B. Hick and Sons
|Predecessor||B. Hick and Son|
|Successor||Hick, Hargreaves & Co. Ltd.|
|Founded||10 April 1833|
|Headquarters||Soho Iron Works,
Crook Street, Bolton, United Kingdom
Number of locations
|John Hargreaves Jr.
George Henry Corliss
John Henry Hargreaves
Number of employees
B. Hick and Sons, subsequently Hick, Hargreaves & Co, was a British engineering company based at the Soho Ironworks in Bolton, England. Benjamin Hick, a partner in Rothwell, Hick and Rothwell, later Rothwell, Hick & Co., set up the company in partnership with two of his sons, John (1815–1894) and Benjamin (1818–1845) in 1833.
Benjamin Jr left the company after a year for a partnership in a Liverpool company, possibly George Forrester & Co. In April 1841 he filed a patent for a governor for B. Hick and Son that featured on the front page of Mechanics' Magazine using his father's Egyptian winged motif.
The company's first steam locomotive Soho, named after the works was a 0-4-2 goods type, built in 1833 for carrier John Hargreaves. In 1834 an unconventional, gear-driven four-wheeled rail carriage was conceived for Bolton solicitor and banker, Thomas Lever Rushton (1810–1883). The engine was the first 3-cylinder locomotive and its design incorporated aerodynamic turned iron wheel rims with plate discs as an alternative to conventional spokes. The 3-cylinder concept evolved into Hick's experimental horizontal boiler A 2-2-2 locomotive about 1840, adopting the principle features of the vertical boiler engine. The A 2-2-2 design appears not to have been put into production.
Hick's wheel design was used on a number of Great Western Railway engines including what may have been the world's first streamlined locomotive; an experimental prototype, nicknamed Grasshoper, driven by Brunel at 100 mph, c.1847. The 10 ft disc wheels from GWR locomotives Ajax and Hurricane were lent to convey the statue of the Duke of Wellington to Hyde Park Corner in London.
Several more locomotives were built over the 1830s, some for export to the United States including a 2-2-0 Fulton for the Pontchartrain Railroad in 1834, New Orleans and Carrollton for the St. Charles Streetcar Line in New Orleans in 1835 and a second New Orleans for the same line in 1837.
Between 1837 and 1840 the company subcontracted for Edward Bury and Company, supplying engines to the Midland Counties Railway, London and Birmingham Railway, North Union Railway, Manchester and Leeds Railway and indirectly to the Grand Crimean Central Railway via the London and North Western Railway in 1855. Engines were built for the Taff Vale Railway, Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, Cheshire, Lancashire and Birkenhead Railway, Chester and Birkenhead Railway, Eastern Counties Railway, Liverpool and Manchester Railway, North Midland Railway and the Paris and Versailles Railway.
In 1841 the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway successfully used American Norris 4-2-0 locomotives on the notorious Lickey Incline and Hick built three similar locomotives for the line. Between 1844 and 1846 the firm built a number of "long boiler" locomotives with haystack fireboxes and in 1848, four 2-4-0s for the North Staffordshire Railway. In the same year, the company built Chester, probably the earliest known prototype of a 6-wheel coupled 0-6-0 goods locomotive.
Hick Hargreaves collection of early locomotive and steam engine drawings represents one of the finest of its kind in the world. The majority were produced by Benjamin Hick senior and John Hick between 1833-1855, they are of significant interest for their technical detail, fine draughtsmanship and artistic merit. The elaborate finish and harmonious colouring extends from the largest drawings for prospective customers to ordinary working drawings and records for the engineer.
Works like this influenced the contemporary illustrators of popular science and technology of the time like John Emslie (1813-1875), their aesthetic quality stems from a romantic outlook in which science and poetry were partners.
