Belmont University

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Belmont University
Belmont University seal.png
Motto"From here to anywhere"
AffiliationChristian (nondenominational)
Endowment$171 million (2017)[1]
PresidentRobert Fisher
Academic staff
779 (2015)
Students8,080 (Fall 2017)[2]
Location, ,
CampusUrban, 75 acres (263,000 m²)
ColorsRed and Blue[3]
AthleticsNCAA Division IOVC
Sports15 varsity teams
(7 men's and 8 women's)
MascotBruiser the Bruin
Belmont University logo.png
Belmont (Acklen Hall)
LocationBelmont Blvd.
Nashville, Tennessee
ArchitectWilliam Strickland
Architectural styleGreek Revival; Italianate
NRHP reference #71000816
Added to NRHPMay 6, 1971

Belmont University is a private Christian liberal arts university in Nashville, Tennessee. Although the university cut its ties with the Tennessee Baptist Convention in 2007, it continues to emphasize a Christian identity.


Belmont Mansion[edit]

Belmont Mansion was the home of Adelicia Hayes Franklin Acklen Cheatham,[4] a wealthy Nashville socialite and businesswoman. Built in 1850, it was one of the most elaborate antebellum homes in the South, with 36 rooms and 19,000 sq ft (1,800 m2) in size.[5] The estate contained an art gallery, conservatories, bowling alley, lavish gardens, aviary, lake and a zoo (which was then subsequently opened to the public). In 1887 Acklen Cheatham sold the estate to a group which intended to develop it into a subdivision, but in 1889 the mansion and 13 acres of its grounds became the home of Belmont Seminary for Women, run by Miss Susan Heron and Miss Ida Hood.[6] This school merged with Ward Seminary in 1913 and was known as Ward—Belmont College, which included both a junior college and college-prep (or high) school for women.[7][8] Today it is owned by Belmont University but maintained by the Belmont Mansion Association, a non-profit group. The mansion is open for tours and features Victorian art and furnishings. The water tower, gardens, with surviving gazebos and outdoor statuary from the Acklen era, are part of the college campus.[9]

Nashville's first radio station[edit]

Nashville's First Radio Station.jpg

The first radio station in Nashville went on air in May 1922 when, Boy Scout[10] John "Jack" DeWitt, Jr., a 16-year-old high school student, installed a twenty-watt transmitter at Belmont. The station, WDAA, was born when Doctor C. E. Crosland, Associate President, realized the potential advertising value to the college of a radio station. The WDAA program on April 18, 1922, marked the first time a music program was broadcast in Nashville. The broadcast could be heard 150 to 200 miles (320 km) from the school.[11] DeWitt later became WSM (AM) radio station's chief engineer, 1932–1942, and president, 1947–1968.[12]

Ties to the Tennessee Baptist Convention[edit]

In 1951, Ward-Belmont College, the finishing school operated in Nashville by Ward-Belmont, Inc., was facing severe financial difficulties. To relieve those problems, the school entered into a relationship with the TBC. Under the terms of that relationship, the Tennessee Baptist Convention provided the school with financial support and in exchange was granted certain management rights related to the school. In particular, all of the members of the school's Board of Trustees were required to hold membership in a Baptist church.

The TBC made Ward-Belmont coeducational in spring 1951, and shortened the school's name to simply Belmont College. Under Herbert Gabhart, who served as president from 1959 to 1982, Belmont's enrollment leaped from 365 students to 2,000, and it launched a music business program. Gabhart was succeeded by Bill Troutt, who at 32 was the youngest college president in the nation at the time. The school's growth continued, and in 1991 it became a university.

In 2005 Belmont's Board of Trustees sought to remove Belmont University from the control of the Tennessee Baptist Convention while remaining in a "fraternal relationship" with it. Advocates of this plan presented a blueprint for change in which all board members would be Christians but only 60 percent would be Baptists in order to affirm a Christian affinity while acknowledging the diversity of both the faculty and the student body. The head of the TBC would continue to be an ex officio board member. The TBC rejected this plan.

In November 2005 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would increase its funding of two other institutions, Union University and Carson-Newman College by the amount previously given to Belmont and Belmont would replace the three percent of its budget that was funded by the TBC; this announcement seemed to mark the end of the matter. However, on April 7, 2006 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would seek to oust the existing board and replace it with one consisting entirely of Southern Baptists and amenable to ongoing TBC control.

After settlement talks failed, the Tennessee Baptist Convention Executive Board filed a lawsuit on September 29, 2006 against Belmont seeking the return of approximately $58,000,000.

