|Dam||Rouge Rose or Clemence|
|Country||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|Owner||1st Duke of Westminster|
|Chesterfield Stakes (1879)
Richmond Stakes (1879)
Epsom Derby (1880)
St. James's Palace Stakes (1880)
City and Suburban Handicap (1881)
Epsom Gold Cup (1881)
Champion Stakes (1881)
|Leading broodmare sire in Britain & Ireland
|Last updated on 6 November 2009|
Bend Or (1877–1903) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse who won the 1880 Epsom Derby. His regular jockey Fred Archer, winner of thirteen consecutive British jockey titles, said Bend Or was probably the greatest horse he had ever ridden.
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 Breeding
- 3 Racing career
- 4 Race record
- 5 Stud record
- 6 Pedigree
- 7 References
- 8 External links
His name is the heraldic term for "a bend (i.e. diagonal stripe) which is golden or yellow in color", and is a reference to the ancient former arms of the Grosvenor family which were adjudged against them in 1389 to the Scrope family in the most famous case ever heard before the Court of Chivalry, known as Scrope v Grosvenor. The Duke also awarded it as a lifelong family nickname to his grandson Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster (1879–1953), born in the year before the Derby win.
Bred and foaled at the 1st Duke of Westminster's Eaton Stud, Bend Or grew to be a large stallion but was noted for his unusual docility. He was a chestnut colt who stood 16.1 hands (65 inches, 165 cm) and had a white blaze. He was sired by Doncaster, a son of Stockwell, out of the mare, Rouge Rose by Thormanby. Thormanby won the 1860 Epsom Derby and the 1861 Ascot Gold Cup and was in 1869 the leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland.
1879: Two-year-old Season
Bend Or made his first racecourse appearance in July 1879 in the Chesterfield Stakes at Newmarket. Starting as the 9/4 favourite he won easily by a length. He then won the Richmond Stakes carrying a 6-pound weight penalty. After these wins he started to 1/2 favourite for the Prince of Wales Stakes at York. He led from the outset and won easily by half a length. After York he was already being quoted at 7/1 for the 1880 Epsom Derby. Bend Or finished the season by winning the Triennial Produce Stakes and the Rous Memorial Stakes, both at Newmarket.
Bend Or was not entered for the 2000 Guineas, but in early march he was the 5/1 favourite for the Epsom Derby. He started his three-year-old campaign in the Derby. He was ridden by Fred Archer and started as the 2/1 favourite in a field of 19. After the start he was in a prominent position, but was dropped back into mid-division by Archer. At Tattenham Corner Robert the Devil was leading from Von der Tann, Bend Or being in about sixth position. In the straight Bend Or passed some of the horses to move into third. The second placed Mask then began to fade as he was passed by Bend Or, who went off in pursuit of Robert the Devil. Bend Or won the Derby by a head from Robert the Devil, with Mask a further six lengths back in third.
St. James's Palace Stakes
After the Derby he went to Royal Ascot for the St. James's Palace Stakes, starting at the odds of 30/100. The race was run at a slow early pace. Bend Or won by a head from Fernandez, the two finishing clear of the rest of the field. After Ascot he had to be given a few months rest due to shin problems exacerbated in his Derby win.
Challenge to Pedigree
In the summer a challenge was lodged by the owners of Robert the Devil against Bend Or's Derby win on the grounds of him being entered under the wrong description. It was alleged that his dam was not Rouge Rose, but a mare called Clemence. At Eaton Stud, both Rouge Rose and Clemence had a foal by Doncaster in 1877. It was suggested that the two foals had been mixed up and that it was the horse registered as Tadcaster (i.e. the Clemence foal) that won the Derby. The accusation came from a former groom who formerly worked for the Duke. In the investigation the Eaton Stud book was produced, but was found to contain a number of errors. The objection was overruled by the Jockey Club, but controversy still remains today. Recent research which compared DNA of Bend Or to that of Tadcaster relatives suggested the two had indeed been switched as foals.
The shin injury affected him for most of the remainder of the year as was evident in his first loss when he returned to racing for September's St Leger Stakes, where he finished fifth behind winner Robert the Devil. His next start came in the Great Foal Stakes. In the race Robert the Devil made the running, with Bend Or held up in the rear. At the bushes Bend Or moved up to third behind Robert the Devil and Muriel. Bend Or then overtook Muriel and challenged Robert the Devil. Bend Or seemed to have the race won with 50 yards to go, but he swerved badly and lost by a head. He faced Robert the Devil again in the Champion Stakes. Robert the Devil started the 11/10 favourite, with Bend Or at 5/4. Robert the Devil led from the start and was never caught. He won by 10 lengths from Bend Or, with the other two runners a further 10 lengths back.
