Bengali Muslims

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bengali Muslims
বাঙ্গালী মুসলমান
East Bengal religion map.jpg
Muslim-majority districts of Bengal highlighted in green on a map of 1909
Total population
192 million (approximately)
Regions with significant populations
 Bangladesh153,000,000 (2020)[1][2][unreliable source?]
 India35,400,000 (2020)[3][4]
 Pakistan3,000,000 (2020)[5]
 Saudi Arabia1,200,000 (2010)[6]
 UAE700,000 (2013)[7]
 Malaysia500,000 (2009)[8]
 UK377,126 (2011)[9]
 Kuwait230,000 (2008)[10]
 Oman200,000 (2010)[11]
 Qatar150,000 (2014)[12]
 USA143,619 (2007)
 Italy115,746 (2013)[13]
Languages
Bengali
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Bengali people, Indian Muslims

Bengali Muslims (Bengali: বাঙ্গালী মুসলমান, romanizedBangalī Musôlman)[14][15] are adherents of Islam who ethnically, linguistically and genealogically identify as Bengalis. They are the second largest Muslim ethnic group in the world (after Arab Muslims) and the largest among the Indo-Europeans.[16][17] Bengali Muslims make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens, and are the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura.[18] They speak or identify the Bengali language as their mother tongue. The majority of Bengali Muslims are Sunnis who follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence.

Bengal was a leading power of the medieval Islamic East.[19] Europeans traders identified the Bengal Sultanate as "the richest country to trade with".[20] During Emperor Aurangazeb's rule, the Bengal Subah became the richest region of the Mughal Empire and was described as the Paradise of Nations[21] and its citizens in eastern Bengal, chiefly Muslims, had the highest standard of living and real wages in the world.[22][23][24] Two Bengal viceroys – Muhammad Azam Shah and Azim-us-Shan – assumed the imperial throne. Mughal Bengal became increasingly independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century.[25]

The Bengali Muslim population emerged as a synthesis of Islamic and Bengali cultures. After the Partition of India in 1947, they comprised the demographic majority of Pakistan until the independence of East Pakistan (historic East Bengal) as Bangladesh in 1971.

Identity[edit]

A Bengali is a person of ethnic and linguistic heritage from the Bengal region in South Asia speaking the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Islam arrived in the first millennium and influenced the native Bengali culture. The influx of Persian, Turkic, Arab and Mughal settlers contributed further diversity to the cultural development of the region.[26] According to historians, the origin of Bengali Muslim identity lies in the immigration of the Central Asians, Turks and Arabs into Bengal in the medieval period who were driven by the Mongols from their native lands. They were mostly fortune seekers and had to leave their families behind. These immigrants soon began to mix with the local population by marrying with local women and adopting parts of the local culture, traditions and customs. The Muslim population in Bengal further rose with the agricultural and administrative reforms during the Mughal period, particularly in eastern Bengal. The Mughals cleared the vast uninhabited forests in eastern Bengal and settled Mughal, Central Asian, Persian and Turkic nobles, warriors, merchants and sufis with land ownerships who turned these areas into productive farmlands, resulting in the region's both economic and demographic growth.[26][27][28] Today, most Bengali Muslims live in the modern state of Bangladesh, the world's fourth largest Muslim-majority country, along with the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.[18]

The dominant majority of Bengali Muslims are Sunnis who follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. There are also minorities of Shias and Ahmadiyas, as well as people who identify as non-denominational (or "just a Muslim").[29]

History[edit]

Pre-Islamic history[edit]

Rice-cultivating communities existed in Bengal since the second millennium BCE. The region was home to a large agriculturalist population influenced by Indian religions.[30] Buddhism influenced the region in the first millennium. The Bengali language developed from Apabhramsa and Magadhi Prakrit between the 7th and 10th centuries. It once formed a single Indo-Aryan branch with Assamese and Oriya, before the languages became distinct.[31]

Early explorers[edit]

Spread of Islam in the Indian subcontinent is a contested issue.[32] Historical evidences suggest the early Muslim traders and merchants visited Bengal while traversing the Silk Road in the first millennium. One of the earliest mosques in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.[33] Starting in the 9th century, Muslim merchants increased trade with Bengali seaports.[34] Islam first appeared in Bengal during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate.[35] Coins of the Abbasid Caliphate have been discovered in many parts of the region.[36] The people of Samatata, in southeastern Bengal, during the 10th-century were of various religious backgrounds. During this time, the Arab geographer Al-Masudi and author of The Meadows of Gold, travelled to the region where he noticed a Muslim community of inhabitants residing in the region.[37]

In addition to trade, Islam was also being introduced to the people of Bengal through the migration of Sufi missionaries prior to conquest. The earliest known Sufi missionaries were Syed Shah Surkhul Antia and his students, most notably Shah Sultan Rumi, in the 11th century. Rumi settled in present-day Netrokona, Mymensingh where he influenced the local ruler and population to embrace Islam.

