Jump to content

Ben Cline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ben Cline
Official portrait, 2018
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 6th district
Assumed office
January 3, 2019
Preceded byBob Goodlatte
Member of the Virginia House of Delegates
from the 24th district
In office
November 26, 2002 – December 18, 2018
Preceded byVance Wilkins
Succeeded byRonnie Campbell
Personal details
Benjamin Lee Cline

(1972-02-29) February 29, 1972 (age 52)
Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Elizabeth Rocovich
(m. 2007)
EducationBates College (BA)
University of Richmond (JD)
WebsiteHouse website

Benjamin Lee Cline (born February 29, 1972) is an American lawyer and politician who has served as the U.S. representative for Virginia's 6th congressional district since 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he represented the 24th district in the Virginia House of Delegates from 2002 to 2018.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Cline was born on February 29, 1972, in Stillwater, Oklahoma,[1][2] and grew up in Rockbridge County, Virginia.[3] He is the son of Philip L. Cline and Julie Cline.[2]

Cline graduated from Lexington High School in 1990,[3] and graduated with a B.A. from Bates College in 1994.[1][4] He earned a J.D. degree from University of Richmond School of Law in 2007.[1]

Career outside of politics[edit]

From 2002 to 2007, including his years in law school, Cline was president of NDS Corporation, a Virginia-based company providing sales and marketing assistance to rural Internet and technology businesses.[citation needed] After graduating from law school, he served as an assistant Commonwealth's Attorney for Rockingham County and the city of Harrisonburg until 2013.[5][third-party source needed] Before his election to Congress, Cline maintained a private law practice in Lexington, Harrisonburg, and Amherst.[6]

Political career[edit]

Cline with Bob Goodlatte in October 2005

Cline served as chief of staff for U.S. Representative Bob Goodlatte before running for office.[when?][citation needed]

Cline began his political career in 2002 in a special election to the Virginia House of Delegates, replacing incumbent delegate Vance Wilkins, who resigned due to sexual harassment allegations.[7] Cline won with 57% of the vote against Democratic former Lexington mayor Mimi Elrod.[citation needed] Cline represented the 24th district, which consisted of Bath and Rockbridge counties, the cities of Buena Vista and Lexington, and parts of Amherst and Augusta counties.[citation needed]

Cline and Bob Goodlatte at the Rockbridge Community Festival in August 2008

In 2003, Cline won again with 69% of the vote against independent E. W. Sheffield.[citation needed] In 2005, he won with 62% of the vote against Democrat David Cox. Cline ran unopposed in 2007.[citation needed] In 2009, Cline ran against Democratic Amherst native Jeff Price and won with 71% of the vote, taking the Lexington City precinct for the first time since Price's election in 2002[verification needed] and every precinct in the 24th House of Delegates district.[citation needed] Cline ran unopposed in both 2011 and 2013.[citation needed] In 2015, Cline won 71% of the vote against Democrat Ellen Arthur.[citation needed] In 2017, he was reelected with 72% of the vote against independent candidate John Winfrey.[8]

In November 2017, Cline announced he would run for Congress in Virginia's 6th congressional district in 2018 for the seat being vacated by retiring incumbent Bob Goodlatte.[9] On May 19, 2018, Cline won the Republican nomination on the first ballot at the district convention.[citation needed]

Cline won the election on November 6, 2018, winning 15 Virginia localities with more than 60% of the vote against Jennifer Lewis.[10][11] He resigned from the Virginia House of Delegates on December 18, 2018.[12]

State legislative career[edit]

Cline in the House Chamber next to state delegate Terrie Suit

Committee assignments[edit]

Cline served on the House of Delegates Committees on Commerce and Labor, Courts of Justice, Finance, and chaired the Militia, Police and Public Safety. He was also a member of Commerce and Labor Subcommittee #2, Commerce and Labor Special Subcommittee on Energy, Courts of Justice Subcommittee on Criminal Law, Courts of Justice Subcommittee on Judicial Systems and Finance Subcommittee #2.[13][third-party source needed] Cline also co-chaired the Virginia Joint Legislative Conservative Caucus, co-chaired in the Senate of Virginia by Mark Obenshain.[14][better source needed]