Hick, Hargreaves & Co
After the death of Benjamin Hick in 1842, the firm continued as Benjamin Hick & Son under the management of his eldest son, John Hick. In 1845 John took his brother-in-law John Hargreaves Jr (1800–1874) into partnership followed by his younger brother William Hargreaves (1821–1889) in 1847. John Hargreaves Jr left the firm in 1851. The same year B. Hick and Son exhibited engineering models and machinery at The Great Exhibition in Class VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools, including a 6 horse power crank overhead engine and mill-gear driving Hibbert, Platt and Sons' cotton machinery and a 2 hp high-pressure oscillating engine driving a Ryder forging machine. Both engines were modelled in the Egyptian Style. The company received a Council Medal award for its mill gearing, radial drill mandrils and portable forges. The B. Hick & Son London office was at 1 New Broad Street in the City.
One of the Great Exhibition models, a 1:10 scale 1840 double beam engine built in the Egyptian style for John Marshall's Temple Works in Leeds, is displayed at the Science Museum and considered to be the ultimate development of a Watt engine. A second model, apparently built by John Hick and probably shown at the Great Exhibition, is the open ended 3-cylinder A 2-2-2 locomotive on display at Bolton Museum. Bolton Museum holds the best collection of Egyptian cotton products outside the British Museum as a result of the company’s strong exports, particularly to Egypt.
Locomotive building continued until 1855, and in all some ninety to a hundred locomotives were produced; but they were a sideline for the company, which concentrated on marine and stationary engines, of which they made a large number.
B. Hick and Son supplied engines for the paddle frigates Afonso by Thomas Royden & Sons and Amazonas by the leading shipbuilder in Liverpool, Thomas Wilson & Co. also builders of the Royal William; the screw propelled Mediterranean steamers, Nile and Orontes and the SS Don Manuel built by Alexander Denny and Brothers of Dumbarton. The Brazilian Navy's Afonso rescued passengers from the Ocean Monarch in 1848 and took part in the Battle of The Tonelero Pass in 1851; the Amazonas participated in the Battle of Riachuelo in 1865.
The company made blowing engines for furnaces and smelters, boilers, weighing machines, water wheels and mill machinery. It supplied machinery "on a new and perfectly unique" concept together with iron pillars, roofing and fittings for the steam-driven pulp and paper mill at Woolwich Arsenal in 1856. The mill made cartridge bags at the rate of about 20,000 per hour, sufficient to supply the entire British army and navy. The intention was to manufacture paper for various departments of Her Majesty's service.
Steel boilers were first produced in 1863, mostly of the Lancashire type, and more than 200 locomotive boilers were made for torpedo boats into the 1890s. The Phoenix Boiler Works were purchased in 1891 to meet an increase in demands.
The company introduced the highly efficient Corliss valve gear into the United Kingdom from the United States in about 1864 and was closely identified with it thereafter; William Inglis being responsible for promoting the high speed Corliss engine. About 1881 Hick, Hargreaves received orders for two Corliss engines of 3000 hp, the largest cotton mill engines in the world. Hargreaves and Inglis trip gear was first applied to a large single cylinder 1800 hp Corliss engine at Eagley Mills near Bolton and the company received a Gold Medal for its products at the 1885 International Inventions Exhibition. Mill gearing was a speciality including large flywheels for rope drives, one example of 128 tons being 32 ft in diameter and groved for 56 ropes. Turbines and hydraulic machinery were also manufactured. Many of the tools were to suit the specialist work, with travelling cranes to take 15 to 40 tons in weight, a large lathe, side planer, slotting machine, pit planer and a tool for turning four 32 ft rope flywheels simultaneously. The workshops also featured an 80ton hydraulic riveting machine. For the ease of shipping and transportation, Soho Iron Works had its own railway system, traversed by sidings of the London North Western Railway (LNWR). Inglis, who lived in Bolton was a neighbour of LNWR's chief mechanical engineer, Francis Webb.
John Hick retired from the business in 1868 when he became a member of parliament (MP). The company was renamed Hick, Hargreaves and Company about this time. On the death of John Hick's nephew Benjamin Hick in 1882, a "much respected member of the firm", active involvement of the Hick family ceased until 1893 when Benjamin Hick's great grandson, also Benjamin Hick started an apprenticeship, followed by his younger brother Geoffrey about 1900.
About 1885 Hick Hargreaves & Co became associated with Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti during the reconstruction of the Grosvenor Gallery and began to manufacture steam engines for power generation including those of Ferranti's Deptford Power Station, the largest power station in the world at the time.