Early Islamic kingdoms[edit]

Exterior of a low mosque with many domes and entrances
The 15th-century Sixty Dome Mosque built during the Bengal Sultanate is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bengal Sultanate, 16th century

When Bengal was under the Hindu Sena Empire, subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region.[38] Bakhtiyar Khalji, a Turkic Muslim general, defeated Emperor Lakshman Sen in 1206 CE and annexed large parts of Bengal to the Delhi Sultanate. Following this initial conquest, an influx of missionaries arrived in Bengal and many Bengalis began to adopt Islam as their way of life. Sultan Balkhi and Shah Makhdum Rupos settled in the present-day Rajshahi Division in northern Bengal, preaching to the communities there. A community of 13 Muslim families headed by Burhanuddin also existed in the northeastern Hindu city of Srihatta (Sylhet), claiming their descendants to have arrived from Chittagong.[39] By 1303, hundreds of Sufi preachers led by Shah Jalal aided the Muslim rulers in Bengal to conquer Sylhet, turning the town into Jalal's headquarters for religious activities. Following the conquest, Jalal disseminated his followers across different parts of Bengal to spread Islam, and became a household name among Bengali Muslims.

Sultanate of Bengal[edit]

The establishment of a single united Bengal Sultanate in 1352 by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah finally gave rise to a "Bengali" socio-linguistic identity.[40] The Ilyas Shahi dynasty acknowledged Muslim scholarship, and this transcended ethnic background. Usman Serajuddin, also known as Akhi Siraj Bengali, was a native of Gaur in western Bengal and became the Sultanate's court scholar during Ilyas Shah's reign.[41][42][43] Alongside Persian and Arabic, the sovereign Sunni Muslim nation-state also enabled the language of the Bengali people to gain patronage and support, contrary to previous states which exclusively favoured Sanskrit, Pali and Persian.[44][45] The born-Hindu Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah funded the construction of Islamic institutions as far as Mecca and Madina in the Middle East. The people of Arabia came to know these institutions as al-Madaris al-Bangaliyyah (Bengali madrasas).

Mughal period[edit]

The Mughal Empire eventually controlled the region under its Bengal Subah viceregal province. The Mughal Emperors considered Bengal their most prized province. Emperor Akbar redeveloped the Bengali calendar.[46]

The process of Islamization of eastern Bengal, now Bangladesh, is not fully understood due to limited documentation from the 1200s to 1600s, the period during which Islamization is believed to have occurred.[47] There are numerous theories about how Islam spread in region; however, the overwhelming evidence is strongly suggestive of a gradual transition of the local population from Buddhism, Hinduism and other indigenous religions to Islam starting in the thirteenth century facilitated by Sufi missionaries (such as Shah Jalal in Sylhet for example) and later by Mughal agricultural reforms centered around Sufi missions [48]

The factors facilitating conversion to Islam from Buddhism, Hinduism and indigenous religions, again is not fully understood. Lack of primary sources from that era have resulted in various hypotheses.[48] Generally modern prevailing hypotheses about the early stages of Islamification of East Bengal focus on Sufi missionaries capitalizing on disaffected Buddhists and low-caste Hindus following the initial conquest of the area by the Brahmin-dominated Sena Empire followed a few decades later by the arrival of Bakhtiyar Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate in the early 1200s and the later agrarian reforms of the Mughal Empire in the 1500s.[49]

Centuries prior to the advent of Islam into the region, Bengal was a major center of Buddhism on the Indian Subcontinent.[50] The area was under the rule of the Buddhist Pala Empire for several centuries until its collapse and subsequent conquest by the Hindu Sena Empire in the 1170s.[50] This was an era of significant Buddhist-Brahmin religious conflict as they represented diametrically opposite camps in the Dharmic tradition with the Buddhist focus on equality threatening the Brahmin caste-based power structure.[51][52] In the preceding centuries Buddhism underwent a slow decline as Hindu kingdom gradually enveloped Buddhists states in the area and began of process of "de-Buddification" manifested by the reframing of Buddhist figures as Hindu avatars and the reincorporation of resistant Buddhist subjects into lower castes in society. As the Pala Empire's base of power was in Northern and Eastern Bengal, it is likely that these were areas with large Buddhist majorities which were likely heavily subjugated the Sena Empire. A few decades following the Sena Conquest of the region, the Sena, themselves, were conquered by Bakhtiyar Khalji opening up the region to a greater influx of Sufi missionaries. This hypothesis would explain why the Islam spread faster in East Bengal than West Bengal.[49] Essentially, East Bengal had a large Buddhist population compared to West Bengal.[49] The conquest of the area by Hindu kingdoms lead to the subjugation of Buddhists in the region. With the Turkic conquest, came the arrival of Sufi missionaries who were more successful at converting the largely disaffected Buddhist East Bengal versus the largely Hindu regions of West Bengal.[49]

A few centuries later the agrarian reforms of the Mughal Empire accelerated conversion and population growth across Bangladesh by creating a system of farming villages centered around Sufi missions.[53][54] The Mughals granted landless peasants land around these missions in order to accelerate development of the fertile Ganges plain. The lead to greater concentrations of people in the area with more opportunities for Sufi missionaries to preach Islam.[53] According to historian Richard M. Eaton, Islam became the religion of the plough in the Bengal delta.[19] Islam's emergence in the region was intimately tied with agriculture.[53] The delta was the most fertile region in the empire. Mughal development projects cleared forests and established thousands of Sufi-led villages, which became industrious farming and craftsmanship communities.[23] The projects were most evident in the Bhati region of East Bengal, the most fertile part of the delta.[55]

