Benjaman Kyle

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Not to be confused with Benjamin Kyle.
Benjaman Kyle
Benjaman Kyle.jpg
Kyle in 2010
Born William Burgess Powell
(1948-08-29) August 29, 1948 (age 68)
Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.
Residence Jacksonville Beach, Florida, U.S.
Nationality American
Other names Benjaman Kyle
Known for identity loss due to dissociative amnesia

"Benjaman Kyle" was the placeholder name given to the American man who had severe dissociative amnesia, which meant that between 2004 and 2015, neither he nor the authorities were sure of his real identity or background, despite widespread publicity. In late 2015, genetic detective work discovered his real name, William Burgess Powell.[1]

Incident and post-amnesia[edit]

On August 31, 2004 at 5:00 am, a Burger King employee found him unconscious, sun-burnt, and naked behind a dumpster of the restaurant.[2][3] He had three depressions in his skull that appeared to have been caused by blunt force trauma and he also had red ant bites on his body. After discovering him, employees called the emergency services, and EMS took him to St. Joseph's/Candler Hospital in Savannah. He had no identity document and was recorded in hospital records as "Burger King Doe". After the incident, no criminal investigation was opened by Richmond Hill police until a friend inquired with the department in 2007. There were no reports of stolen vehicles in the area[citation needed] and local restaurants and hotels did not encounter any individuals matching Kyle's description.[2] Two weeks later he was transferred to Memorial Health University Medical Center, where records state he was semiconscious.[2]

After waking up, when he was asked for his name by hospital staff, he remembered that it was Benjaman, spelled with two 'a's, but could not recall his last name. He came up with the surname "Kyle" from his police and hospital placeholder name. He had woken up with cataracts in both eyes, which were not fixed until nine months later when a charity raised enough money to pay for an operation. Upon seeing himself in the mirror for the first time, Kyle realized he was around 20 years older than he thought he was.[4]

Kyle believed he was passing through Richmond Hill, Georgia on either U.S. Route 17 or Interstate 95 in late August 2004. He may also have been on the road because of Hurricane Charley, which had hit earlier that month.[5][6]

After being released from the hospital, Kyle spent several years between the Grace House men's shelter and hospitals. In 2007 while at The J.C. Lewis Health Care Center he met a nurse who first inquired about his past history.[citation needed] The nurse helped support Kyle financially while he earned about $100 a month mostly doing yard work. While driving her truck in a yard, Kyle discovered that he still remembered how to drive a car. He was diagnosed with dissociative amnesia in 2007 by Jason A. King in Atlanta. King suggested that Kyle's amnesia dates from August 31, 2004.[7] Georgia Legal Services did not obtain medical records for Kyle because Memorial Health requested an $800 fee. A friend contacted Georgia Congressman Jack Kingston for help with the case. To help with Kyle's identification, Kingston's office sent DNA samples to the FBI's National Criminal Justice Information Services Division in West Virginia.

In 2008 he was invited to appear on the Dr. Phil show. Memorial Health decided to provide select portions of Kyle's medical records free of charge to the program.

In March 2011, Kyle was approached by Florida State University's College of Motion Picture Arts graduate student John Wikstrom. Kyle moved to Jacksonville, Florida, traveling on foot, in order to be filmed for the documentary.[8] In 2011, with help from Florida State Representative Mike Weinstein, Kyle was able to obtain a legal, government-issued Florida Legacy ID. Kyle's story appeared in a report on News4Jax, which caught the attention of a local business owner who currently employs Kyle as a dishwasher and pays him out of pocket. As of January 2015 he lives in Jacksonville Beach, Florida in a 5-by-8-foot, air-conditioned shack provided by a good Samaritan.[8]

For many years after his amnesia Kyle was homeless and had been unable to obtain employment as he was unable to remember his full Social Security number.[9] Several online petitions were created asking lawmakers to grant Kyle a new Social Security number. In 2012, an online petition was created on the We the People petitioning system on whitehouse.gov but got only two thirds of the required signatures by its deadline on December 25 and failed. In February 2015, forensic genealogist Colleen Fitzpatrick reported that Kyle had cut off all contact with her when she reported that she was coming close to finding a DNA match.[5] On September 16, 2015 Kyle announced that his real identity had been found, including his name and family members. He said that he would not be announcing his name yet for his family's privacy.[10][11]