Belmont severed its ties from the Tennessee Baptist Convention in 2007, when the university announced it would be a Christian university without any denominational affiliations. On November 14, 2007, Nashville media reported that a settlement of this suit had been reached before trial. Under its terms, the TBC and Belmont would disaffiliate amicably, with Belmont agreeing to pay one million dollars to the convention immediately, and $250,000 annually for the next forty years, for a total cost of $11,000,000. The university has stated its intent to maintain a Christian identity, but no longer a specifically Baptist one.[13]

21st century[edit]

Belmont University became a catalyst for anti-discrimination protests in December 2010, when women's soccer coach Lisa Howe allegedly lost her job at the university on December 2 after announcing that she was having three children with her same sex partner.[14] Howe's dismissal sparked protests from students and from local and national gay-rights advocates. These events led to a citywide anti-discrimination ordinance being passed by the Nashville City Council in January 2011.[15] On January 26, 2011, President Bob Fisher announced that Belmont has added sexual orientation to the university's non-discrimination policies.[16] Belmont is a Christian university which was widely regarded for its progressive ideals until the controversy broke out over Howe's departure.[17] The college was criticized for not allowing a group with a mission to support gay students and explore the intersection of Christianity and homosexuality called Bridge Builders to officially form as a student group. At a news conference, Fisher stated that they had resubmitted the application.[17] On February 27, 2011, Belmont University officially recognized the gay student organization for the first time. Belmont Provost Thomas Burns and Bridge Builders President Robbie Maris announced the decision to recognize the student group in a joint statement.[18]

In February 2018, it took ownership of the O'More College of Design.[19]


Belmont University offers bachelor's degrees in over 90 academic majors in nine colleges with more than 25 master's and five doctoral programs.[20] Belmont and HCA created a health sciences consortium with local universities to alleviate the shortage of nurses and health care professionals in the local community,[21] and provides students with shared office space and mentoring from faculty, local entrepreneurs and attorneys.[22] Journalism students have gained work experience at The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Daily Show, CBS Evening News, and British Broadcasting Corp.[23]

Rankings and recognition[edit]

Belmont has been cited for years by U.S. News & World Report including its most recent rankings of No. 5 in the Best Regional Universities—South, No. 4 on the “Strong Commitment to Undergraduate Teaching” in the South list, No. 3 on the “Best College for Veterans” in the South list, one of 64 institutions in the South recognized as a “Best Value,” one of only 20 institutions recognized for internship offerings across the nation, one of only 18 institutions recognized in the nation for learning communities, one of only 23 institutions recognized in the nation for service-learning and one of only 44 institutions in the nation recognized for study abroad opportunities.[24]

For the applicant class of 2017-18, Belmont admitted 81% of its applicants.[25] The class's average ACT score was 26 and the average SAT score was 1221. 27% of the class were in the top 10% of their high school's graduating, while 56% were in their class's top quarter.[25] In 2017, 3.6% of the entering freshmen class were from New England, 21.2% were from the Midwest, 49.3% were from the South, 7.0% were from the Middle States, 7.8% were from the West, 9.9% were from the Southwest and 1.2% were from “Other,” a region including the U.S. Territories, international students and those unspecified.[26]

In fall 2017, the University had 7,587 students enrolled, a 4% increase from 2016.[27] The overall, average graduation rate for Belmont is 67%.[28]

Music and music business programs[edit]

Belmont is home to the only AACSB International accredited Music Business program in the world.[29]

Belmont's Mike Curb College of Entertainment & Music Business (CEMB) consists of current/former authors, performers, expert witnesses (for industry lawsuits), artist managers, lawyers, record label executives, songwriters, and others. Mike Curb is the CEO of Curb Records. He was a producer, songwriter and company executive and one of the most successful record men of the sixties and seventies. He is the department's namesake.[30] The former dean of the CEMB, Jim Van Hook, is a legendary Nashville label head, especially as part of the Christian music industry. One of the hallmarks of the program is its internship program, which sends hundreds of students annually out into the Nashville, New York, and Los Angeles music industries to intern for record labels, management companies, publishing companies, booking agencies, publicists, recording studios, law firms, and other businesses.