This made East Bengal a thriving melting pot with strong trade and cultural networks. It was the most prosperous part of the subcontinent.[23][56] East Bengal became the center of the Muslim population in the eastern subcontinent and corresponds to modern-day Bangladesh.[55]

Ancestry[edit]

According to the 1881 Census of Bengal, Muslims constituted a bare majority of the population of Bengal proper (50.2 percent compared with the Hindus at 48.5 percent). However in the eastern part of Bengal, Muslims were thick on the ground. The proportions of Muslims in Rajshahi, Dhaka and Chittagong divisions were 63.2, 63.6 and 67.9 percent respectively. The debate draws on the writings of some late nineteenth-century authors, but in its current form was initially formulated in 1963 by M.A. Rahim. Rahim suggested that a significant proportion of Bengal’s Muslims were not Hindu converts but were descendants of ‘aristocratic’ immigrants from various parts of the Muslim world. Specifically, he estimated that in 1770, of about 10.6 million Muslims in Bengal, 3.3 million (about 30 percent) had ‘foreign blood’.[57] In the late 1980s Richard Eaton, in a book and a series of papers, raised awkward questions about the social liberation theory of conversion from Hinduism to Islam that have yet to be fully addressed, further endorsing Rahim's argument.[58]


Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah was born as Jadu, the son of Hindu King Raja Ganesha. He later ruled most of Bengal as a converted Muslim. Jalaluddin played a major role in converting the Hindus of Bengal to Islam. He maintained good rapport with Non-Muslims in his kingdom. According to an interpretation of a Sanskrit sloka by D. C. Bhattacharya, Jalaluddin appointed Rajyadhar, a Hindu, as the commander of his army.[59] He gained support of Muslim scholars – Ulama and the Shaikhs. He reconstructed and repaired the mosques and other religious architectures destroyed by Raja Ganesha.[60]

British colonial period[edit]

A. K. Fazlul Huq, known as the Sher-e-Bangla (Tiger of Bengal), was the 1st Prime Minister of Bengal.

The Bengal region was annexed by the East India Company (EIC) in 1757. In the following decades, Bengalis led numerous revolts against Company rule. In the early 19th century, Titumir led a peasant uprising against the East India Company. Meanwhile, the Bengali Muslim Haji Shariatullah led the Faraizi movement, which advocated Islamic revivalism.[61] The Faraizis sought to create a caliphate and cleanse the region's Muslim society of what they deemed "un-Islamic practices". They were successful in galvanising the Bengali peasantry against the EIC. However, the movement experienced a crackdown after the suppression of the Indian Rebellion of 1857[62] and lost impetus after the death of Haji Shariatullah's son Dudu Miyan.[61]

After 1870, Muslims began a seeking British-style education in increasingly larger numbers. Under the leadership of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan the promotion the English language among Muslims of India also influenced Bengali Muslim society.[28] Social and cultural leaders among Bengali Muslims during this period included Munshi Mohammad Meherullah, who countered Christian missionaries,[63] writers Ismail Hossain Siraji and Mir Mosharraf Hossain; and feminists Nawab Faizunnesa and Roquia Sakhawat Hussain.

1947 Partition and Bangladesh[edit]

An important moment in the history of Bengali self-determination was the Lahore Resolution in 1940, which was promoted by politician A. K. Fazlul Huq. The resolution initially called for the creation of a sovereign state in the "Eastern Zone" of British India.[64] However, its text was later changed by the top leadership of the Muslim League. Despite calls from liberal Bengali Muslim League leaders for an independent United Bengal, the British government moved forward with the Partition of Bengal in 1947. The Radcliffe Line made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan. It was later renamed as East Pakistan, with Dhaka as its capital. The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in Dhaka in 1949.[65] The organisation's name was later secularised as the Awami League in 1955.[66] The party was supported by the Bengali bourgeois, agriculturalists, the middle class, and the intelligentsia.[67] Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra, and H. S. Suhrawardy, all of whom were Bengali Muslims, each served as Pakistan's prime minister during the 1950s; however, all three were deposed by the military-industrial complex in West Pakistan. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952 received strong support from Islamic groups, including the Tamaddun Majlish. Bengali nationalism increased in East Pakistan during the 1960s, particularly with the Six point movement for autonomy. The rise of pro-democracy and pro-independence movements in East Pakistan, with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as the principal leader, led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

Bangladesh was founded as a secular nation.[68] In 1977, however, President Ziaur Rahman, trying to consolidate his power under martial law, removed secularism from the constitution and replaced it with "a commitment to the values of Islam."[69] In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.[70]

Science and technology[edit]

Jawed Karim, co-founder of YouTube

The Bengali numerals are derived from ancient Indian mathematics, which also influenced the development of Arabic numerals and science in the medieval Islamic world.[71]