In 2006, Cline patroned HB1125, which created a school sales tax holiday in the Commonwealth, and HB1135, which allowed members of the military stationed in the Commonwealth to receive in-state tuition in Virginia.[15][16] In 2007, he patroned HB2168, which created the Community College Transfer Grant Program.[17] In 2008, Cline supported the opening of an Amherst branch of Central Virginia Community College and new facilities for the Rockbridge branch of Dabney S. Lancaster Community College. In 2009, Cline patroned, but did not have included in the final state budget, amendments to cut the budget of the Virginia Lottery in half, which would in turn put those funds into the Literary Fund used to fund Virginia public schools.[18]

Government regulation[edit]

In 2006, Cline passed two bills, HB1130 and HB1131, that changed the administrative setup of the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.[19][20] In 2009, he passed HB2285, which created a searchable database of Virginia's agency expenditures.[21] Additionally, Cline went after the Virginia Lottery in 2009 for the allotment of over $1 million of state funds to use the likeness of Howie Mandel and Donald Trump on lottery tickets.[22]

Criminal prosecution[edit]

In 2003, Cline introduced HB2229, which deals with probation for underage alcohol possession.[23] In 2004, he introduced HB1204, which increased penalties for people with multiple offenses pertaining to driving while intoxicated.[24] In 2007, he patroned HB2453, which enhanced penalties for repeated offenders of driving without a license, and HB2459, which increased the penalties for elder abuse.[25][26] In 2008, he passed HB1362, which established a penalty for the misuse of public assets, and HB1363, which increases penalties for trademark counterfeiting.[27][28] In 2009, he patroned HB2441, which requires Virginia Department of Corrections to notify prosecutors of gang affiliation of inmates charged with an offense committed while in prison, and HB2637, which requires fingerprinting of people arrested for violating a protective order.[29][30]

Public safety[edit]

Cline introduced HB2227, which made it a felony to assault retired law enforcement officers, and HB865, which imposed the same penalty regarding assault of campus police officers.[31][32] In 2003, he introduced HB2230 and HB2232 to help local probation officers and pretrial services officers.[33][34] In 2005, he introduced HB1514, which allowed sheriffs' offices and volunteer rescue squads to be reimbursed for the costs of responding to DUI crashes.[35] Cline was named Legislator of the Year by the Virginia Court Clerks' Association in 2011 and by the Virginia Sheriff's Association in 2012.[36]

Cline also introduced several bills regarding the rights of defendants and inmates. In 2003, he introduced HB2231, which gives probation officers greater access to juvenile defendants' records so that risk assessments could be more easily prepared.[37] In 2009 he opposed the closure of the Natural Bridge Juvenile Correctional Center, the last remaining facility solely for nonviolent offenders in the Commonwealth of Virginia at the time of its closing,[38] and introduced HB873 in 2010 to require the Department of Juvenile Justice to keep at least one facility open for nonviolent juvenile offenders.[39] In 2012, Cline helped negotiate a compromise between law enforcement and prisoner advocates regarding HB836, which restricted the usage of restraints on pregnant inmates, by supporting the intent of the legislation in the form of a rule change by the Virginia Board of Corrections, winning praise locally for his involvement on the issue.[40][41][42] In 2013, Cline helped craft and supported HB2103, which improves parole process for inmates still eligible for parole in Virginia.[43][failed verification]


Carmen Forman of The Roanoke Times called Cline "staunchly anti-abortion."[44] In 2007 and subsequent years, he introduced legislation requiring that information regarding the option of providing anesthesia to the baby be given to women seeking abortions after 20 weeks and requiring doctors to do so if requested by the mother.[45][46][47]

Civil liberties[edit]

In 2013, Cline patroned HB2229[48] to address ongoing concerns over the Federal National Defense Authorization Act of 2012. The allegation was that the NDAA allowed the federal government to detain and seize American citizens within the United States and hold them without access to legal counsel or trial, in violation of the United States Constitution. HB2229 stated that if the federal government wished to detain an American citizen on those grounds, it first needed to notify the chief law enforcement official in the individual's locality or do so within 24 hours of the detention. The bill further stated that failure to comply with the law would lead to the Virginia General Assembly reviewing any Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the federal government and the Commonwealth of Virginia and that any further action on the MOU and any funding in pursuit of the MOU would be contingent on an affirmative vote of the General Assembly.