In 1908 the company was licensed to build uniflow engines. From 1911 the company began the manufacture of large diesel engines, however these did not prove successful and were eventually discontinued. Boiler production finished in 1912. During World War I the company was involved in war work, producing mines, 6 and 9.2 inch shells and oil engines for submarines.
The company's recoil gear for the Vickers 18 pounder quick firing gun was so successful that by war's end a significant part of the factory was devoted to its production. Civil manufacture was not suspended entirely and in 1916 the firm began making two-stage steam jet air ejectors and high vacuum condensing plant for power generation. Its production was greatly expanded as centralised power generation was adopted in Great Britain, by the formation of the Central Electricity Board (CEB) in 1926.
After the war the firm entered a contract with the Vulcan Motor & Engineering Co of Southport for 1000 20 hp petrol engines, but work was discontinued in 1922 when Vulcan became bankrupt, with only 150 completed.
As the steam turbine replaced reciprocating steam engines Hick Hargreaves' development continued, by 1927 its engine work was principally steam turbines for electricity generating stations and the company became a major supplier to the CEB.
During the 1930s Hick, Hargreaves acquired the records, drawings and patterns of four defunct steam engine manufacturers: J & E Wood, John Musgrave & Sons Limited, Galloways Limited and Scott & Hodgson Limited. As a consequence it made a lucrative business out of repairs and the supply of spare parts during the Great Depression. Large stationary steam engines were still in use the many cotton mills in the Bolton area until the collapse of the industry after World War II.
3 and 4-cylinder triple expansion marine steam engines were built during the 1940s, post-war the company expanded its work in electricity generation, again becoming a major supplier to the CEB and branched out into food processing, oil refining and offshore oil equipment production, continuing to supply vacuum equipment to the chemical and petrochemical industries. By 2000 its products included compressors, industrial blowers, refrigeration equipment and liquid ring motors.
Soho Iron Works
Between the 1840s and 1870s, the firm had its own Brass Band, "John Hick's Esq, Band," known as the Soho Iron Works Band with a uniform of "... rich full braided coat, black trousers, with two-inch gold lace down the sides and blue cap with gold band," who would play airs through the streets of Bolton.
Flywheel for a large textile mill engine 1900, set up to machine grooves for the rope drives simultaneously. The saddle with two tool posts to the front. The wheel is rotated by two pinions driving via the cast-in barring gear teeth in the flywheel rim. Temporary wedges are securing the spokes to the hub of the wheel. A travelling crane behind and above.
Superheater of a Lancashire boiler 1900, for the extraction of heat from waste gasses, and transfer of heat to saturated steam passing from the boiler to the steam range or engine. This raised the overall thermal efficiency of the plant, and would also prevent damage from slugs of condensate by ensuring the saturated steam was dry and not wet.
In 1968 the Hargreaves family sold the company to Electrical & Industrial Securities Ltd. In 2001 the firm was bought by The BOC Group from Smiths Industries, lower costs in Eastern Europe proved attractive so production at the Soho Foundry was wound down and machinery transferred to Czechoslovakia; the historic records, including drawings and photographs were deposited with Bolton library. Hick, Hargreaves was the most enduring engineering company in Bolton and Britain, surviving 170 years from the outset.
Smiths had already sold the site to J Sainsbury plc and, despite being marked by a blue plaque, Soho Iron Works were closed 23 August 2002 and demolished entirely about November that year in favour of a car park, petrol station and Sainsbury's supermarket, opening 27 March 2003. Two switchgear panels, the works clock and symbolic cast iron gateposts with Hick's caduceus logo were saved by the Northern Mill Engine Society.
Later The BOC Group plc was taken over by Linde A.G. of Germany who intended to return the combined group to a 'pure gas' business and so sold off the BOC Edwards engineering division into which Hick Hargreaves of Bolton had been placed where it had been combined with the Edwards High Vacuum business of BOC Edwards based at Crawley, West Sussex. The business of the vacuum company was sold to private shareholders CCMP Capital and on 1 June 2007 was re-established as an independent UK private limited company "Edwards Limited".