Historical Islamic kingdoms that existed in Bengal employed several clever technologies in numerous areas such as architecture, agriculture, civil engineering, water management, etc. The creation of canals and reservoirs was a common practice for the sultanate. New methods of irrigation were pioneered by the Sufis. Bengali mosque architecture featured terracotta, stone, wood and bamboo, with curved roofs, corner towers and multiple domes. During the Bengal Sultanate, a distinct regional style flourished which featured no minarets, but had richly designed mihrabs and minbars as niches.[72]

Islamic Bengal had a long history of textile weaving, including export of muslin during the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, the weaving of Jamdani is classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.[73][74]

Modern science was begun in Bengal during the period of British colonial rule. Railways were introduced in 1862, making Bengal one of the earliest regions in the world to have a rail network.[75] For the general population, opportunities for formal science education remained limited. The colonial government and the Bengali elite established several institutes for science education. The Nawabs of Dhaka established Ahsanullah School of Engineering which later became the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.[76]

In the second half of the 20th century, the Bengali Muslim American Fazlur Rahman Khan became one of the most important structural engineers in the world, helping design the world's tallest buildings.[77] Another Bengali Muslim German-American, Jawed Karim, was the co-founder of YouTube.[78]

In 2016, the modernist Bait-ur-Rouf Mosque, inspired by the Bengal Sultanate-style of buildings, won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture.[79]

Demographics[edit]

Areas of the Hanafi school are shaded in light green

Bengali Muslims constitute the world's second-largest Muslim ethnicity (after the Arab world) and the largest Muslim community in South Asia.[80] An estimated 146 million Bengali Muslims live in Bangladesh, where Islam is the state religion and commands the demographic majority.[81] The Indian state of West Bengal is home to an estimated 30.26 million Bengali Muslims as per 2021 estimation.[82][83] Two districts in West Bengal – Murshidabad and Maldah have a Muslim majority and North Dinajpur has a plurality.[84] The Indian state of Assam has over 10 million Bengali Muslims out of 14 million Muslim population in Assam. Nine out of thirty-seven districts in Assam have a Muslim majority.[85][86][87][88][89] The Rohingya community in western Myanmar have significant Bengali Muslim heritage.[90]

A large Bengali Muslim diaspora is found in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, which are home to several million expatriate workers from South Asia. A more well-established diaspora also resides in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Pakistan. The first Bengali Muslim settlers in the United States were ship jumpers who settled in Harlem, New York and Baltimore, Maryland in the 1920s and 1930s.[91]

Culture[edit]

Ustad Alauddin Khan (centre), one of the greatest maestros of South Asian classical music, performing with his ensemble at Curzon Hall in Dhaka, 1955
Mausoleum of Lalon Shah, a syncretic Baul poet inspired by Sufism

Surnames[edit]

Surnames in Bengali Muslim society reflect the region's cosmopolitan history. They are mainly of Arabic and Persian origin, with a minority of Bengali surnames.

Art[edit]

Sheikh Zainuddin was a prominent Bengali Muslim artist in the 18th century during the colonial period. His works were inspired by the style of Mughal courts.[92]

Architecture[edit]

An indigenous style of Islamic architecture flourished in Bengal during the medieval Sultanate period.[93] Terracotta and stone mosques with multiple domes proliferated in the region. Bengali Muslim architecture emerged as a synthesis of Bengali, Persian, Byzantine, and Mughal elements.

The Indo-Saracenic style influenced Islamic architecture in South Asia during the British Raj. A notable example of this period is Curzon Hall. Modern and contemporary Islamic architecture evolved in the region since the 1950s.

Sufism[edit]

Sufi spiritual traditions are central to the Bengali Muslim way of life. The most common Sufi ritual is the Dhikr, the practice of repeating the names of God after prayers. Sufi teachings regard the Prophet Muhammad as the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God.[94] Sufism is regarded as the individual internalisation and intensification of the Islamic faith and practice. The Sufis played a vital role in developing Bengali Muslim society during the medieval period. Historic Sufi missionaries are regarded as saints, including Shah Jalal, Khan Jahan Ali, Shah Amanat, Shah Makhdum Rupos and Khwaja Enayetpuri. Their mausoleums are focal points for charity, religious congregations, and festivities.

The Qadiri, Maizbhandaria, Naqshbandi, Chishti, Mujaddid, Ahmadi, Mohammadi, Soharwardi and Rifai orders are among the most widespread Sufi orders in the region.[95]

Syncretism[edit]

As part of the conversion process, a syncretic version of mystical Sufi Islam was historically prevalent in medieval and early modern Bengal. The Islamic concept of tawhid was diluted into the veneration of Hindu folk deities, who were now regarded as pirs.[96] Folk deities such as Shitala (goddess of smallpox) and Oladevi (goddess of cholera) were worshipped as pirs among certain sections of Muslim society.[26]

Language[edit]

Abstract outdoor monument, reminiscent of a prison
Shaheed Minar (Martyr Monument), at the University of Dhaka in Bangladesh, commemorates those who were killed in 21 February 1952 Bengali Language Movement demonstration.

Bengali Muslims maintain their indigenous language and script.[97] This tradition is similar to that of Central Asian and Chinese Muslims.