Cline introduced a similar bill in 2014 (HB1256)[48] and 2015 (HB2144).[48] In 2013, the bill passed the House of Delegates with bipartisan support 83-14 and the Senate 31–9 with an amendment. The House rejected the Senate amendment and the bill died in a conference committee due to the Virginia State Police complaining that the federal government was threatening to pull out of MOUs. The 2014 bill passed the House of Delegates unanimously, but died in the Senate without a hearing. The 2015 bill passed the House of Delegates 96–4, passed out of Senate committee 7–6, and was recommitted to the Committee at the direction of Senate Majority Leader Thomas K. Norment, where it died without another vote.

Interstate 81[edit]

Interstate 81 is the main branch of the Interstate Highway System in the 24th district. In 2005, Cline patroned HB2554, a bill that created the I-81 Safety Task Force, and HJ709, a resolution that encouraged Congress to develop a multistate I-81 initiative.[49][50] In 2006, he patroned HB1581, which created the I-81 Intermodal Rail study.[51]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]




Cline announced his candidacy for the United States House of Representatives, in a bid to replace outgoing Representative Bob Goodlatte, for whom Cline had previously served as chief of staff. He entered a field of eight candidates, his top rival being Cynthia Dunbar, the incumbent RNC Committeewoman from Virginia.

The convention process was immediately tainted by accusations that the District Committee leadership was attempting to slant the convention in Dunbar's favor. 6th District Chairman Scott Sayre was heard admonishing the other candidates that their primary goal needed to be to defeat Cline. 6th District Vice Chair Matthew Tederick was a paid staffer for Dunbar, as were several other members of the District Committee.

Led by Dunbar supporters, the District Committee attempted to push through a "plurality" rule for the Congressional race so that whoever got the highest vote on the first ballot would win. In a field of eight candidates, that number could have been significantly lower than 51% (even as low as 20%), which elicited accusations that the District Committee thought that Dunbar couldn't beat Cline on her own merits. This rule was challenged to the State Central Committee of the Republican Party of Virginia and overturned by the SCC. It turned out to be unnecessary since Rockingham County Clerk of Court Chaz Haywood (another candidate) dropped out of the race at the Convention and endorsed Cline.[52] With that endorsement, Cline received 52.62% of the vote to Dunbar's 39.15%.

The final tally was: Cline, 52.62%; Dunbar, 39.15%; Douglas Wright, 3.63%; Elliot Pope, 2.59%; Michael Desjadon, 1.19%; Eduardo Justo, 0.51%; Kathryn McDaniel Lewis, 0.25%, and Haywood, who appeared on the ballot despite his late withdrawal, 0.06%. With Cline winning a majority on the first ballot, he secured the nomination and moved on to the general election.

General election[edit]

According to Amy Friedenberger of The Roanoke Times, Cline established himself in his 16 years in the Virginia House of Delegates "as a conservative who opposes abortion rights and seeks to protect gun rights... [who said] he would take his fiscal conservatism to Washington."[10] According to the Staunton News Leader, a USA Today newspaper in Cline's district, Cline's House campaign website detailed "his record of supporting conservative legislation in the House of Delegates... [where he] voted against a tax increase, helped make budget cuts to the state's 'bloated bureaucracy,' and sponsored legislation that would ban sanctuary cities".[53] At his election victory celebration, Representative-elect Cline told his supporters, "Being part of the checks and balances that our Founding Fathers envisioned is a responsibility that I will guard seriously."[53] In an interview as he arrived for his swearing in at the House, Cline described to a Staunton, Virginia, news reporter his 6th district as having 800,000 constituents in "19 cities and counties... each one [with] different character and different political affiliations".[54]


