Berbere (Amharic: በርበሬ bärbäre, Tigrinya: በርበረ bärbärä) is a spice mixture whose constituent elements usually include chili peppers, coriander, garlic, ginger, Ethiopian holy basil (besobela) seeds, korarima, rue, ajwain or radhuni, nigella, and fenugreek. It is a key ingredient in the cuisines of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Berbere also refers to chili pepper itself.
Berbere sometimes encompasses herbs and spices that are less well known internationally. These include both cultivated plants and those that grow wild in Ethiopia, such as korarima (Aframomum corrorima).
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- Gall, Alevtina; Zerihun Shenkute (November 3, 2009). "Ethiopian Traditional and Herbal Medications and their Interactions with Conventional Drugs". EthnoMed. University of Washington. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- Katzer, Gernot (July 20, 2010). "Ajwain (Trachyspermum copticum [L.] Link)". Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Gebreyesus, Y.; Koehler, J. (2018). Ethiopia: Recipes and traditions from the horn of Africa. Octopus. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-85783-562-8. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
- Zewge, K.; Mekonnen, M. (2015). Ethiopian Cookbook: Pinnacle of Traditional Cuisine. Xlibris US. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-5035-9041-0. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
- Bernard Roussel and François Verdeaux (April 6–10, 2003). "Natural patrimony and local communities in ethiopia: geographical advantages and limitations of a system of indications" (PDF). 29th Annual Spring Symposium of Centre for African Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-26.
This Zingiberaceae, Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen, is gathered in forests, and also grown in gardens. It is a basic spice in Ethiopia, used to flavor coffee and as an ingredient in various widely used condiments (berbere, mitmita, awaze, among others).