Benjamin F. Stapleton
|Benjamin Franklin Stapleton|
|33rd Mayor of Denver|
|Preceded by||Dewey C. Bailey|
|Succeeded by||George D. Begole|
|35th Mayor of Denver|
|Preceded by||George D. Begole|
|Succeeded by||J. Quigg Newton|
November 12, 1869|
Paintsville, Kentucky, United States
|Died||May 23, 1950
Denver, Colorado, United States
|Children||Lois Jane and Benjamin, Jr.|
Benjamin Franklin Stapleton (November 12, 1869 – May 23, 1950) was the Mayor of Denver, Colorado, USA, for two periods (comprising five terms), the first from 1923 to 1931 and the second from 1935 to 1947. He also served as the Democratic Colorado State Auditor from 1933 to 1935.
He was born November 12, 1869, in Paintsville, Kentucky. He attended National Normal University in Lebanon, Ohio, graduating with a law degree. Early in the 1890s, Stapleton went to live in Denver, and in 1899, he was admitted to the Colorado Bar.
Stapleton enlisted for service in the Spanish–American War. He served with the First Colorado Regiment, Company 1, Colorado Volunteers Infantry in the Philippine Islands, rising to the rank of first sergeant.
On June 21, 1917, Stapleton married Mabel Freeland, with whom he had two children, Lois Jane and Benjamin, Junior.
Stapleton's political career began in 1904 as police magistrate, where he remained until 1915, when President Woodrow Wilson appointed him postmaster. During his appointment, he oversaw the completion of the Denver Post Office building.
As chronicled by Robert Alan Goldberg in his book Hooded Empire : The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado, Stapleton was the Klan candidate for mayor of Denver in 1923 and won the election with Klan support. When Stapleton declared his candidacy for mayor in March 1923, he was Klan member number 1,128 and a close friend of the Colorado Klan Grand Dragon, John Galen Locke. Rumors of Stapleton's Klan membership circulated during the mayoral campaign. Stapleton responded by denying that he was a Klan member and condemning the Klan "to appease his Jewish and Catholic supporters.":30 The voters believed Stapleton's denial and he was elected, defeating an unpopular incumbent, Dewey Bailey. Stapleton then appointed fellow Klansmen to multiple positions in Denver government, though he initially resisted Klan pressure to appoint a Klansman as chief of police.
An anti-Stapleton backlash developed due to the Klan's infiltration of Denver government. The anti-Stapleton coalition began the process of petitioning for a recall election. Stapleton knew that to survive the recall he would need Klan support. He capitulated to the Klan demand that he appoint a Klansman as police chief, with the result that the police department became in effect a Klan organization. This galvanized the anti-Stapleton forces and they succeeded in forcing a recall election of Stapleton in August 1924.:32–33
According to Goldberg's description of the recall election, "[t]he Klan dominated the Stapleton campaign, contributing more than $15,000 and scores of election workers.":34 "On July 14, 1924, Mayor Stapleton addressed a Klan gathering on South Table Mountain and reaffirmed his commitment: 'I have little to say, except that I will work with the Klan and for the Klan in the coming election, heart and soul. And if I am reelected, I shall give the Klan the kind of administration it wants.'":34 The anti-Stapleton coalition had run a poor candidate against Stapleton in the recall election (Dewey Bailey, the incumbent mayor defeated by Stapleton in 1923), and Stapleton won the recall election by a landslide. On the night of the election, Denver Klansmen burned crosses on South Table Mountain to signify their victory.
Stapleton was responsible for many civic improvements during his five terms as mayor of Denver. Most projects attributed to Stapleton were during his second term as mayor when he had access to funds and manpower from the New Deal. During this time, he saw through the creation of the Denver Civic Center and the Denver Municipal Airport, and the considerable expansion of Denver Mountain Parks system, including the Amphitheatre at Red Rocks Park.
Denver Municipal Airport
The construction of Denver Municipal Airport was begun in early 1929 and completed that same year. Its grand opening celebration took place over four days from October 17–20 – a week before the stock market crashed. It was widely viewed at the time as a huge boondoggle. Stapleton was excoriated as either corrupt or incompetent, or both, for having the taxpayers subsidize a mere plaything of the wealthy; what the Denver Post sneeringly dubbed "Stapleton's Folly", and others jokingly called "Rattlesnake Hollow". It was viewed by some as too far from civilization to be practicable. Others[who?] pointed out the close relationship Stapleton seemed to have with land-owning political backers who stood to benefit, conspicuous among them H. Brown Canon of Windsor Farm Dairy. These suspicions were a factor in his loss in the 1931 mayoral election to George D. Begole. The airport was later renamed Stapleton International Airport on August 25, 1944 in his honor. Today, the airport no longer exists, replaced by a neighborhood, also named Stapleton, and Stapleton Street continues to bear his name.
Red Rocks Amphitheatre
In 1935, Stapleton appointed George Cranmer, a wealthy former stockbroker, as manager of Improvements and Parks. Cranmer had luckily pulled his assets out of the stock market just a year before the crash of 1929. The two, as it turned out, had completely different visions for what to do with a particularly striking locale at Red Rocks Park.
Some time before his appointment, while pondering a boulder field that was surmounted by large projecting rocks on either side, the thoughts of George Cranmer drifted to a memory of something he had once seen while on tour in Sicily: an ancient Greek open-air theater with stone seating. He began to envision something similar, yet unique, for this location.
Whereas, however, Cranmer dreamt of clearing a starry-skied stage, Stapleton saw the boulders strewn there as the members of a naturally formed, one-of-a-kind 'rock garden', and wanted them preserved.
Unbeknown to Stapleton, Cranmer was attempting to persuade the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) to quietly go ahead with plans to demolish the rocks with dynamite. He was successful in this, and the rocks were indeed razed. With Stapleton's rock garden no more, the process was begun of hiring architects to design and oversee the eventual building of what is now Red Rocks Amphitheatre.
After leaving office, it was uncovered that Stapleton had the aforementioned ties to the Ku Klux Klan. This association continues to overshadow his notable contributions to Denver's economic and cultural institutions.
Stapleton died on May 23, 1950, at his home in Denver. He is the great-grandfather of Walker Stapleton, who was elected Colorado Treasurer in 2010, and the grandfather of Craig Roberts Stapleton, former U.S. ambassador to France and the Czech Republic.
- "History of the Office". Denver Office of the Mayor. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Compilers: Cynthia Rand, Ann Brown; Proj. Mngr.: Ellen Zazzarino (January, 2002; rev. 2009). "Benjamin Stapleton Papers". Western History Collection. Denver Public Library. Retrieved February 26, 2014. Check date values in:
- Goldberg, R. (1981). Hooded Empire : The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
- Thomas J. Noel. "Mile High City - 7. Denver's ups and downs". Retrieved May 21, 2009.
- Gonzales, Manny (November 23, 1999). "Racist Group Dominated Politics in Early 1920s". Denver Rocky Mountain News (Denver, CO). Archived from the original on June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Some photographs related to Stapleton can be found at the Western History Photograph Collection of the Denver Public Library