Cline was reelected in 2020 with 64.7% of the vote, defeating Democrat Nicholas Betts.[55]


Cline with Governor Glenn Youngkin in 2022

Cline was reelected in 2022 with 64.4% of the vote, defeating Democrat Jennifer Lewis. The election took place in the newly redrawn 6th district following reapportionment.[56]


Cline's assignments in the House include serving on the Judiciary Committee, which includes some responsibilities regarding the Mueller Report.[57]

In December 2020, Cline was one of 126 Republican members of the House of Representatives to sign an amicus brief in support of Texas v. Pennsylvania, a lawsuit filed at the United States Supreme Court contesting the results of the 2020 presidential election, in which Joe Biden defeated[58] incumbent Donald Trump.

On January 6, 2021, Cline voted against certifying the election of President-elect Biden.[59]

In September 2021, Cline was among 75 House Republicans to vote against the National Defense Authorization Act of 2022, which contains a provision that would require women to be drafted.[60][61]

Cline was among 19 House Republicans to vote against the final passage of the 2022 National Defense Authorization Act.[62]

Cline was among the 71 Republicans who voted against final passage of the Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023 in the House.[63]

According to an algorithm developed by researchers at FiveThirtyEight, although Cline is a member of the bipartisan Problem Solvers Caucus, his voting record aligns more with "far-right obstructionists" like Marjorie Taylor Greene.[64][65]


Cline voted against the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2020 which authorizes DHS to nearly double the available H-2B visas for the remainder of FY 2020.[66][67]

Cline voted against Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 1158) which effectively prohibits ICE from cooperating with Health and Human Services to detain or remove illegal alien sponsors of unaccompanied alien children (UACs).[68]


In 2023, Cline was among 47 Republicans to vote in favor of H.Con.Res. 21 which directed President Joe Biden to remove U.S. troops from Syria within 180 days.[69][70]


In 2023, Cline voted for a moratorium on aid to Ukraine.[71]

In 2023, Cline voted for a ban on a Center of Excellence in Ukraine which enhances NATO activities.[72]


He voted to provide Israel with support following 2023 Hamas attack on Israel[73][74]

Committee assignments[edit]

Caucus memberships[edit]

Electoral history[edit]

Virginia's 6th congressional district, 2018[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ben Cline 167,957 59.7
Democratic Jennifer Lewis 113,133 40.2
N/A Write-ins 287 0.1
Total votes 281,377 100.0
Republican hold
Virginia's 6th congressional district, 2020[80]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ben Cline (incumbent) 246,606 64.6
Democratic Nicholas Betts 134,729 35.3
N/A Write-ins 478 0.1
Total votes 381,813 100.0
Republican hold
Virginia's 6th congressional district, 2022
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ben Cline (incumbent) 173,352 64.4
Democratic Jennifer Lewis 95,410 35.4
N/A Write-ins 472 0.2
Total votes 269,234 100.0
Republican hold

Personal life[edit]