Besides having three professional-quality recording studios on campus, Belmont owns the Belmont Studios (including Ocean Way Nashville), part of which is operated for-profit (used by such artists as Dave Matthews, Sheryl Crow, and Bob Seger), and part of which is used by students. Ocean Way Nashville, purchased by Belmont in 2001, has recorded thousands of tracks including the score for “The Last of Us,” a top-selling game that won Best Audio in the global GANG (Game Audio Network Guild) Awards.[31]

Schools and colleges[edit]

  • College of Law
  • College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
  • College of Pharmacy
  • College of Sciences and Mathematics
  • College of Theology and Christian Ministry
  • College of Visual and Performing Arts
  • Gordon E. Inman College of Health Sciences & Nursing
  • Jack C. Massey College of Business
  • The Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business (CEMB)


Main campus (Nashville)[edit]

The Belmont Mansion

In June 2006, Belmont opened the new $18 million Gordon E. Inman Center that now houses the Gordon E. Inman College of Health Sciences and Nursing.[32] A state-of-the-art facility, the building has three stories of classroom space that contain learning labs equipped with Sim Man mannequins that respond to the actions of the nursing students. Additionally, there are classrooms centered on both adult and pediatric occupational therapy, maternity and neonatal care complete with Sim Man babies and a birthing Sim Woman, orthopedics lab, and many classrooms of various sizes.

Belmont also houses the Curb Event Center, a 5000-seat multi-purpose arena, which is used for basketball games, concerts, and other events like the 2006, 2007[33] and 2008 CMT Awards,[34] and the 2008 Presidential Debate.[35] The facility is connected to the Beaman Student Life Center and Maddox Grand Atrium—collectively, a $52 million development.

In 2015, the University opened its R. Milton and Denice Johnson Center, home to Belmont's Curb College, Department of Media Studies, Motion Pictures and Harrington Place Dining.[36]

Regional campus[edit]

  • "Williamson Center" location in Franklin, TN The university cut the ribbon on its new facility, a professional education and corporate meeting building, in January 2015. The facility provides classroom space for Belmont's adult degree, professional and continuing education programs. It also provides space for area businesses to utilize for events and meetings. This newly open facility replaced the University's first Cool Springs location, opened in 2002, on Seaboard Lane.

National campuses[edit]

  • Los Angeles, CA (Belmont West)
  • New York City, NY (Belmont East)

Student life[edit]

Belmont has over 190 student organizations. These include the Student Government Association (SGA), The Student Activities Programming Board (SAPB), Greek organizations, as well as other special interest organizations.[37]

The largest student organization on campus is Service Corps, which focuses on volunteer work inside the music industry and is open only to students enrolled in the Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business.[38]

Belmont's Greek community consists of five sororities and four fraternities. The sororities are Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Sigma Tau, Delta Sigma Theta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Phi Mu.[39] The fraternities include Phi Kappa Tau, Alpha Phi Alpha, Phi Mu Alpha, and Phi Beta Sigma.[40] In the spring of 2017, approximately 17% of full-time undergraduate students at Belmont were members of fraternities and sororities.[41]

Belmont has a large music program, and a variety of musical ensembles exist on the campus. There are currently 15 vocal ensembles and 23 instrumental ensembles.[42] In addition, there are two student-run a cappella groups: a coed group named The Beltones, and an all-male group named Pitchmen. Belmont is home to two Greek-lettered music fraternities, Sigma Alpha Iota and Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, as well as a chapter for the national theatre fraternity, Alpha Psi Omega.

Belmont operates one student newspaper called The Vision, published monthly.[43]

Points of interest[edit]

Main campus attractions[edit]

Off-campus facilities[edit]

  • E.S. Rose Park – Metro Nashville Parks owned property in partnership with Belmont University – hosts NCAA Div.I baseball, soccer, softball, and track.[45]


Belmont is a member of the NCAA Division I and is a member of the Ohio Valley Conference in all of Belmont's sports except men's soccer, which the OVC does not sponsor. Until July 1, 2012, Belmont had been a member of the Atlantic Sun Conference, a non-football conference.[46] The men's soccer team was most recently an independent before joining the Horizon League effective with the 2014 season.[47]

In the mid-1990s, Belmont changed its nickname to the "Bruins", replacing the earlier mascot of Rebels due to its association with the Confederacy. Bruin is Middle English for bear from the Dutch fable "History of Reynard the Fox", translated by William Caxton.[48]

In 2011 Belmont student-athletes won the Atlantic Sun Conference Academic Trophy for the eighth time in ten years with 76.32 per cent of the student-athletes achieving at least a 3.0 grade-point average.[49]

In 2012 Belmont student-athletes won the Ohio Valley Conference Institutional Academic Achievement Award for the first time after joining the conference last year.[50]