The Bolton site of Edwards Limited is now a design shop with outsourced UK and foreign manufacture and has moved to new office premises in Lostock, where it continues to sell some steam ejector, feed heater and deaeration technology of the old Hick Hargreaves business as a Process Vacuum part of Edwards Limited.
Mills powered by Hick, Hargreaves engines
- James Cudworth
- House-built engine
- Bradford Colliery
- Thomas Pitfield - apprenticed to Hick Hargreaves
- Maison Bréguet - Hick-Bréguet Ejectair
- Dick, Kerr & Co. - Hick Hargreaves condenser for an English Electric turbo generator
- Vickers Armstrongs - vacuum pumps for the Barnes Wallis Stratosphere at Brooklands
- Fred Dibnah
- Skeat, W. O.; Marshall, John (1974). Catalogue: Hick Hargreaves Exhibition of early locomotive drawings. Rockliff Bros. Ltd., Long Lane, Liverpool L9 7BE.
- "Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves and Co., Soho Iron Works, and Phoenix Boiler Works, Bolton.". Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: 454–455. July 1894.
- "Hick, Hargreaves and Co". Grace's Guide. Grace's Guide Ltd. 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Untitled typescript (1990). "Historical Notes". Annual Report and Accounts (FT Annual Reports Service ed.). Hick, Hargreaves and Company, Bolton; EIS Group plc.
- Pilling (1985), p. 20.
- Marshall (1978), pp. 112-113.
- Redfern, Diane. "Benjamin Hick". Diane Redfern ANCESTRY & FAMILY HISTORY. © 2009-2013 dianeredfern.ca. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Jones, Kevin Philip (30 March 2016). "British locomotive manufacturers". Steamindex. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- Ahrons, Ernest Leopold. "Short Histories of Famous Firms, Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves and Co., Reprint from The Engineer, 25 June – 30 July 1920".
- Marshall (1978), p. 113.
- "MacGregor, Horsfall, Hick". Liverpool & South West Lancs Genealogy. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Robertson, J.C., ed. (15 May 1841). "Hick's Patent Governor for Steam-Engines and Water Wheels". The Mechanics' Magazine, Museum, Register, Journal, and Gazette. 34. pp. 369–372.
- Timmins (1998), pp. 222–223.
- "Thomas Lever Rushton". Links in a Chain – the Mayors of Bolton. Bolton Council. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Hick, Benjamin (1836). Newton, William, ed. "for improvements in locomotive steam-carriages". Newton's London Journal of Arts and Sciences. Conjoined. University of Michigan: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper. VII: 265–271. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Hebert, Luke (1836). The Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopædia. II. Thomas Kelly. pp. 568–569. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- Townend, Peter (March 2016). "The first three cylinder locomotive". Steamindex. Railway Archive (Lightmoor Press). 5 (50).
- "Bolton Museum caption". flikcr. Bolton Museum. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
Model of an experimental locomotive, about 1840
- Speller, John. "Ajax & Mars". John Speller's Web Pages - GWR Broad Gauge: Locomotives. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- Guilbeau, James (2011) . St. Charles Streetcar, The: Or, the New Orleans & Carrollton Railroad. Louisiana Landmarks (illustrated ed.). Pelican Publishing Company. p. 18. ISBN 1-879714-02-7.
- Guilbeau (1975), p. 12.
- American Society of Mechanical Engineers Regional Transit Authority. "St. Charles Avenue Streetcar Line, 1835" (PDF). Adapted from Guilbeau (1975), revised and reprinted 1977. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, N.Y. 10017. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- COOKE, Brian (1997). The Grand Crimean Central Railway (Second edition, revised and expanded. ed.). Cavalier House, Knutsford. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0951588915.
- Saul (1968), pp. 186–222.
- Christiansen & Miller (1971), p. 309.
- Lewis, David (2003). Nevell, Dr. Michael, ed. "Hick, Hargreaves & Co, Engineers, Soho Foundry, Bolton, 1833–2002". Industrial Archaeology Northwest. CBA North West Industrial Archaeology Panel. 1.3 (3): 18–20. ISSN 1479-5345.