Bengali evolved as the most easterly branch of the Indo-European languages.[citation needed] The Bengal Sultanate promoted the literary development of Bengali over Sanskrit, apparently to solidify their political legitimacy among the local populace. Bengali was the primary vernacular language of the Sultanate.[98] Bengali borrowed a considerable amount of vocabulary from Arabic and Persian. Under the Mughal Empire, considerable autonomy was enjoyed in the Bengali literary sphere.[99][100] The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was a key part of East Pakistan's nationalist movement. It is commemorated annually by UNESCO as International Mother Language Day on 21 February.

Literature[edit]

Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh

While proto-Bengali emerged during the pre-Islamic period, the Bengali literary tradition crystallised during the Islamic period. As Persian and Arabic were prestige languages, they significantly influenced vernacular Bengali literature. The first efforts to popularise Bengali among Muslim writers was by the Sufi poet Nur Qutb Alam.[101][102] The poet established the Rikhta tradition which saw poems written in half Persian and half colloquial Bengali. The invocation tradition saw Bengali Muslim poets re-adapting Indian epics by replacing invocations of Hindu gods and goddesses with figures of Islam. The romantic tradition was pioneered by Shah Muhammad Sagir, whose work on Yusuf and Zulaikha was widely popular among the people of Bengal.[103] Other notable romantic works included Layla Madjunn by Bahram Khan and Hanifa Kayrapari by Sabirid Khan.[101] The Dobhashi tradition features the use of Arabic and Persian vocabulary in Bengali texts to illustrate Muslim contexts.[101] Medieval Bengali Muslim writers produced epic poetry and elegies, such as Rasul Vijay of Shah Barid, Nabibangsha of Syed Sultan, Janganama of Abdul Hakim and Maktul Hussain of Mohammad Khan. Cosmology was a popular subject among Sufi writers.[104] In the 17th century, Bengali Muslim writers such as such as Alaol found refuge in Arakan where he produced his epic, Padmavati.[103]

Bengal was also a major center of Persian literature. Several newspapers and thousands of books, documents and manuscripts were published in Persian for 600 years. The Persian poet Hafez dedicated an ode to the literature of Bengal while corresponding with Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah.[105]

The first Bengali Muslim novelist was Mir Mosharraf Hossain in the 19th century. The highly acclaimed poetry of Kazi Nazrul Islam espoused spiritual rebellion against fascism and oppression. Nazrul also wrote Bengali ghazals. Begum Rokeya was a pioneering Bengali female writer who published Sultana's Dream, one of the earliest examples of feminist science fiction. The Muslim Literary Society of Bengal was founded by free-thinking and progressive teachers of Dacca University under the chairmanship of Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah on 19 January 1926. The Freedom of Intellect Movement was championed by the society.[106] When Bengal was partitioned in 1947, a distinct literary culture evolved in East Pakistan and modern Bangladesh. Shamsur Rahman was regarded as the country's poet laureate. Jasimuddin became noted for poems and songs reflecting life in rural Bengal. Al Mahmud was considered as one of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century.[107] Humayun Ahmed promoted the Bangladeshi field of magical realism. Akhtaruzzaman Elias was noted for his works set in Old Dhaka. Tahmima Anam has been a noted writer of Bangladeshi English literature.

Literary societies[edit]

Literary magazines[edit]

Music[edit]

Hason Raja was a mystic Muslim poet whose songs are widely popular in the region

A notable feature of Bengali Muslim music is the syncretic Baul tradition. The leading iconic practitioner of Baul tradition was Fakir Lalon Shah.[118] Baul music is included in the UNESCO Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Nazrul Sangeet is the collection of 4,000 songs and ghazals written by Kazi Nazrul Islam.

South Asian classical music is widely prevalent in the region. Alauddin Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, and Gul Mohammad Khan were notable Bengali Muslim exponents of classical music.

In the field of modern music Runa Laila became widely acclaimed for her musical talents across South Asia.[119]

Cuisine[edit]

Dhaka, the capital of Mughal Bengal and present day capital of Bangladesh, has been the epitome of Perso-Bengali and Arab-Bengali cuisines, a contrast to Calcutta, the former capital of the British India and capital of present-day West Bengal, which was the central point of Anglo-Indian cuisine. Within Bengali cuisine, Muslim dishes include the serving of meat curries, pulao rice, various biryani preparations, and dry and dairy-based desserts alongside traditional fish and vegetables. Bakarkhani breads from Dhaka were once immensely popular in the imperial court of the Mughal Empire. Other major breads consumed today include naan and paratha. In present-day Bangladesh the Mughal-influenced foods are immensely popular such as Shuti Kabab, Kalo Bhuna, Korma, Rôst, Mughlai Porota, Jali Kabab, Shami Kabab, Akhni, Tehari, Tanduri Chicken, Kofta, Phirni and Shingara. Different types of Bengali biryani include the Kachi (mutton), Illish pulao (hilsa), Tehari (beef), and Murg Pulao (chicken). Mezban is a renowned spicy beef curry from Chittagong. Halwa, pithas, yogurt, and shemai are typical Muslim desserts in Bengali cuisine.