Cline married Elizabeth Rocovich Cline in 2007; they have twin daughters. Since his election to Congress, he has moved from his longtime home in Rockbridge County, near Lexington, to Botetourt County.[1][54][6] He is Catholic and attends St. Patrick's Church in Lexington.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Virginia House of Delegates Staff (2019-07-24). "Benjamin L. 'Ben' Cline". State of Virginia. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  2. ^ a b Jeff Hanna, "W&L Mourns Loss of Phil Cline, Emeritus Economics Professor" The Columns 2010-01-14 https://columns.wlu.edu/wl-mourns-loss-of-phil-cline-emeritus-economics-professor/ (accessed 2022-08-23)
  3. ^ a b Who's Who Among American High School Students (Educational Communications, Inc., 1989), p. 294 (accessed 2022-08-23 on Google Books)
  4. ^ McConville, Emily (2019-06-26). "Similar but different, Congressmen Ben Cline '94 and Jared Golden '11 return for Reunion". Bates College. Lewiston, Maine. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  5. ^ Ben Cline for Delegate. "Delegate Ben Cline – Biography". Archived from the original on 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
  6. ^ a b "About Ben". Ben Cline for Congress. Retrieved 2020-07-21.
  7. ^ Fiske, Warren; Nuckols, Christina (2002-06-14). "Wilkins Calls it Quits One Week After Sexual Harassment Allegations Surfaced, Leader Leaves Post Saying He Feels He Was 'Abandoned' by the GOP". The Virginian-Pilot. Norfolk, VA. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  8. ^ Virginia Department of Elections Staff (2017-11-13). "2017 November General—Official Results". Results.Elections.Virginia.gov. Retrieved 2019-07-24.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Delegate Ben Cline Announces Run for Goodlatte's Seat in Congress". WHSV.com. Harrisonburg, VA: WHSV-TV3. 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  10. ^ a b Friedenberger, Amy (2018-11-06). "Republican Ben Cline Defeats Democrat Jennifer Lewis in 6th District Race". The Roanoke Times. Roanoke, VA. Retrieved 2019-07-21.
  11. ^ "Virginia house [election results, map]". CNN. 2019-12-21. Retrieved 2019-07-21.
  12. ^ Friedenberger, Amy (2018-11-09). "After Del. Ben Cline's Congressional Win, Special Election to Fill Seat Set for Dec. 18". The Roanoke Times. Roanoke, VA. Retrieved 2019-07-21.
  13. ^ Virginia House of Delegates. "Bio for Benjamin L. Cline". Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  14. ^ "Virginia Conservative Caucus". Archived from the original on 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  15. ^ "HB 1125 Retail sales and use tax; exemption for school-related items". Virginia General Assembly Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
  16. ^ "HB 1135 Tuition, in-state; educational benefits for illegal aliens military personnel and their dependants". Virginia General Assembly Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly.
  17. ^ "HB 2168 Community College Transfer Grant program; created". Virginia General Assembly Legislative Information System. Virginia General Assembly. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
  18. ^ "Budget Amendments - HB1600 (Member Request)". Virginia.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  19. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1130 > 2006 Session".
  20. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1131 > 2006 Session".
  21. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2285 > 2009 Session".
  22. ^ Cline, Ben. "Delegate cline announces the passage of budget transparency bill". Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
  23. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2229 > 2003 Session".
  24. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1204 > 2004 Session".
  25. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2453 > 2007 Session".
  26. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2459 > 2007 Session".
  27. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1362 > 2008 Session".
  28. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1363 > 2008 Session".
  29. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2441 > 2009 Session".
  30. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2637 > 2009 Session".
  31. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2227 > 2003 Session".
  32. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB865 > 2010 Session".
  33. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2230 > 2003 Session".
  34. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2232 > 2003 Session".
  35. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1514 > 2005 Session".
  36. ^ "Del. Ben Cline receives service award from Virginia Sheriffs' Association".
  37. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2231 > 2003 Session".
  38. ^ "Del. Ben Cline says 1,700+ sign petition to keep Natural Bridge Juvenile Correctional Center open". Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  39. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB873 > 2010 Session".
  40. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB836 > 2012 Session".
  41. ^ "Virginia prisons board tentatively OKs shackling rules". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  42. ^ "Editorial: Unshackling pregnant inmates". Archived from the original on 2014-01-24. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  43. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2103 > 2103 Session".