- Klingender, Francis Donald (1968). "Documentary Illustration". In Elton, Arthur. Art and the Industrial Revolution (illustrated, revised ed.). University of Michigan: Augustus M. Kelley. pp. 76–77.
- Marshall (1978), p. 104.
- "1833 to 1933 at the Soho Iron Works Bolton". Centenary Pamphlet Published by the Firm. Bolton Library Local History Archive Ref. ZHH.
- "NOTICE" (PDF). The London Gazette (21195): 874. 28 March 1851. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Pilling (1985), p. 102.
- "HICK, B., & SON". Great Exhibition 1851. Official, Descriptive and Illustrated catalogue Part II. Classes V. to X. 1851. p. 293. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "HICK, B., & SON". Great Exhibition 1851. Official, Descriptive and Illustrated catalogue Part II. Classes V. to X. 1851. p. 294. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "B. Hick & Son - Crank Overhead Engine - Drawings & Photos". Hemingway Kits. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "B. Hick & Son - Oscillating Engine". Hemingway Kits. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "1851 Great Exhibition: Reports of the Juries: Class VI.". Grace's Guide. Grace's Guide Ltd. 1852. pp. 203–204. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "Street Directory.". UK City and County Directories 1600s -1900s. 1851. p. 395.
- "Commercial Directory.". UK City and County Directories 1600s -1900s. 1851. p. 791.
- A.W.M (16 April 1936). "Models of a Beam Engine and Steam Turbine". Model Engineer. Vol. 74 no. 1823. pp. 79–80.
- Science Museum caption. Energy Hall: Science Museum.
Model represents the ultimate development of Boulton & Watt's steam engine. By the time the engine was displayed at the 1851 Great Exhibition, Britain used half as much steam power again as the whole of western Europe.
- Collenette, Sam (June 2012). "From Bolton to Warwick.". Warwickshire Industrial Archaeology Society Newsletter. Warwickshire IAS. (45): 3.
- "Dom Afonso". Brasil Mergulho. Brasil Mergulho. 25 June 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Aspinall, Henry Kelsall (1903). "SHIPBUILDING IN LIVERPOOL". Birkenhead and Its Surroundings. Рипол Классик. p. 307. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
the leading shipbuilder in Liverpool was Thomas Wilson
- "Fragata a Vapor Amazonas". NAVIOS DE GUERRA BRASILEIROS. 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- Swiggum and Kohli, S. and M. (1997–2016). "Royal William of 1838". TheShipsList. TheShipsList - (Swiggum). Retrieved 19 October 2016.
built by Wilson & Co.
- "NILE". The Clyde Built Ships. Caledonian Maritime Research Trust. 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "ORONTES". The Clyde Built Ships. Caledonian Maritime Research Trust. 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "DON MANUEL". The Clyde Built Ships. Caledonian Maritime Research Trust. 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Burning of the Ocean Monarch". The Times (19952). 26 August 1848. p. 5.
- "Fragata a Vapor Afonso". NAVIOS DE GUERRA BRASILEIROS. 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Military and Naval Intelligence". The Times (22460). 30 August 1856. p. 10:col A.
- "ONE THOUSAND HORSE-POWER CORLISS ENGINE.". SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT. XI (286). 25 June 1881. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
and they have an order for a pair of horizontal compound Corliss engines intended to indicate 3,000 horse-power. These engines will be the largest cotton mill engines in the world.
- "MESSRS. HICK, HARGREAVES AND CO.'S HORIZONTAL ENGINE.". The Engineer: 61. 22 January 1886.
- "Hick, Hargreaves and Co". Grace's Guide. Grace's Guide Ltd. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- Pilling (1985), pp. XI, 118-119, 158, 193, 539-541.
- Clegg, James (1888). ANNALS OF BOLTON, HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, POLITICS, PARLIAMENTARY AND MUNICIPAL POLLS. Bolton: The Chronicle Office, Knowlsey Street. Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center. p. 199. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Pilling (1985), p. 452.
