|Subah of the Mughal Empire|
|•||Ceded to the Mughal emperor Akbar||1596|
|•||The Nizam of Hyderabad becomes the de jure sovereign of Berar||1724|
|Area||29,340 km2 (11,328 sq mi)|
|This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berar". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.|
The Berar Subah was one of the Subahs (imperial first-level provinces) of the Mughal Empire, the first to be added to the original twelve, in Dakhin (Deccan, central India) from 1596 to 1724. It bordered Golconda, Ahmandagar (both conquered 1601), Kandesh and Malwa subahs as well as the independent and tributary chiefdoms to the east.
Origin of name
According to the Ain-i-Akbari, the original name of Berar was Waradatat (the banks of Varada River).
Before the Mughal occupation, Berar was part of the Nizam Shahi sultanate of Ahmadnagar. It was ceded to the emperor Akbar by Chand Bibi in 1596, unable to stand against the imperial forces led by prince Murad. After this initial victory Prince Murad settled in Berar with Balapur as his headquarters. Near Balapur he founded a new city named Shahpur and constructed a beautiful palace for himself. As his relationship was deteriorating with Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, the commander of the army, Akbar recalled Khan-i-Khanan and sent his trusted friend Abul Fazl to help him. Murad died in 1598. After his death, Prince Daniel was given the charge as governor of Berar, Ahmadnagar and Khandesh, Khan-i- Khanan was sent along with Daniel. Akbar died in 1605.
In 1611, the southern provinces of Ahmadnagar, Berar and Khandesh defied Mughal sovereignty under Malik Ambar. Jahangir sent Man Singh and others to crush the revolt. Man Singh died a natural death on 6 July 1614 at Ellichpur. During Jahangir’s rule, Malik Ambar till his death in 1626 recovered a substantial part of the Deccan from the Mughals including Berar. In 1628, the first year of reign of Shah Jahan, Berar again came under the Mughal sway.
In 1636, the Mughal possessions in Dakhin (Deccan) were divided into 4 Subahs. Berar was one of them with Ellichpur as its capital and Gavilgad as its main fort. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of four Deccan Subahs for the first time and he occupied the post for eight years (till 1644). He was again appointed viceroy for the second time in 1653 and he remained in that post till 1657. During Aurangzeb’s reign, Berar was successively overrun by the Maratha rulers Shambhaji in 1680 and Rajaram in 1698. In 1720, Maratha Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath obtained the grant of the right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi from Berar from the Mughal emperor.
In 1724, when Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah declared independence, the existence of Berar as a Mughal Subah came to an end. It became (though nominally) a part of Nizam’s state.
The Royal Mughal family branch of Berar
- Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of padshah (Emperor) Mirza Azam
- Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
- Bulaqui Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
- Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
- Sardar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
- Qadar Baig Mirza, son of Aduli Baig Mirza
- Hatam Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
- Umrao Baig Mirza, son of Sardar Baig Mirza
- Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Umrao Baig Mirza
- Alam Baig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
- MuqadderBaig Mirza, son of Hasan Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Dr.Hasan Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Khaleeque Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince ADV.Wasique Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Saquib AlamBaig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince ADV.Anzar Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Fauwwaz Baig Mirza, son of Muqadder Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khaleeque Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mehboob Baig Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Qader Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Roshan Baig Mirza, son of Mehboob Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed, son of Mirza Abdul Razzak
- His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a. Mohammed Rizwan Mirza, son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
- His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran, son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza
- His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Arban Nizamuddin Rashidi son of Mohammed Gibran Mirza
MIRZA AZAM (alijah) s/o Aurangzeb(Subah BERAR Deccan) _______________(JAHAN ZEB BANU MOTHER d/o DaraShikoh& NadiraBanu)______ | | | | BEDAR BAKHT MIRZA JAWAN BAKHT SIKANDARSHAN MIRZA NAJIBUNNISA BEUM | MIRZA FEROZ BAKHT (ADLI BEG) |_______________________________ | | BULAQI BEG MIRZA ATIU BEG MIRZA |____________________________ | | ADULI BEGMIRZ GULAAQI BEG MIRZA |________________________ | | SARDAR BEG MIRZA QADAR BEG MIRZA ____________|_________________ | | UMRAO BEG MIRZA HATAMBEG MIRZA | | HASAN BEG MIRZA MEHBOOB BEG MIRZA_______________________________ | | | | QADAR BEG MIRZA ROSHAN BEG MIRZA _________|______________________________________________________ | | | | CHAND BEG MIRZA RAHMAN BEG MIRZA ALAM BEG MIRZA MUQADDER BEG Mirza
The area of the Berar Subah during Akbar's reign was 72,000 sq. miles. According to Ain-i-Akbari, its northern limit was Handia, the eastern limit was the fort of Vairagad near Bastar, the southern limit was Telangana and the western limit was Mahkarabad. Ellichpur was the capital of the Subah. The important forts of the Subah were Gawilgad, Narnala, Pavanar, Khedala, Manikdurg and Mahur. It was divided into 13 sarkars consisting of 242 parganas.
The sarkars and parganas of the Berar Subah (province) were:
|Sarkar (district)||No. of Parganas (tehsil)|
|Gavil||46; Ellichpur was the capital of Berar|
The jama (revenue assessed) from Berar in 1596 was 64,26,03,270 dams (Delhi). Land revenue formed the major part of the total income from the Subah. Other sources of income were zakat, customs, salt tax, khums, mint, currency, jiziya, escheats, presents, octroi, tolls and tributes. The coins current were tanka-i-Barari, dam and Rupee. One tanka-i-Barari was equal to 16 Delhi dams (but later raised to 24 dams) or eight Delhi tankas.
- Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, p.236
- "Wardha district e-gazetteer – administrative history".
- Mahajan V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.143
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 369
- Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, pp.236-9
- Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, pp.240-4
- Habib, Irfan The Agrarain System of Mughal India 1556-1707, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1999 ISBN 0-19-565595-8, p.462
- Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, p.239n
- Abul Fazl-i-Allami (1949, reprint 1993). Ain-i-Akbari Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.