Search for identity[edit]

There were a number of major efforts to identify Kyle by matching his fingerprints or DNA with that stored in various databases. These efforts included:

In July 2009, a search was being made by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for Kyle's Vietnam draft registration, based on his birthdate and his physical characteristics. When the draft lottery was first implemented on December 1, 1969, Kyle's possible birth date of August 29, 1948 would have given him a priority number of 61.[15] Because the highest draft number used that year was 195, were that his birthday, he would have been very likely called, though interviews with military investigators indicate that he almost certainly had never served. A search through lists of men who had draft exemptions is now underway.[needs update]

Newspaper articles were published in the Boulder Daily Camera on July 5, 2009, and in the Denver Post on July 7, 2009.[16] Based on Kyle's memories of the University of Colorado Boulder campus, it was hoped that someone would respond to the articles to identify him. As of September 2010, this had not happened.

Kyle took several DNA tests that offer clues to his origins. A genetic genealogy DNA test by Family Tree DNA produced a distant match with members of the Powell DNA Study.[17] Based on these results, in March 2010 an almost perfect DNA match was discovered in the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation database with a Davidson of Scottish ancestry, a grandson of Robert Holden Davidson (b. 1885 Logan, Utah, d. 1946 Chico, California). This Davidson's results were very different from other Davidsons who have been tested by the Davidson/Davison/Davisson Research DNA Study Project.[18] The fact that Kyle had several weak matches to Powells, with a single strong match to a Davidson, indicates a possible non-paternity event in the male line of his family—that is, an adoption, a name change, or an illegitimacy. It was surmised that his legal name might be Davidson, but that in past generations, the family name was originally Powell. A comparison of the whereabouts of the Powell and Davidson families revealed that members of both families were living in close proximity in the Pacific Northwest in the early 1900s.[19]

A geographical comparison between Kyle's Y-DNA results and the YHRD Y Users Group database showed a somewhat close match in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma, but the US coverage in this database is sparse and includes only Y-DNA haplotypes. A more comprehensive autosomal DNA test by 23andMe relating to mixed-gender family lines reveals a large number of matches with ancestry in the western Carolinas, eastern Tennessee, northern Alabama, and northern Georgia.[20]

Colleen Fitzpatrick compiled a family tree for Kyle, and based on DNA tests identified a set of second cousins from the Western Carolinas who collaborated with her to help determine his identity.[21]

Kyle's appearance on a Reddit AMA in 2012[22] and again in 2013[23] attracted several possible leads, most of which were disproven.[24] In one notable lead, two Redditors claimed to have seen Kyle working at a Waffle House in Kennesaw, Georgia.[25] However, none of the users responded to personal messages when contacted, but searching through Waffle House corporate employment records finally suggested that the leads were false.

Recorded memories[edit]

Kyle remembered that he was born 10 years before Michael Jackson and on the same day, giving him a possible birth date of August 29, 1948.[26][27][28] Genetic testing suggested that he may have had the surname Powell or Davidson or have relatives with these names.[6] Through hypnosis, he recalled a partial Social Security number 3X5-44-XXXX, consistent with numbers assigned in Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana during the 1960s. Hypnosis suggested that Kyle had two or three brothers, whose names or faces he did not remember, but otherwise did not remember any other people from his life.[6][29] Kyle had memories of Indianapolis as a child, including the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, the Woolworth's on the Circle, and the Indiana Theater showing movies in Cinerama. He remembered Crown Hill Cemetery, although not its name, the Scottish Rite Cathedral, and the White River when "it was mostly just a dumping ground".[citation needed] He also remembered grilled cheese sandwiches for a quarter and glasses of milk for a nickel at the Indiana State Fair. Based on his reactions to the mention of nuns during hypnosis, he may have been raised Catholic and may have attended Catholic schools.[30] Searching through Indianapolis area high school yearbook records came up empty, although records from that era are often incomplete.[12]