1881: Four-year-old Season
Returning to the track at age four, Bend Or won the City and Suburban Handicap at Epsom Downs carrying 9 stone. He then avenged his defeats to Robert the Devil in the Epsom Gold Cup. Only the two horses ran, with Bend Or winning by a neck. Bend Or then won the Champion Stakes easily by ¾ length from Scobell, with the 1881 Derby winner Iroquois a bad third. Bend Or's next start came in the Cambridgeshire Stakes where, under Archer, he carried 9 st 8 lb. During the closing stages the weight began to tell and he was eased by Archer, finishing in seventh. He was then retired to breeding duties at his owner's Eaton Stud.
|Date||Race name||D(f)||Course||Prize (£)||Odds||Runners||Place||Margin||Winner/Runner-up||Time||Jockey|
|July 1879||Chesterfield Stakes||5||Newmarket||1130||9/4||11||1||1||Petal||0:59||Charles Wood|
|29 July 1879||Richmond Stakes||6||Goodwood||1762||8||1|
|August 1879||Prince of Wales Stakes||5||York||340||1/2||9||1||0.5||Brother to Ersilia||Fred Archer|
|1879||Triennial Produce Stakes||10||Newmarket||881||11||1|
|1879||Rous Memorial Stakes||5||Newmarket||567||10||1|
|26 May 1880||Epsom Derby||12||Epsom Downs||6375||2/1||19||1||Head||Robert the Devil||2:48||Fred Archer|
|June 1880||St. James's Palace Stakes||8||Ascot||1550||30/100||5||1||Head||Fernandez||G Fordham|
|15 September 1880||St Leger||14.5||Doncaster||6100||4/5||12||6||Robert the Devil||3:32|
|28 September 1880||Great Foal Stakes||10||Newmarket||2697||9/2||7||2||Head||Robert the Devil||2:25||Tom Cannon|
|14 October 1880||Champion Stakes||10||Newmarket||2071||5/4||4||2||10||Robert the Devil||2:10||G Fordham|
|27 April 1881||City and Suburban Handicap||10||Epsom Downs||1230||100/8||24||1||1.5||Foxhall||2:07||Fred Archer|
|3 June 1881||Epsom Gold Cup||12||Epsom Downs||500||2||1||Robert the Devil|
|13 October 1881||Champion Stakes||10||Newmarket||2087||4/6||8||1||0.75||Scobell||2:23.6||Fred Archer|
|25 October 1881||Cambridgeshire Stakes||9||Newmarket||2017||9/2||32||7||Foxhall||2:15.4||Fred Archer|
Bend Or had white flecks on his chestnut coat, and like his damsire Thormanby, had black spots on his neck, shoulder, and on his quarters. These markings often showed up in his progeny and is referred to as Bend Or spotting.
Standing at Eaton Stud, Bend Or was a successful stallion siring many top racehorses including two classic winners. His stud fee for 1898 was 200 guineas, plus one guinea for the groom. By this time his offspring had won 285 races worth £129,148
|1883||Ormonde||c||Dewhurst Stakes, 2000 Guineas, Epsom Derby, St. James's Palace Stakes, Hardwicke Stakes (twice), St Leger Stakes, Great Foal Stakes, Champion Stakes, Rous Memorial Stakes, Imperial Gold Cup|
|1885||Ossory||c||Prince of Wales's Stakes, St. James's Palace Stakes, Great Yorkshire Stakes|
|1889||Bona Vista||c||2000 Guineas|
|1897||Lord Bobs||c||Dewhurst Stakes, July Cup|
|1902||Rouge Croix||c||Dewhurst Stakes|
|1903||Radium||c||Goodwood Cup, Doncaster Cup|
Kendal went on to sire Triple Crown winner Galtee More. Ormonde sired dual Eclipse Stakes winner Orme. Orbit was exported to Argentina. Such was his success at stud there he was known as "South American Stockwell". Bona Vista went on to sire Ascot Gold Cup winner Cyllene. Through Cyllene's grandson Phalaris, Bend Or is the sire-line ancestor to the majority of thoroughbreds alive today. Radium sired 2000 Guineas winner Clarissimus.
Bend Or did not produce many top race mares, but many of them were top broodmares. His daughter Fairy Gold was exported to America and was the dam of Fair Play and Belmont Stakes winner Friar Rock. Another daughter Ornament was the dam of Sceptre, winner of four classics in 1902. Disorder was produced Eclipse Stakes winner Epsom Lad. Bend Or was also damsire to Prix du Jockey Club winner Ex Voto, through is daughter Golden Rod. Through his daughter Quetta, Bend Or was damsire to Coronation Stakes winner Helm and Dewhurst Stakes winner Frontier (who was sired by his grandson Orme).
Bend Or was twice the leading broodmare sire in Britain before his death at age twenty-six in January 1903. Bend Or's important immediate descendants include The Tetrarch, Phar Lap and Man o' War, and beyond that the American horse Seabiscuit.
The following pedigree assumes that Bend Or's dam was Rouge Rose.
- Osborne, Joseph (1898). Horse-Breeders' Handbook. Seale, London.
- Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), “Thoroughbred Breeding of the World”, Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 30 August 1879 — NEWMARKET JULY". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 18 October 1879 — YORK. August 26th, 27th, 28th". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 1 November 1879 — ENGLISH". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 1 May 1880 — NOTES BY BEACON". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Papers Past — Hawke's Bay Herald — 28 July 1880 — EPSOM SUMMER MEETING". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 7 August 1880 — RACING IN ENGLAND". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Papers Past — Star — 2 September 1880 — THE DERBY SCANDAL". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 14 August 1880 — ENGLISH". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Tony Morris (2011-05-11). "The mystery of Bend Or". Thoroughbred Owner & Breeder Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 18 December 1880 — RACING IN ENGLAND". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 25 June 1881 — RACING IN ENGLAND. EPSOM SPRING. April 27th". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Papers Past — Otago Witness — 24 December 1881 — RACING IN ENGLAND". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Thoroughbred Heritage: Bend Or Retrieved 2009-11-6