In 2015, Belmont received the OVC's Institutional Academic Achievement Award, presented each year to the member institution with the greatest percentage of its eligible student-athletes that earn a 3.25 GPA or higher. This award marked the 4th straight year for Belmont, who joined the OVC only 4 years prior.[51]

Presidential debate[edit]

One of the on-campus advertisements for the Presidential Debate at Belmont

On November 19, 2007, The Commission on Presidential Debates officially chose Belmont University to host one of three Presidential election debates on October 7, 2008.[52] Belmont was chosen out of sixteen finalists. The debate at Belmont was different from the others in that it was a "town-hall" style debate with questions fielded from the audience.[53]

Notable alumni[edit]


Arts, film, and literature[edit]




Notable faculty[edit]

  • Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General, is the Doyle Rogers Distinguished Chair of Law.[103]
  • Mark Volman, a founding member of the Turtles, is an associate professor of entertainment industry studies.
  • Alan Shacklock, music producer, is a professor of recording technology.
  • Dwayne O'Brien, a founding member of Little Texas, is a professor of music business.


  1. ^ "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2017 Market Value of Endowment". NACUBO. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Belmont Draws 8,080 Students for Fall 2017". 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  3. ^ Belmont University Brand Book (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  4. ^ Victor J. Danilov (2005). Women And Museums: A Comprehensive Guide. Rowman Altamira. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7591-0855-4. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  5. ^ Graham, Eleanor (Winter 1971). "Nashville Home of Adelicia Acklen". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 30 (4): 345.
  6. ^ Belmont Mansion Timeline Archived 2010-09-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  7. ^ Ward-Belmont Alumnae Gather for Reunion.
  8. ^ Margaret Binnicker, "[1]Harpeth Hall School and Ward-Belmont," Encyclopedia of History and Culture (Tennessee Historical Society)
  9. ^ About Us Archived 2010-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.. Belmont Mansion. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  10. ^ The Historical Commission of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County Donated by the Gaylord Entertainment Company in 1997
  11. ^ Frost, S. E. (1971). Education's own stations – Google Books. ISBN 9780405035739. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  12. ^ "Nashville > Page Not Found". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  13. ^ Belmont, Tennessee Baptists, Settle Lawsuit, End Relationship. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  14. ^ "Belmont changes policy after gay coach protest". The Associated Press State & Local Wire. 27 January 2011.
  15. ^ [2] Archived February 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Archive » Belmont adds ‘sexual orientation’ to nondiscrimination policies. (2011-01-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  17. ^ a b "Belmont University adds œsexual orientation in non-discrimination policy". International Business Times News. 27 January 2012.
  18. ^ "Belmont officially recognizes gay student group". The Associated Press State & Local Wire. 27 February 2011.
  19. ^ Seltzer, Rick (February 14, 2018). "Belmont Acquires Neighboring Design College". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  20. ^ "All Majors Offered | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  21. ^ Blake Farmer Belmont nurses will get HCA training., June 12, 2006
  22. ^ Spors, Kelly K. (2007-03-19). "Entrepreneurship 101 -". Retrieved 2010-03-23.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ "Out & About – Living: Woolley heads to CBS New York". 2006-09-01. Archived from the original on 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  24. ^ "Belmont University". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2017-05-18. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Freshman Profile - Office of Institutional Research and Assessment | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  26. ^ "Regional Distribution: First-Time, Full-Time Students | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  27. ^ "All Students | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  28. ^ "Undergraduate Retention and Graduate Rates | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  29. ^ "Accreditation – Belmont University". Archived from the original on 2010-02-07. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  30. ^ "Mike Curb". Faber and Faber Ltd. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  31. ^ "The Mix in The Last of Us". Retrieved 2018-02-20.
  32. ^ "The Gordon E. Inman Center". Archived from the original on 2016-10-26. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  33. ^ Greg Pillon (April 17, 2007). "Belmont University Hosts CMT Music Awards Second Year In a Row". Belmont University. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  34. ^ "Sugarland to take the stage at CMT Awards". Universal Music Nashville. February 19, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  35. ^ "Belmont University Prepares for Presidential Debate". NewsChannel5 Nashville. August 20, 2008. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  36. ^ "Belmont University's R. Milton and Denice Johnson Center". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
  37. ^ "Student Organizations and Activities - Division of Student Affairs | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  38. ^ "Student Organizations – Belmont University". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  39. ^ "Office of Student Engagement & Leadership Development - Sororities | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  40. ^ "Office of Student Engagement & Leadership Development - Fraternities | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  41. ^ "Office of Student Engagement & Leadership Development - Frequently Asked Questions | Belmont University | Nashville, TN". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  42. ^ "Ensembles in the School of Music". Belmont University. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
