation needed]
  • Jason Blewitt (2006–2016) - Blewitt graduated from Long Island University, C. W. Post with a degree in journalism. He had been a regular co-host of Talking Horses, a daily handicapping show at NYRA tracks, since 2006. He has also been a frequent guest on New York City Off Track Betting Corporation's Thoroughbred Central.[22]
  • Eric Donovan (2006–present) - Eric Donovan has worked on the NYRA press staff since 1999 and has been the full-time oddsmaker for all three New York Racing Association tracks since January 2005. He is also the co-host of NYRA's daily handicapping show, Talkin' Horses, and realizes there will be differences between setting a line and selecting winners since 2006, and is co-hosting Inside Racing, NYRA's weekly racing review show which airs every Monday night on MSG Plus, formerly known as Fox Sports New York. Donovan, who frequently substituted in recent years, took over for Don LaPlace, who set the morning line since early 2000.[23]
  • Andy Serling (2008–present) - Andy Serling is an American television personality who works as a television analyst for Belmont Park, Saratoga Race Course, and Aqueduct Racetrack as he also makes appearances on HRTV daily for his handicapping insights. A native of Saratoga Springs, New York, he has been a familiar face and voice around New York tracks since he began following the races while still a child. As an adult, he has become known as a trenchant and highly opinionated analyst. He was the first co-host (with Mike Watchmaker) of the Talkin' Horses segment of the NYRA simulcast show, and currently serves as a weekend-stakes commentator on drf.com web-casts. He is also a regular guest and the Monday host of Daily Racing Form's handicapping seminars at Siro's during the Saratoga race meeting.[24] Serling has been with NYRA's on-air team since August 2008 and has been making HRTV appearances since June 2009.[citation needed]
  • Maggie Wolfendale (2010–present)[citation needed]

Comedy[edit]

Comedian Robert Klein made Capossella's race calls the subject of one of his routines, captured on his 1974 album Mind Over Matter.[citation needed]

Film[edit]

Scenes for the Woody Allen movies Mighty Aphrodite (1995) and Melinda and Melinda (2004) were shot at Belmont Park, as was a paddock scene for the 1990s remake of the film Gloria with Sharon Stone and George C. Scott.[citation needed]

Scenes for the movie St. Vincent (2014) starring Bill Murray were shot at Belmont Park.[25]

Music[edit]

Belmont has hosted a wide range of top musical acts including Billy Joel, Kenny Rogers, Natalie Cole and Blondie. Titled the Coca-Cola Sunset Series, these fan based events were produced by music impresario, Richard Flanzer.[citation needed]

Television[edit]

A January 1975 episode of the ABC sitcom The Odd Couple — entitled "Felix the Horse Player"—was filmed partly at Belmont Park, though one of the race clips on the show features the shot of an Aqueduct starting gate.[citation needed]

A few years later, Dick Cavett took the camera crew of his PBS talk show to Belmont for a look at horse racing.[citation needed]

Belmont Park was featured in an episode of Everybody Loves Raymond, in which Frank, Robert, and Ray bet on a horse named "Marie's Mouth".[citation needed]

Belmont Park was featured on season finale of The Amazing Race 27.

Course record breakers[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Belmont Park TV Schedule
  2. ^ "2017 NYRA Media Guide" (PDF). nyra.com. p. 18. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  3. ^ Hoppert, Melissa (5 June 2014). "Belmont Park, Site of Failed Triple Crowns, Requires an Army of Caretakers". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Media Guide" (PDF). New York Racing Association. 2009: 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
  5. ^ "Belmont Park Opens To-Day". The New York Times. May 4, 1905. p. 7. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  6. ^ Sisto, Ernest (May 26, 1957). "Belmont, at Halfway Point in $6,00,000 Rebuilding, Opens Meet Wednesday". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  7. ^ "United Hunts Meet Will Begin Today". The New York Times. November 27, 1927. p. S11. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  8. ^ Stoff, Joshua (2004). Long Island Aircraft Crashes: 1909-1959. Images of America. Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia. p. 23. ISBN 0-7385-3516-8.
  9. ^ Finley, Bill (May 20, 2007). "Spitzer Is Said to Be Weighing a Track Overhaul That Would Close Aqueduct". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  10. ^ "New Islanders Hockey Arena Suggested For Belmont Park". CBS New York. 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  11. ^ "It's official: New York Islanders heading back to Nassau County". ABC7 New York. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  12. ^ "Belmont Park Redevelopment-Conditional Designation of New YorkArena Partners ("NYAP") as Developer" (PDF). esd.ny.gov. December 19, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  13. ^ Draper, Kevin; Kreda, Allan (2017-10-10). "Islanders Are Expected to Win Right to Build New Arena at Belmont Park". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  14. ^ Tower, Whitney (June 18, 1973). "History in the making". Sports Illustrated. p. 16.
  15. ^ "Media Guide" (PDF). New York Racing Association. 2009: 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-30. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
  16. ^ Jill W. Tallman (2 August 2011). "Thanks, Harriet". AOPA Pilot.
  17. ^ "Woman in trousers daring aviator; Long Island folk discover that miss Harriet Quimby is making flights at Garden City", The New York Times, page 6, May 11, 1911
  18. ^ "Miss Quimby wins air pilot license", The New York Times, page 7, August 2, 1911.
  19. ^ Ryan, Pat (April 30, 1962). "Point Of Fact - A Thoroughbred racing quiz to test the ingenuity and add to the knowledge of the $2 bettor and the armchair expert". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
  20. ^ Crist, Steven (October 24, 1990). "Belmont's Layout Bringing Controversy to Cup Classic". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
  21. ^ Grening, David (March 19, 2009). "'Michele' rewards owners' persistence". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ http://www1.drf.com/expo/2007/speakerbios.html#andyserling
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-08-17.

External links[edit]