Coordinates: 39°07′N 27°11′E / 39.117°N 27.183°E / 39.117; 27.183
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View of ancient Pergamon theatre and city
View of ancient Pergamon theatre and city
Map showing Bergama District in İzmir Province
Map showing Bergama District in İzmir Province
Bergama is located in Turkey
Location in Turkey
Bergama is located in İzmir
Bergama (İzmir)
Coordinates: 39°07′N 27°11′E / 39.117°N 27.183°E / 39.117; 27.183
 • MayorHakan Koştu (AKP)
1,544 km2 (596 sq mi)
68 m (223 ft)
 • Density68/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zoneTRT (UTC+3)
Postal code
Area code0232

Bergama is a municipality and district of İzmir Province, Turkey.[2] Its area is 1,544 km2,[3] and its population is 105,754 (2022).[1] By excluding İzmir's metropolitan area, it is one of the prominent districts of the province in terms of population and is largely urbanized at the rate of 53.6%. Bergama center is situated at a distance of 118 km (73 mi) to the north from the point of departure of the traditional center of İzmir (Konak Square in Konak, İzmir) and lies at a distance of 27 km (17 mi) inland from the nearest seacoast at the town of Dikili to its west. Bergama district area neighbors the areas of three districts of Balıkesir Province to its north, namely Ayvalık, Burhaniye and İvrindi, İzmir Province district of Kınık and Manisa Province district of Soma to its east, while to the south it is bordered by Yunusemre district of Manisa Province and two other İzmir Province districts along the coast that are Aliağa and Dikili from its south towards its west. The district area's physical features are determined by the alluvial plain of Bakırçay River.


The name Bergama, as well as its ancient predecessor Pergamon,[4] are thought to be connected with the even more ancient Luwian language adjective "parrai" (Hittite language equivalent; "parku"), meaning "high" in the same vein as being the etymological root of a number of other ancient cities across Anatolia.[5] The ancient and modern Greek language form of the name is Greek: Πέργαμος. In Turkish language, it has been adapted to Bergama. The name of Pergamos derives from Perga (as keramos from kera=earth, clay), although a Turkish author Özhan Öztürk claims that Bergama means "high settlement/base" in Hittite language[citation needed], while Argoma (modern Suluova) in Amasya means "border settlement" at the Hittite-Kaskian border.[6]

General features[edit]

Currently, known for its cotton, gold, and fine carpets, the city was the ancient Greek and Roman cultural center of Pergamon; its wealth of ancient ruins continues to attract considerable tourist interest today, although its famous Temple has been moved to the Pergamon Museum, in Berlin, Germany.

Located on a promontory north of the Bakırçay river, 26 kilometres (16 miles) inland from the Aegean Sea, Bergama has a population of about 102,000. The ruins of the ancient city of Pergamon lie to the north and west of the modern city; Roman Pergamon is believed to have sustained a population of approximately 150,000 at its height in the 1st century AD.

Among Bergama's notable ruins are the Sanctuary of Asclepius (or Asclepeion), a temple dedicated to an ancient Greek god of healing, a Greek Theater, and the Red Basilica complex ("Kızıl Avlu" in Turkish) that straddles the Selinus River, a 2nd-century AD construction likely built by Hadrian. The town also features an archaeological museum.


The Attalid kingdom of Pergamon (colored olive) shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC

The city of Pergamon was the capital of the Attalid kingdom from 281 BC to 133 BC and then became part of the Roman province of Asia.[4] It remained under Eastern Roman rule in the Middle Ages except for Sassanid invasion in 620s, Umayyad invasion in 715 and Sultanate of Rum rule between 1074 and 1097. It was conquered by Karasids and then Aydinids in 1302. It was part of Ottoman Empire in 1337. During Ottoman rule, it was part of the Sanjak of Karesi between 1337 and 1868, in Saruhan one (Its centre was Manisa) between 1868 and 1877 and finally in İzmir one. From 1867 until 1922, Bergama was part of Aidin Vilayet. During the Turkish War of Independence, it was occupied by Greece on June 19, 1919, but came under Turkish control on September 14, 1922. The Greek Army burnt down the city while retreating in 1922.

