General Ben Lear
May 12, 1879|
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
|Died||November 2, 1966
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1898–1945|
|Commands held||1st Cavalry Division (1936–1938)
Pacific Sector Panama Canal Zone (1938–1940)
U.S. Second Army (1940–1943)
Army Ground Forces (1944–1945)
|Battles/wars||World War I
World War II
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal (2)
|Olympic medal record|
|1912 Stockholm||Team eventing|
Ben Lear was born in Hamilton, Ontario on May 12, 1879. His military service began in 1898, when he enlisted with the 1st Colorado Infantry, USV, for the Spanish–American War as a first sergeant. He was promoted to second lieutenant during the Philippine–American War in the 1st Colorado and later in the 36th Infantry, USV, then joined the regular army as a sergeant at the end of the war. He subsequently served in World War I.
He was a 1912 Olympian, part of the equestrian team which won the Bronze Medal in the three-day team event.
He was promoted to brigadier general in May 1936 and major general in October 1938. He commanded the 1st Cavalry Division from 1936 to 1938, and the Pacific Sector of the Panama Canal Zone from 1938 to 1940.
World War II
Lear promoted to lieutenant general in October 1940 and was commanding general of U.S. Second Army from October 20, 1940 to April 25, 1943. As such, he was responsible for training a large number of U.S. soldiers during World War II. He became known as a strict disciplinarian.
It was in the lead-up to these maneuvers that Lear acquired the nickname "Yoo-Hoo". Lear was playing golf at the Country Club in Memphis, Tennessee in civilian clothes on Sunday, July 6, 1941, when a convoy of 80 U.S. Army trucks carrying men of the 35th Division rolled past. The troops in the passing trucks subjected a group of women in shorts to a series of whistles and "lewd and obscene" catcalls.
Lear had the convoy stopped and told the officers that this conduct was unacceptable, and they had disgraced the Army. Lear's punishment was to make every one of the 350 men in the convoy march 15 miles (24 km) of the 45-mile (72 km) trip back to Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Arkansas in three 5-mile sections. This they did in the 97 °F (36 °C) heat. Many men straggled and a number collapsed. There was storm of public criticism of Lear's action from people who felt that the soldiers had been harshly and collectively punished when they had done nothing wrong. The commander of the 35th Division, Major General Ralph E. Truman, was well-connected politically, his cousin being Senator Harry S. Truman, and some Congressmen called for Lear to be retired. However, to Army eyes this was not a case of sexual harassment but of indiscipline, and no action was taken against Lear. The derogatory nickname "Yoo-Hoo" stuck.
During the Louisiana Maneuvers, Lear led his U.S. Second Army against the U.S. Third Army under Lieutenant General Walter Krueger. In these maneuvers, Lear judged the control and discipline of the 35th Division to be unsatisfactory and relieved Truman of his command.
Lear was administratively retired in May 1943, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64, but was immediately recalled to active duty to serve on the Personnel Board of the Secretary of War, and promoted to lieutenant general. On the death of Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair in Normandy in July 1944, Lear became Commanding General of Army Ground Forces.
After the German counter-attack in the Ardennes caused a manpower crisis, in January 1945 he was appointed deputy commander of European Theater of Operations, US Army, responsible for theater manpower. As such, he overhauled the replacement system, but the war against Germany ended before the full benefits of his reforms could be realized.
Lear fully retired from the army in July 1945 and was promoted to general on July 19, 1954, by special Act of Congress (Public Law 83-508).
Decorations and medals
|No pin insignia in 1898||First sergeant, Volunteer Army: May 1, 1898|
|No pin insignia in 1899||Second lieutenant, Volunteer Army: April 1, 1899|
|First lieutenant, Volunteer Army: July 12, 1899|
|No pin insignia in 1901||Second lieutenant, United States Army: June 12, 1901|
|First lieutenant, United States Army: December 9, 1901|
|Captain, United States Army: August 10, 1912|
|Major, National Army: August 5, 1917|
|Lieutenant colonel, National Army: January 26, 1918|
|Colonel, temporary: August 31, 1918|
|Captain, Regular Army: September 25, 1919|
|Lieutenant colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1920|
|Colonel, Regular Army: September 19, 1929|
|Brigadier general, Regular Army: May 1, 1936|
|Major general, Regular Army: October 1, 1938|
|Lieutenant general, Regular Army: October 1, 1940|
|Lieutenant general, Retired List: July 31, 1945|
|General, Retired List: July 19, 1954|
Lesley J. McNair
|Commanding General of U.S. Army Ground Forces
14 July 1944 to 20 January 1945
Joseph W. Stilwell