  44. ^ Forman, Carmen (January 16, 2017). "Ben Cline's 'Day of Tears' Abortion Mourning Resolution Advances in General Assembly". The Roanoke Times. Roanoke, VA. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  45. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2456 > 2007 Session".
  46. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1556 > 2008 Session".
  47. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2634 > 2009 Session".
  48. ^ a b c "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2229 > 2013 session". lis.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  49. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB2554 > 2005 Session".
  50. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HJ709 > 2005 Session".
  51. ^ "LIS > Bill Tracking > HB1581 > 2006 Session".
  52. ^ "Convention selects Ben Cline as nominee for open seat in Va". AP News. Harrisonburg. May 19, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  53. ^ a b "Del. Ben Cline Wins 6th District U.S. House Race". Staunton News Leader. Staunton, VA. November 6, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  54. ^ a b Fair, Julia (January 3, 2019). "Ben Cline Made It to Congress, Here's How His First Day Went". Staunton News Leader. Staunton, VA. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  55. ^ Rosario, Nicole Del (2020-11-04). "Ben Cline projected to win reelection in Virginia's 6th Congressional District, according to NBC News". WSLS. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  56. ^ "Virginia Sixth Congressional District Election Results". The New York Times.
  57. ^ Simon, Scott (March 23, 2019). "Rep. Ben Cline On The Mueller Report". Weekend Edition Saturday. NPR. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  58. ^ Blood, Michael R.; Riccardi, Nicholas (December 5, 2020). "Biden officially secures enough electors to become president". AP News. Archived from the original on December 8, 2020. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  59. ^ Yourish, Karen; Buchanan, Larry; Lu, Denise (2021-01-07). "The 147 Republicans Who Voted to Overturn Election Results". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-07-15.
  60. ^ Zilbermints, Regina (September 23, 2021). "House passes sweeping defense policy bill". The Hill.
  61. ^ "H.R. 4350: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022 -- House Vote #293 -- Sep 23, 2021". GovTrack.us.
  62. ^ "S. 1605: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022 -- House Vote #405 -- Dec 7, 2021".
  63. ^ Gans, Jared (June 2023). "Republicans and Democrats who bucked party leaders by voting no". The Hill.
  64. ^ Yang, Tia; Burton, Cooper; Radcliffe, Mary; Marriner, Katie; Brown, Amina (1 May 2024). "The 8 Types Of Democrats And Republicans In The House". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  65. ^ Druke, Galen; Burton, Cooper. "538 algorithm groups House members by how they actually vote". ABC News. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  66. ^ "Text - H.R.1865 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020 | Congress.gov | Library of Congress". Congress.gov. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  67. ^ "Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives". clerk.house.gov. 17 December 2019.
  68. ^ "H.R. 1158: DHS Cyber Hunt and Incident Response Teams Act … -- House Vote #690 -- Dec 17, 2019".
  69. ^ "H.Con.Res. 21: Directing the President, pursuant to section 5(c) of … -- House Vote #136 -- Mar 8, 2023".
  70. ^ "House Votes Down Bill Directing Removal of Troops From Syria". Associated Press. March 8, 2023.
  71. ^ “On Agreeing to the Amendment: Amendment 11 to H R ... -- House Vote #304 -- Jul 13, 2023.” GovTrack.Us, www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/118-2023/h304. Accessed 13 July 2023.
  72. ^ “On Agreeing to the Amendment: Amendment 12 to H R ... -- House Vote #305 -- Jul 13, 2023.” GovTrack.Us, www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/118-2023/h305. Accessed 13 July 2023.
  73. ^ Demirjian, Karoun (2023-10-25). "House Declares Solidarity With Israel in First Legislation Under New Speaker". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-10-30.
  74. ^ Washington, U. S. Capitol Room H154; p:225-7000, DC 20515-6601 (2023-10-25). "Roll Call 528 Roll Call 528, Bill Number: H. Res. 771, 118th Congress, 1st Session". Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 2023-10-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  75. ^ "Committees and Caucuses". Representative Ben Cline. Archived from the original on 2019-02-01.
  76. ^ "As House Republicans Brace for Losses, Freedom Caucus Prepares for Growth". Roll Call. 2018-10-31. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  77. ^ "Featured Members". Problem Solvers Caucus. Retrieved 2021-03-28.
  78. ^ "Member List". Republican Study Committee. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  79. ^ "Official Results". 2018 November General. Virginia Department of Elections. November 9, 2018. Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  80. ^ "2020 November General Official Results". Virginia Department of Elections. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.

External links[edit]

Virginia House of Delegates
Preceded by Member of the Virginia House of Delegates
from the 24th district

Succeeded by
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 6th congressional district

U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by United States representatives by seniority
Succeeded by