Festivals[edit]

Bangladeshi girls taking a selfie at Pahela Falgun (Spring Festival).

Eid-ul-Fitr at the end of Ramadan is the largest religious festival of Bengali Muslims. The festival of sacrifice takes place during Eid-al-Adha, with cows and goats as the main sacrificial animals. Muharram and the Prophet's Birthday are national holidays in Bangladesh. Other festivals like Shab-e-Barat feature prayers and exchange of desserts.

Secular festivals are based on the Bengali calendar which was redesigned by the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Celebrated by Bengalis of all faiths, they include the Bengali New Year, Spring Festival, and Autumn Harvest Festival.

Bishwa Ijtema[edit]

The Bishwa Ijtema, organised annually in Bangladesh, is the second-largest Islamic congregation after the Hajj. It was founded by the orthodox Sunni Tablighi Jamaat movement in 1954.

Leadership[edit]

Baitul Mukarram, the national mosque of Bangladesh and the headquarters of the nation's Islamic Foundation

There is no single governing body for the Bengali Muslim community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine. However, the semi-autonomous Islamic Foundation, a government institution, plays an important role in Islamic affairs in Bangladesh, including setting festival dates and matters related to zakat. The general Bengali Muslim clergy remains deeply orthodox and conservative. Members of the clergy include Mawlānās, Imams, Ulamas, and Muftis.

The clergy of the Bengali Muslim Shia minority have been based in the old quarter of Dhaka since the 18th century.

Notable individuals[edit]

Muhammad Yunus, Winner of Nobel Peace Prize, 2006

Muhammad Yunus is the first Bengali Muslim Nobel laureate who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance.[120] Begum Rokeya was one of the world's first Muslim feminists. Kazi Nazrul Islam was renowned as the Rebel Poet of British India and the National Poet of Bangladesh. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first President of Bangladesh. Iskander Mirza was the first president of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Khwaja Salimullah was one of the founders of the All-India Muslim League. Rushanara Ali was the amongst the first Muslim MPs in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Fazlur Rahman Khan was a prominent American Bengali Muslim engineer who brought in spectacular changes in design of modern skyscraper construction.[121] Jawed Karim is one of the co-founders of YouTube. Sal Khan is a co-founder of Khan Academy. Humayun Rashid Choudhury served as President of the United Nations General Assembly. M. A. G. Osmani was a four star general who founded the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Altamas Kabir was the Chief Justice of India.[122] Nafisa Ali are prominent Bengali Muslims who act in Indian cinema. Alaol was a medieval Bengali Muslim poet who worked in the royal court of Arakan.[103] Mohammad Ali Bogra served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Begum Sufia Kamal was a leading Bengali Muslim feminist, poet, and civil society leader. Zainul Abedin was the pioneer of modern Bangladeshi art. Muzharul Islam was the grand master of South Asian modernist terracotta architecture.

See also[edit]