More specific memories placed him in Indianapolis between at least 1954 and 1963.[6][original research?] The earlier date is based on his recognition of the Fountain Square Theater,[31] but not the Granada Theater [32] in the Fountain Square area of town. The Granada closed in the mid-1950s. The later date is based on his recollections of a 2% retail sales tax that was enacted by the State of Indiana in 1963,[33] and that the popular WLS Chicago radio station disc jockey Dick Biondi left the station that year over management issues.[citation needed]

Kyle also had memories of being in the Denver Metropolitan Area. He had detailed memories of the subscription the University of Colorado Boulder's Norlin Library had to Restaurants & Institutions. He also remembered the Round the Corner Restaurant on The Hill, and the Flatirons and The Fox Theater near the Boulder campus.[34] This placed Kyle in Colorado in the late 1970s to early 1980s.[16] Kyle reported having memories of the controversy surrounding the construction of mass transit in Denver, at a time when the city still had no financing to proceed. Although the RTD Bus & Light Rail system in Denver went into operation in 1994, public debate over the construction of the system dates back to about 1980, consistent with the time period of the other memories that Kyle has about Denver and Boulder.[35]

More specific memories of Boulder placed Kyle there between 1976 and 1983.[6] The earlier date was based on his memory that he arrived during the construction of the Pearl Street Mall in the downtown area, and shortly after the Big Thompson Canyon flood [36] that occurred on July 31 – August 1, 1976. The later date was based on the year that the King Soopers grocery store chain merged with Kroger.

Kyle had detailed knowledge of restaurant management and food preparation equipment, leading to the belief that he may have once worked in these industries.[12]

Kyle had nearly no memory of his life after the 1980s, including how he ended up in Georgia.[14] One event he does remember is reading about the September 11 attacks.[29] When asked by doctors to recall the Presidents of the United States, he was able to recall only those from the 20th century.[12] Many of his memories he cannot describe in words and are at the tip of his tongue.[29]

Identification[edit]

On September 16, 2015, Kyle announced on his Facebook page that his identity had been established.[37]

"A little over two months ago I was informed by CeCe Moore that that they had established my Identity using DNA. Many people have shared their DNA profiles so that they may be compared with mine. Through a process of elimination they determined my ancestral bloodline and who my relatives were. A DNA test taken by a close relative has confirmed that we are related," Kyle wrote.

The Orlando Sentinel reported on September 22 that Kyle had received his Florida identification card with the help of IDignity, an Orlando-based organization that helps the homeless and others obtain identification documents.[38] IDignity also assisted in establishing Kyle's identification.

On November 21, 2016, Kyle's true identity was revealed to be William Burgess Powell.[1]

Media coverage[edit]

Kyle appeared on the Dr. Phil show on the December 18, 2008 episode "Who am I".[39] Dr. Phil paid for Kyle to seek a professional hypnotist in an effort to help him recover lost memories. He has also appeared on local television networks across the country. Kyle says he has been met with skepticism about the case.[6]

In March 2011, Kyle was the subject of a student documentary from Florida State University's College of Motion Picture Arts by filmmaker John Wikstrom. The film, entitled Finding Benjaman, was in part a description about his curious circumstances, and in part an appeal to action for local media groups and politicians. The film was invited to be shown at the Tribeca Film Festival and at the American Pavilion at the Cannes Film Festival. Through the outreach involved with the film, Kent Justice of News4Jax (WJXT) ran a series on Kyle with the help of Florida Senator Mike Weinstein. Through Weinstein, and the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Kyle was able to obtain a Legacy Identification Card to supplement the identity card he received when he was in Georgia. No new leads were developed by the story, but he was able to find work and housing through the generosity of viewers.