- Redfern, Diane. "Benjamin Hick". Diane Redfern ANCESTRY & FAMILY HISTORY. © 2009-2013 dianeredfern.ca. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- Membership records. Institute of Mechanical Engineers.
- Redfern, Diane. "Geoffrey Hick". Diane Redfern ANCESTRY & FAMILY HISTORY. © 2009-2013 dianeredfern.ca. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- Walford, Edward (1876). The county families of the United Kingdom; or, Royal manual of the titled and untitled aristocracy of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center: R. Hardwicke. p. 457. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Wilson (2001), p. 182.
- Wilson, J. F. (1988). "The Deptford experience". Ferranti and the British Electrical Industry, 1864-1930 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0719023696. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Halton (2001), p. 25.
- Hamer, Phil (November 2011). Jackson, Terence, ed. "ZEPPELIN OVER BOLTON" (PDF). UP THE LINE. Western Front Association: 2. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "EMPIRE RIDLEY(1941)". CLYDEBUILT SHIPS DATABASE. Shipping & Shipbuilding Research Trust. Archived from the original on 30 April 2005. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "EMPIRE GREY". TYNE BUILT SHIPS. Shipping & Shipbuilding Research Trust. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "L S T 3001". TYNE BUILT SHIPS. Shipping & Shipbuilding Research Trust. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "ZARIAN". TYNE BUILT SHIPS. Shipping & Shipbuilding Research Trust. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- Halton (2001), p. 40.
- Holman, Gavin. "Extinct Brass Bands (S-Z)". ibew (Internet Bandsman's Everything Within). Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Soho Ironworks 1". Bolton Library and Museum Services. Bolton Library and Museum Service. 1888. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Deptford 1889-1912. 30 July 1912. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
COMPARISON OF 10,000HP STEAM GENERATORS -1889 & 1912-
- Wilson, J. F. (1988). "The Deptford experience". Ferranti and the British Electrical Industry, 1864-1930 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 35, 41, 45. ISBN 0719023696. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Ferranti's Deptford Power Station". HISTELEC NEWS. South Western Electricity History Society. December 2003. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Thread: Galloways rolling mill engines". PRACTICAL MACHINIST.COM. Practicalmachinist.com. 2 January 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- Roscoe, Ian. "Historic Pictures". End of an Era 1832–2002. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "Hick Hargreaves & Co. Ltd.". history world. historyworld.co.uk. 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "400 HORSE-POWER DIESEL ENGINE". The Engineer: 210. 27 August 1920.
- Ed. J. Burrow & Co. Ltd, ed. (1961). The Book of Bolton. Ed. J. Burrow & Co. Ltd., Cheltenham and London. pp. 104–105. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Halton, Maurice J. (14 November 2002). "Firm is moving after 170 years". The Bolton News. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Roscoe, Ian. "Hick Hargreaves Present Day". End of an Era 1832–2002. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Hick Hargreaves demolition, Bolton". flickr. 11 November 2002. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "New store opens in a flash". The Bolton News. 26 March 2003. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Rowe, Joanne (4 September 2002). "Society saves a piece of history". The Bolton News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Linde sells BOC Edwards Archived 20 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Where We Operate". Edwards Vacuum. Edwards Limited. 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Chemical & Process Industries". Edwards Vacuum. Edwards Limited. 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Turner, John (2000). "Thomas Baron Pitfield 1903–1999". About our COMPOSERS. The Musical Times. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "LA CONDENSATION PAR MÉLANGE ET PAR SURFACE ET L'ÉJECTAIR BREGUET" (PDF). MAISON BREGUET. 1915. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Hick Hargreaves and Co". Grace's Guide. Grace's Guide Ltd. 1921. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Duvéré, Sébastien (2014). "BRÉGUET, UN TOURNANT VERS L'AVENIR" (PDF). Usine de Déville-lès-Rouen, 160 ans d'histoire industrielle. KSB S.A.S. (France): 8–9. Retrieved 6 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Electricity generator". MOSI - MUSEUM OF SCIENCE & INDUSTRY. Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester. 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Hick, Hargreaves & Co. Ltd. Vacuum pump. Brooklands Museum (Stratosphere).