Sights of interest within Bergama city[edit]

Kursunlu Mosque
  • Selçuk Minaret built in the 14th century
  • Çukurhan caravanserai built in the 14th century
  • Taşhan caravanserai built in 1432
  • Great Mosque of Bergama built in 1399
  • Şadırvanlı Mosque built in 1550
  • Zeus Altar (Now in Berlin Museum)
  • Acropolis - accessible by the Bergama Acropolis Gondola from the base station north east of the town[7]
  • Asklepion

Bergama is also known for its historic quarter, where old Ottoman houses in the traditional style are found.


Allianoi is an ancient spa settlement, with remains dating predominantly from the Roman Empire period (2nd century AD) located near the city of Bergama (ancient Pergamon) in Turkey's İzmir Province. The site is at a distance of 18 kilometres (11 miles) to the northeast of Bergama, on the road to the neighboring town of İvrindi.

One particularity of Allianoi is its being a very recent historical discovery. It was mentioned only once in the 2nd century by the orator and medicinal writer Aelius Aristides in his "Hieroi Logoi" (Sacred Tales) (III.1), one of the key sources for the knowledge on the science of healing as it was understood at that time. No other writer of antiquity nor any epigraphic finding known had referred to Allianoi.

Kozak Plateau[edit]

Country road in Kozak Plateau

Kozak Plateau (Kozak Yaylası) is a high plain at an altitude varying between 500 and 1,000 metres (1,600 and 3,300 feet) and starting at a distance of 20 km (12 mi) from Bergama center in the northern direction. The plain is a favorite regional excursion area, famed for its hand-made textile products and pine forests whose pine nut is also extensively exported.

Ovacık gold mine[edit]

Recently, Bergama also made headlines in the context of controversies based on environmental concerns over the gold mine in Ovacık village.[8][9]

Wind turbine manufacturing[edit]

LM Wind Power, a division of GE Renewable Energy, opened a wind turbine blade manufacturing facility in Bergama in 2017. The first blades it produced were used at the Bodangora Wind Farm in New South Wales, Australia.[10]

Bergama Carpets[edit]

Bergama Carpets

Bergama is also renowned for its high quality carpets. There are approximately eighty villages that still weave Bergama carpets. The history of carpet weaving in Bergama dates back to the 11th century - when Turkish migration started to the area. Bergama carpets have almost always been woven with wool - an attestation to the pastoral life style of the Yörük clans populating the area at the time.

Although the history of carpet weaving in Bergama dates back to the 11th century, most surviving carpets do not age more than 200 years - mainly due to their wool content. The oldest surviving Bergama carpets can be found in mosques in and around Bergama, as well as the archaeological museum in Bergama.

Bergama Festival[edit]

Between June 18–24, Bergama celebrates its annual festival "Bergama Kermesi", which is already running into its seventy-second anniversary. Bergama Kermesi is a major local event, generally celebrated with the attendance of Turkish celebrities, singers, players, poets, and writers.


There are 135 neighbourhoods in Bergama District:[11]