Other Bengali religious groups

Other Muslim ethnic groups

Outlines

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muslim population in Bangladesh excluding Urdu-speakers
  2. ^ "Bangladesh Population". Worldometers.
  3. ^ https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2017/10/25/lessons-on-jihad-to-be-removed-from-madrasah-textbooks24.6 million Muslims in West Bengal and 10.7 million Muslims in Assam
  4. ^ Sur, Priyali (10 September 2020). "A Year After Rendering Millions Stateless, India Has Yet to Hear a Single Appeal". Foreign Policy.
  5. ^ "Five million illegal immigrants residing in Pakistan". The Express Tribune.
  6. ^ "Microsoft Word — Cover_Kapiszewski.doc" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  7. ^ "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". Migration Information Source. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  8. ^ "Malaysia cuts Bangladeshi visas". BBC News. 11 March 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
  9. ^ CT0341_2011 Census – Religion by ethnic group by main language – England and Wales ONS.
  10. ^ "Bangladeshis storm Kuwait embassy". BBC News. 24 April 2005.
  11. ^ "Oman lifts bar on recruitment of Bangladeshi workers". News.webindia123.com. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  12. ^ Snoj, Jure (18 December 2013). "Population of Qatar by nationality". Bqdoha.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  13. ^ "In pursuit of happiness". The Korea Herald. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  14. ^ "The Calcutta Review". 1 January 1941 – via Google Books. [Mussalman also used in this work.]
  15. ^ Choudhury, A. K. (1 January 1984). "The Independence of East Bengal: A Historical Process". A.K. Choudhury – via Google Books. [Mussalman also used in this work.]
  16. ^ Richard Eaton (8 September 2009). "Forest Clearing and the Growth of Islam in Bengal". In Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.). Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4008-3138-8.
  17. ^ Meghna Guhathakurta; Willem van Schendel (30 April 2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. ISBN 978-0822353188. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  18. ^ a b Andre, Aletta; Kumar, Abhimanyu (23 December 2016). "Protest poetry: Assam's Bengali Muslims take a stand". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  19. ^ a b Mohammad Yusuf Siddiq (19 November 2015). Epigraphy and Islamic Culture: Inscriptions of the Early Muslim Rulers of ... p. 30. ISBN 9781317587460. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  20. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  21. ^ "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune". Archive.dhakatribune.com. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  22. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
  23. ^ a b c Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed). Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  24. ^ Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, ISBN 9264104143, pages 259–261
  25. ^ Ghosh, Shiladitya. Transitions – History and Civics – 8. Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 9789325993969 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ a b c Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1 January 1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520205079 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ Ali, Mohammad Mohar (1988). History of the Muslims of Bengal, Vol 1 (PDF) (2 ed.). Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University. pp. 683, 404. ISBN 9840690248. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  28. ^ a b Mukhapadhay, Keshab (13 May 2005). "An interview with prof. Ahmed sharif". News from Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  29. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". Pewforum.org. 9 August 2012.
  30. ^ Richard Maxwell Eaton (31 July 1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. ISBN 9780520205079. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Bengali language | Britannica.com". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  32. ^ Reza, Mohammad Habib; Ahmed, Iftekhar (2018). "Re-imagining Bengal: Critical thoughts". In Ahmed, Iftekhar; Reza, Mohammad Habib (eds.). Re-Imagining Bengal:Architecture, Built Environment and Cultural Heritage. Gaziabad: Copal Publishing. ISBN 9789383419647.
  33. ^ "Ancient mosque unearthed in Bangladesh". Al Jazeera. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  34. ^ Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir, eds. (2012). "Arabs, The". Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  35. ^ Raj Kumar (2003). Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-7141-682-0.
  36. ^ Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir, eds. (2012). "Coins". Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  37. ^ Al-Masudi, trans. Barbier de Meynard and Pavet de Courteille (1962). "1:155". In Pellat, Charles (ed.). Les Prairies d’or [Murūj al-dhahab] (in French). Paris: Société asiatique.
  38. ^ Abdul Karim (2012). "Islam, Bengal". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  39. ^ Qurashi, Ishfaq (December 2012). "বুরহান উদ্দিন ও নূরউদ্দিন প্রসঙ্গ" [Burhan Uddin and Nooruddin]. শাহজালাল(রঃ) এবং শাহদাউদ কুরায়শী(রঃ) [Shah Jalal and Shah Dawud Qurayshi] (in Bengali).
  40. ^ Ahmed, ABM Shamsuddin (2012). "Iliyas Shah". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  41. ^ 'Abd al-Haqq al-Dehlawi. Akhbarul Akhyar.
  42. ^ Abdul Karim (2012). "Shaikh Akhi Sirajuddin Usman (R)". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  43. ^ Hanif, N (2000). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: South Asia. Prabhat Kumar Sharma, for Sarup & Sons. p. 35.
  44. ^ "What is more significant, a contemporary Chinese traveler reported that although Persian was understood by some in the court, the language in universal use there was Bengali. This points to the waning, although certainly not yet the disappearance, of the sort of foreign mentality that the Muslim ruling class in Bengal had exhibited since its arrival over two centuries earlier. It also points to the survival, and now the triumph, of local Bengali culture at the highest level of official society." (Eaton 1993:60)
  45. ^ Rabbani, AKM Golam (7 November 2017). "Politics and Literary Activities in the Bengali Language during the Independent Sultanate of Bengal". Dhaka University Journal of Linguistics. 1 (1): 151–166. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017 – via www.banglajol.info.
  46. ^ Shoaib Daniyal. "Bengali New Year: how Akbar invented the modern Bengali calendar". Scroll.in. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  47. ^ Al-Ahsan, Abdullah (1994). "Spread of Islam in Pre-Mughal Bengal". Intellectual Discourse. 2 (1): 41–45. S2CID 55737704.
  48. ^ a b "The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760". publishing.cdlib.org. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  49. ^ a b c d Rahman, Mahmadur (2019). The Dawn of Islam in Eastern Bengal. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  50. ^ a b Sen, Sailendra Nath. (1999). Ancient Indian history and civilization (Second ed.). New Delhi: New Age International. ISBN 81-224-1198-3. OCLC 133102415.
  51. ^ Harper, Francesca (12 May 2015). "The 1,000-year-old manuscript and the stories it tells". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  52. ^ "Monumental Absence: The Destruction of Ancient Buddhist Sites – The Caravan". 9 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  53. ^ a b c Richard Eaton (8 September 2009). "Forest Clearing and the Growth of Islam in Bengal". In Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.). Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-4008-3138-8.
  54. ^ Alam, Muhammad Nur. "Agrarian Relations in Bengal: Ancient to British Period" (PDF).