The news of Kyle's identification received widespread coverage, including stories by the Orlando Sentinel, ABC News and the New York Daily News].[40][41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wolfe, Matt (November 21, 2016). "The Last Unknown Man". newrepublic.com. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "A 'real live nobody'". SavannahNow.com. 2007-09-24. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  3. ^ Matteucci, Megan (2007-09-25). "Man with no memory tries to start new life". The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  4. ^ "Amnesia Forever". NPR. December 5, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Politan, Vinnie; Krammes, Kelly; Wolfe, Julie (February 5, 2015). "DNA expert: Man without identity wants it that way". 11 Alive. NBC. Retrieved February 10, 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Neil Forsyth (2010-07-10). "Do you know this man? | Life and style". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  7. ^ Sharpe, Joshua (December 17, 2012). "Jacksonville man with no name wants government to give him one". jacksonville.com. The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved January 8, 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Justice, Kent (2011-09-17). "Man Lives Six Years without Knowing Who he is". Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-17. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Man With Amnesia Starts New Life". Wxia.com. 2007-10-16. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  10. ^ DAILYMAIL.COM REPORTER (16 September 2015). "Man with amnesia who didn't know his own name after he was found beaten in a dumpster 11 YEARS ago finally finds out his true identity". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 25, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Benjamin Kyle writes 'Thank You' post". News 4 Jax. September 16, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d "I am Benjaman Kyle, an amnesiac who woke up with no memories in 2004. Nobody knows who I am. AMA". Reddit. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Benjaman Kyle – Indianapolis Birth Announcements, 30 Aug 1948". 
  14. ^ a b "Case File 1007UMGA". The Doe Network. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  15. ^ "Results from Lottery Drawing – Vietnam Era 1970". Sss.gov. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  16. ^ a b "Amnesia Victim Has Ties to Boulder". dailycamera.com. June 2010. 
  17. ^ "Powell Surname DNA Project by Jim Barrett". Home.flash.net. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  18. ^ "Davidson/Davison/Davisson Research DNA Study Project". Tqsi.com. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  19. ^ "Benjaman's Powell and Davidson Matches". 
  20. ^ "Benjaman's 23 and Me Matches". 
  21. ^ "Benjaman Kyle THE MAN WITHOUT AN IDENTITY". Retrieved March 4, 2014. 
  22. ^ https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/13rs46/i_am_benjaman_kyle_an_amnesiac_who_woke_up_with/
  23. ^ https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/154h48/i_am_benjaman_kyle_an_unidentified_amnesiac_with/
  24. ^ "2014- Updates!". 
  25. ^ QUIGLEY, RACHEL (December 10, 2012). "Mystery of John Doe found beaten in dumpster in 2004 who STILL has no idea who he is – but could power of internet finally solve his riddle?". Daily Mail. Retrieved February 14, 2015. 
  26. ^ Forsyth, Neil (July 9, 2010). "Do you know this man?". The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2015. 
  27. ^ Brown, Nathan (March 1, 2013). "Benjaman Kyle: A man in search of his identity". NOVA. Retrieved January 4, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Know This Man? Can You Tell Him Who He Is?". NPR.org. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  29. ^ a b c Sharpe, Joshua (December 17, 2012). "Jacksonville man with no name wants government to give him one". jacksonville.com. The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved January 8, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Dr. Phil Show". Drphil.com. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  31. ^ "Fountain Square Theater Building". 
  32. ^ "Fountain Square Business District". 
  33. ^ "History and Economic Impact of Sales Tax" (PDF). 
  34. ^ "Tips roll in for amnesia victim; no ID yet". dailycamera.com. June 2010. 
  35. ^ "Amnesia Victim has ties to Denver, CU". Thedenverchannel.com. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  36. ^ "Big Thompson Canyon July 31- Aug. 1, 1976". 
  37. ^ "Benjaman Kyle - MY IDENTITY HAS BEEN FOUND! It is now the... | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  38. ^ Stephen Hudak (September 22, 2015). "No-man's land: Amnesia stole his identity for 11 years". Orlando Sentinel. 
  39. ^ "Who am I". Dr Phil. December 18, 2008. CBS. Retrieved January 4, 2015. 
  40. ^ [1]
  41. ^ [2]

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