  • Ahmetbeyler
  • Akçenger
  • Alacalar
  • Alhatlı
  • Alibeyli
  • Armağanlar
  • Aşağıbey
  • Aşağıcuma
  • Aşağıılgındere
  • Aşağıkırıklar
  • Atatürk
  • Atçılar
  • Atmaca
  • Avunduk
  • Avunduruk
  • Ayaskent
  • Ayvatlar
  • Aziziye
  • Bahçelievler
  • Balaban
  • Barbaros
  • Bayramcılar
  • Bekirler
  • Bölcek
  • Bozköy
  • Bozyerler
  • Çakırlar
  • Çalıbahçe
  • Çaltıkoru
  • Çamavlu
  • Çamköy
  • Çamoba
  • Çamtepe
  • Çeltikçi
  • Cevaplı
  • Çitköy
  • Çobanlar
  • Çürükbağ
  • Dağıstan
  • Demircidere
  • Dereköy
  • Doğancı
  • Durmuşlar
  • Eğiller
  • Eğrigöl
  • Ertuğrul
  • Fatih
  • Ferizler
  • Fevzipaşa
  • Gaylan
  • Gaziosmanpaşa
  • Gazipaşa
  • Göbeller
  • Göçbeyli
  • Gökçeyurt
  • Gültepe
  • Güneşli
  • Hacıhamzalar
  • Hacılar
  • Halilağalar
  • Hamzalısüleymaniye
  • Hisarköy
  • İkizler
  • Ilgıncaber
  • İncecikler
  • İneşir
  • İnkılap
  • İslamsaray
  • İsmailli
  • Kadıköy
  • Kadriye
  • Kaleardı
  • Kapıkaya
  • Kaplanköy
  • Karahıdırlı
  • Karalar
  • Karaveliler
  • Kaşıkçı
  • Katrancı
  • Kıranlı
  • Kırcalar
  • Kızıltepe
  • Kocahaliller
  • Kocaköy
  • Koyuneli
  • Kozluca
  • Kurfallı
  • Kurtuluş
  • Maltepe
  • Maruflar
  • Muratlar
  • Narlıca
  • Okçular
  • Öksüzler
  • Örenli
  • Örlemiş
  • Oruçlar
  • Ovacık
  • Paşaköy
  • Pınarköy
  • Pirveliler
  • Rahmanlar
  • Sağancı
  • Sarıcalar
  • Sarıcaoğlu
  • Sarıdere
  • Seklik
  • Selçuk
  • Sindel
  • Süleymanlı
  • Talatpaşa
  • Tavukçukuru
  • Teğelti
  • Tekkedere
  • Tepeköy
  • Terzihaliller
  • Tırmanlar
  • Topallar
  • Turabey
  • Üçtepe
  • Ulucami
  • Ürkütler
  • Yalnızdam
  • Yalnızev
  • Yenikent
  • Yeniler
  • Yerlitahtacı
  • Yortanlı
  • Yukarıada
  • Yukarıbey
  • Yukarıcuma
  • Yukarıkırıklar
  • Zafer
  • Zağnos
  • Zeytindağ

International relations[edit]

Bergama is twinned with:[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Address-based population registration system (ADNKS) results dated 31 December 2022, Favorite Reports" (XLS). TÜİK. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  2. ^ Büyükşehir İlçe Belediyesi, Turkey Civil Administration Departments Inventory. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  3. ^ "İl ve İlçe Yüz ölçümleri". General Directorate of Mapping. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  4. ^ a b Stillwell, Richard; MacDonald, William L.; McAllister, Marian Holland, eds. (1976). "Pergamon". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton University Press.
  5. ^ Babaev, Cyril. "Common Anatolian Glossary". Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  6. ^ Hittite Parku "high" + huma(ti) “base/settlement" and Arguma erha “border" + huma(ti) “base/settlement" Özhan Öztürk. P Pontus: Antik Çağ’dan Günümüze Karadeniz’in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi. Genesis Yayınları. Ankara, 2011 pp. 438-39
  7. ^ "GD8 Bergama - References - Company - LEITNER ropeways". Archived from the original on 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
  8. ^ Managing cyanide: health, safety and risk management practices at Turkey's Ovacik gold–silver mine, Journal of Cleaner Production vol. 14, 8, 2
  9. ^ "European Court of Human Rights judgment on the Bergama Mine in Turkey" Mines and Communities, published 01-05-2001, access on 31-03-2012
  10. ^ Coffey, Brendan (2019-09-13). "Fresh Air: Turkish Turbine Blade Factory Invigorates Historic Town". GE Reports. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
  11. ^ Mahalle, Turkey Civil Administration Departments Inventory. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  12. ^ "Kardeş Şehirlerimiz". (in Turkish). Bergama. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2020-01-18.

External links[edit]