TYPE RV 17, No. 2386, 1700 C.F.M., 25" VACUUM, 485 R.P.M., 82 B.H.P.
- Brooklands Museum caption. Brooklands Museum (Stratosphere).
THE PLANT ROOM: ...The Plant Room contained a number of vacuum pumps to replicate the low pressure at high altitude by sucking air out of the Chamber,...
- "The Stratosphere Chamber". Brooklands Museum. Brooklands Museum Trust Ltd. 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Ashmore, Owen, Industrial Archaeology of Lancashire, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1969)
- Christiansen, Rex & Miller, Robert William (1971). The North Staffordshire Railway. Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5121-4.
- Halton, Maurice J. "The Impact of Conflict and Political Change on Northern Industrial Towns, 1890 to 1990, " MA Dissertation, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Manchester Metropolitan University September 2001 [http://englishessaypartners.co.uk/data/documents/The-Impact-of-Conflict-and-Political-Change.pdf
- Lowe, J.W., (1989) British Steam Locomotive Builders, Guild Publishing
- Mathias, Peter, The First Industrial Nation, An Economic History of Britain 1700–1914, Third Edition, (London: Methuen, 1983)
- Pilling, P.W. (1985). Hick Hargreaves and Co., The History of an Engineering Firm c. 1833 – 1939, a Study with Special Reference to Technological Change and Markets (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). University of Liverpool.
- Saul, S.B. (1968). "The Engineering Industry". In Aldcroft, Derek H. The Development of British Industry and Foreign Competition, 1875 – 1914. London: George Allen and Unwin. pp. 186–222.
- Saul, S. B. (1977). Supple, Barry, ed. The Mechanical Engineering Industries in Britain, 1860 – 1914. Essays in British Business History. Oxford: Clarendon.
- Marshall, John (1978). "John and William Hargreaves, Benjamin and John Hick". A Biographical Dictionary of Railway Engineers. pp. 104, 112–3.
- Singer, Charles, (ed.), A History of Technology, Volume 5, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958)
- Singleton, John, Lancashire on the Scrapheap, The Cotton Industry 1945–1970, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)
- Timmins, Geoffrey, Made in Lancashire, A History of Regional Industrialisation, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998)
- University of Manchester, An Industrial Survey of the Lancashire Area (Excluding Merseyside), (London: HMSO, 1932)
- Wilson, John F. (2001). Ferranti: A History, Building a Family Business, 1882–1975. Lancaster: Carnegie.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to B. Hick and Sons.|
- Armley Mills Museum Benjamin Hick and Son beam engine in the Egyptian style c.1845, used for hoisting machinery at the London Road warehouse of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway
- Golburn Historic Waterworks Museum: B. Hick and Son horizontal Corliss engine built for Bell's Creek gold mine, Araluan, New South Wales 1866
- Forncett Industrial Steam Museum: Hick, Hargreaves and Co. 50 hp Corliss girder bed engine 1873 (No.303), used to power Gamble's lace factory, Nottingham
- Chauntry Mills, Haverhill: Hick, Hargreaves and Co. 120 hp non-condensing Corliss engine Caroline 1879, installed at Gurteen's textile manufactorary
- Bolton Town Centre: Hick, Hargreaves and Co. Corliss engine 1886 preserved at Bolton, used to run Ford Ayrton and Co.'s spinning mill at Bentham until 1966
- Lucien Alphonse Legros - eldest son of Alphonse Legros, entered Hick, Hargreaves works in 1887.
- Bolton Steam Museum: Hick, Hargreaves and Co. Ltd. Lancashire boiler front-plate 1906, previously installed at Halliwell Mills, Bolton
- The Clyde Built Ships: Empire Ridley 1941 (Ministry of War Transport), HMS Latimer 1943 (Petroleum Warfare Department)
- Tyne built ships: Empire Grey 1944 (Ministry of War Transport)
- Tyne built ships: Landing Ship, Tank (LST) 3001 1945 (Royal Navy)
- Frederick Glover LST (3): 1946 (War Office), 1952 (Atlantic Steam Navigation Company)
- Tyne built ships: Zarian 1947 (United Africa Company)
- Edwards Limited