  55. ^ a b Richard Maxwell Eaton (1 October 1997). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. ISBN 9780520205079. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  56. ^ Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. p. 366. ISBN 9788131732021. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  57. ^ https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00856400802192952?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=csas20
  58. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232823424_Hindu-Muslim_separateness_in_Bengal_A_review_of_some_historical_issues_from_a_contemporary_Bangladesh_Muslim_standpoint
  59. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.209–11
  60. ^ Taher, MA (2012). "Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  61. ^ a b Khan, Muin-ud-Din Ahmed (2012). "Faraizi Movement". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  62. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 226–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8.
  63. ^ Kabir, Nurul (1 September 2013). "Colonialism, politics of language and partition of Bengal PART XV". New Age. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  64. ^ "Do we know anything about Lahore Resolution?". Al Arabiya. 24 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  65. ^ Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Enskat, Mike; Spiess, Clemens (2004). Political Parties in South Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-0-275-96832-8.
  66. ^ Harun-or-Rashid (2012). "Bangladesh Awami League". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  67. ^ Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Enskat, Mike; Spiess, Clemens (2004). Political Parties in South Asia. p. 217. ISBN 9780275968328. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  68. ^ Craig Baxter (31 January 2018). Bangladesh: From A Nation To A State. Taylor & Francis. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-429-98176-0.
  69. ^ Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 75, 83. ISBN 978-0-521-71377-1.
  70. ^ "Bangladesh" (PDF). U.S. State Department. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  71. ^ "Bengali numbers (বাংলা সংখ্যা)". Omniglot. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  72. ^ Perween Hasan; Oleg Grabar (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0.
  73. ^ muslin, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  74. ^ The Fairchild Books Dictionary of Textiles, A&C Black, 2013, pp. 404–, ISBN 978-1-60901-535-0
  75. ^ "History". Bangladesh Railway. Archived from the original on 15 November 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  76. ^ "About BUET". BUET. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  77. ^ "Fazlur R. Khan (American engineer) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  78. ^ "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  79. ^ "China, Denmark projects among architecture award winners". The Washington Times. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  80. ^ "Understanding the Bengal Muslims Interpretative Essays Hardcover". Irfi.org. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  81. ^ "The Future of the Global Muslim Population | Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. 15 January 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  82. ^ "As per as recent estimation, there are around 30% Muslims in West Bengal as of 2021 year". Times of India.
  83. ^ https://www.indiacensus.net/states/west-bengal
  84. ^ "Bengal beats India in Muslim growth rate". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  85. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/assamese-muslims-plan-mini-nrc/article34292248.ece
  86. ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2012. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  87. ^ "Muslim majority districts in Assam up". Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  88. ^ "Assam Muslim growth is higher in districts away from border". 31 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  89. ^ "Census 2011 data rekindles 'demographic invasion' fear in Assam". 26 August 2015. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  90. ^ Topich, William J.; Leitich, Keith A. (1 January 2013). The History of Myanmar. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313357244 – via Google Books.
  91. ^ Dizikes, Peter. "The hidden history of Bengali Harlem". MIT News Office. MIT. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  92. ^ "Zainuddin, Sheikh". Banglapedia. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  93. ^ Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B. Tauris. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0. The Sultanate mosques ... all had in common a remarkable uniformity of design ... features familiar from the Islamic architecture of the central Islamic lands and north India reappear here; others are totally new.
  94. ^ "Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God". Abc-Clio.com. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  95. ^ "Sufism Journal: Community: Sufism in Bangladesh". sufismjournal.org.[self-published source?]
  96. ^ Banu, U.A.B. Razia Akter (1992). Islam in Bangladesh. New York: BRILL. pp. 34–35. ISBN 90-04-09497-0. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  97. ^ Milam, William B. (4 July 2014). "The tangled web of history". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  98. ^ Eaton, Richard M. (1993). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-19-564173-8.
  99. ^ Versteegh, C. H. M.; Versteegh, Kees (2001). The Arabic Language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7486-1436-3.
  100. ^ "BENGAL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  101. ^ a b c "The development of Bengali literature during Muslim rule" (PDF). Blogs.edgehill.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  102. ^ Karim, Abdul (2012). "Nur Qutb Alam". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  103. ^ a b c Rizvi, S.N.H. (1965). "East Pakistan District Gazetteers" (PDF). Government of East Pakistan Services and General Administration Department (1): 353. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  104. ^ Ahmed, Wakil (2012). "Sufi Literature". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  105. ^ Billah, Abu Musa Mohammad Arif (2012). "Persian". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  106. ^ Huq, Khondkar Serajul (2012). "Muslim Sahitya-Samaj". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  107. ^ "Al Mahmud turns 75". The Daily Star. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  108. ^ "Kendriyo Muslim Sahitya Sangsad – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  109. ^ "Muslim Sahitya-Samaj – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  110. ^ "Bangiya Mussalman Sahitya Samiti – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  111. ^ "Bangiya Sahitya Bisayini Mussalman Samiti – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  112. ^ "Mohammedan Literary Society – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  113. ^ "Purba Pakistan Sahitya Sangsad – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  114. ^ "Pakistan Sahitya Sangsad, 1952 – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  115. ^ "Uttar Banga Sahitya Sammilani – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  116. ^ "Rangapur Sahitya Parisad – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  117. ^ "Bangiya Mussalman Sahitya Patrika – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  118. ^ Urban, Hugh B. (2001). Songs of ecstasy tantric and devotional songs from colonial Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-19-513901-3. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  119. ^ Sharma, Devesh. "Beyond borders Runa Laila". Filmfare.com. Times Internet Limited. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  120. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2006". Nobel Foundation. 13 October 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
  121. ^ "Fazlur R. Khan (American engineer)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  122. ^ "Altamas Kabir to become CJI on Sept 29". Hindustan Times. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2020.

Bibliography[edit]