  43. ^ "About 'The Belmont Vision'". Belmont Vision.Com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
  44. ^ "Belmont Carillon – Belmont University". 1986-09-05. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  45. ^ Nashville. "Nashville > Parks and Recreation > Athletics > E.S. Rose Complex". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  46. ^ Bruins' new conference. (2011-05-13). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  47. ^ "Belmont University to Join Horizon League as Affiliate Member" (Press release). Horizon League. April 21, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  48. ^ "Bruin". The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  49. ^ Bruins Win Trophy Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  50. ^ Belmont University Claims OVC Academic Award. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  51. ^ "Belmont Claims 2015-16 OVC Institutional Academic Achievement Award; Winners of 16 Team Academic Achievement Awards Announced". Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  52. ^ Belmont University Prepares for Presidential Debate Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  53. ^ Belmont applies for 2012 Presidential Debate Archived April 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ "Jay Ayres". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  55. ^ "Brian Baker - Overview". ATP World Tour - Tennis.
  56. ^ Clark, Ian. "Ian Clark – Belmont Men's Basketball". Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  57. ^ "Stu Grimson". Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  58. ^ "Josh McAdams". 2001–2013 USA Track & Field. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  59. ^ "Ricardo Patton". University of Colorado Buffaloes 2013. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  60. ^ "J. P. Rodrigues". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  61. ^ Rodney Ho (January 23, 2017). "Atlanta native McKinley Belcher III ('Mercy Street') visits Campbell High School | Radio and TV Talk". Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  62. ^ "Elizabeth P. Farrington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  63. ^ "Masood Ashraf Raja". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  64. ^ "Duane Simolke". Yatedo Inc. Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  65. ^ "Lila Acheson Wallace". Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  66. ^ "Lisa Williams". Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  67. ^ Corrections Corp Of America : Damon T. Hininger, Bloomberg Business
  68. ^ "R. Milton Johnson". Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  69. ^ "Diane Black". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  70. ^ "Jimmy Bowen". 2012 Viacom International Inc. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  71. ^ "Sarah Buxton". Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  72. ^ "Chuck Cannon". Durango Songwriters Expo!. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  73. ^ "Steven Curtis Chapman". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  74. ^ "COIN - Biography". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  75. ^ "Travis Cottrell". Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  76. ^ "Denver and the Mile High Orchestra". Belmont University. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  77. ^ "Jace Everett". Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  78. ^ "Sharon Gilchrist". Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  79. ^ "Andrew Greer". Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  80. ^ "Ashley Gorley". Archived from the original on 2010-09-01. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  81. ^ "Helen Hemphill". Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  82. ^ "Ashlyne Huff". 2013 Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  83. ^ "Julienne Irwin". Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  84. ^ "Tamara Johnson-George". LinkedIn Corporation. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  85. ^ "Meet LANY, three Belmont alums who want to be 'the biggest band in the world'". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
  86. ^ Giving Southern Baptist sissies a voice: Singer/songwriter Levi Kreis speaks Archived 2008-09-19 at the Library of Congress Web Archives page 2
  87. ^ "Jesse Lee". © 2013 Scripps Networks. LLC. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  88. ^ Jim Lill (2017-04-03), Step-by-Step Professional Home Recording Studio Build in Nashville, retrieved 2017-04-12
  89. ^ Biography for Kimberley Locke on IMDb
  90. ^ "Willie Mack". 2007Key West Songwriters' Festival 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  91. ^ "Mary Virginia Martin". Answers Corporation. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  92. ^ "Sandra McCracken". Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  93. ^ "Mikeschair". Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  94. ^ "Moon Taxi". Wikipedia. 2017-12-13.
  95. ^ "Ginny Owens". Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  96. ^ "John Mark Painter". 2013 Ltd. All rights. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  97. ^ "Jill Phillips". 2000–2013 Entertainment Resource Group, Inc. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  98. ^ "Frank Rogers". 2013, SCNow, Florence, SC. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  99. ^ "Todd Smith". Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  100. ^ "Larry Stewart". ©2013 Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  101. ^ Jamie Teachenor. "Jamie Teachenor | Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
  102. ^ "Troy Verges". 1994–2013, Broadcast Music, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  103. ^ "Alberto Gonzales". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2 May 2013.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°08′08″N 86°47′48″W / 36.13553°N 86.79661°W / 36.13553; -86.79661