Berliner FC Dynamo

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Berliner FC Dynamo
BFC Dynamo - 2009.svg
Full nameBerliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V.
Nickname(s)Die Weinroten (The Clarets)
Short nameBFC
Founded15 January 1966; 55 years ago (1966-01-15)
GroundStadion im Sportforum
Capacity12,400
PresidentNorbert Uhlig
ChairmanPeter Meyer
Head coachChristian Benbennek
LeagueRegionalliga Nordost (IV)
2020-216th
WebsiteClub website

Berliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V., commonly abbreviated to BFC Dynamo or BFC, alternatively sometimes called Dynamo Berlin, is a German football club based in the locality of Alt-Hohenschönhausen in the borough of Lichtenberg in Berlin. BFC Dynamo was founded in 1966 from the football department of SC Dynamo Berlin and became one of the most successful clubs in East German football. The club is the record champion of East Germany with ten consecutive league championships from 1979 through 1988. BFC Dynamo competes in the fourth tier Regionalliga Nordost.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

BFC Dynamo began as a football department of SC Dynamo Berlin. SC Dynamo Berlin was founded as a sports club in East Berlin on 1 October 1954.[1][nb 1] As all clubs bearing the name Dynamo, it was part of SV Dynamo. SV Dynamo was the sports association for the security agencies. The president of SV Dynamo was Erich Mielke, at the time Deputy State Secretary of the State Secretariat for State Security, commonly known as the Stasi. Erich Mielke was a huge football enthusiast, who saw football as a way of aggrandizing East Germany and socialism.[4][5]

In order to establish a competitive side in Berlin, the first team of SG Dynamo Dresden and its place in the DDR-Oberliga was transferred to SC Dynamo Berlin. The team played its first match for SC Dynamo Berlin on 21 November 1954 against BSG Rotation Babelsberg. Political factors and pressure from Erich Mielke were probably the main reasons behind the relocation.[6][7][3][8][nb 2] The relocation was designed to provide the capital with a team that could rival Hertha BSC, Blau-Weiß 1890 Berlin and Tennis Borussia Berlin, which were still popular in East Berlin and drew football fans to West Berlin.[14][7][3][8]

Among the players delegated from SG Dynamo Dresden were Johannes Matzen, Herbert Schoen and Günter Schröter. The trio had only a few years earlier been delegated from SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Potsdam to SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden. SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden had been chosen as an ideologically acceptable replacement for the popular SG Friedrichstadt. SG Friedrichsstadt had been dissolved by the authorities after the 1949-50 DDR-Oberliga season and its place in the DDR-Oberliga was transferred to SV Detusche Volkspolizei Dresden.[15][12][16][nb 3] SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden soon became a dominant side in East German football and was reformed as SG Dynamo Dresden in 1953. The city of Dresden had two sides in the DDR-Oberliga in the 1953–54 season, as BSG Rotation Dresden (then BSG Sachsenverlag Dresden) had qualified for the league in 1950. Berlin had no representation in the DDR-Oberliga at the time, and this allegedly did not please the president of SV Dynamo Erich Mielke.[12] Berlin was the capital of the republic, and he thought it needed a strong football team to represent it.[5]

The team of SC Dynamo Berlin after winning the 1959 FDGB-Pokal, at the Bruno-Plache-Stadion in Leipzig.

SC Dynamo Berlin finished its first season on seventh place. The team was successful in the transitional 1955 season, but suffered relegation to the DDR-Liga in the 1956 season. SC Dynamo Berlin immediately secured promotion back to the DDR-Oberliga and later won its first trophy in the 1959 FDGB-Pokal. The team defeated SC Wismut Karl-Marx-Stadt in the two-legged final.[19] The first leg ended 0–0, but the second leg was won 3–2, with two goals scored by Christian Hofmann and one penalty goal scored by Günter Schröter. Günter Schröter was a key-player of SC Dynamo Berlin during the 1950s and early 1960s. He became second placed league top goal scorer in the 1955 and 1959 season. Günter Schröter scored all five goals for SC Dynamo Berlin in the 5–0 victory over SC Lokomotiv Leipzig on 10 May 1959.[20]

SC Dynamo Berlin had difficulties establishing itself in football in Berlin.[6] The team rarely drew crowds larger than 5,000 spectators at the Walter-Ulbricht-Stadion.[6] SC Dynamo Berlin had some success in the first seasons of the 1960s, with a second place in the 1960 season and an appearance in the 1961 FDGB-Pokal final. But the team found itself owershadowed by the army sponsored ASK Vorwärts Berlin, who had captured the league title in the 1958 and 1960 DDR-Oberliga and would go in to capture several more titles in the coming years.[10][11][21] SC Dynamo Berlin moved its home matches to the Dynamo-Sportforum after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961.[6] The average attendance dropped to 3,000 at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum in the 1962-63 season.[6]

The team of SC Dynamo Berlin in the 1960s was relatively weak.[21] The former Dresden players had started to age and the capable replacements were few.[22] The team was joined by Romanian-born forward Emil Poklitar from BSG Rotation Babelsberg in 1960. Emil Poklitar proved to be a very promising goal scorer during the 1960 DDR-Oberliga season, scoring 14 goals in 19 matches.[23] However, Emil Poklitar and teammate Rolf Starost defected to West Berlin after a friendly match against Boldklubben af 1893 at Idrætsparken in Copenhagen on 13 August 1961.[23][24] SC Dynamo Berlin became a lower table side by the 1962-63 DDR-Oberliga season and a second relegation would later occur.[22]

Günter Schröter (left), Horst Kohle of ASK Vorwärts Berlin (center) and Martin Skaba (right) during a match between ASK Vorwärts Berlin and SC Dynamo Berlin at the Walther-Ulbricht-Stadion in 1959.

A bitter dispute erupted between SC Dynamo Berlin and SG Dynamo Schwerin in 1965 over the delegation of three players from SG Dynamo Schwerin to SC Dynamo Berlin. The disparity between SC Dynamo Berlin and SG Dynamo Schwerin was significant. The wage bill of officials and players was 315,559 Marks at SC Dynamo Berlin in the 1964–65 season, compared to 19,428 Marks at SG Dynamo Schwerin in the same season. Local SED politicians and local SV Dynamo functionaries in Bezirk Schwerin aspired to transform Schwerin into a major footballing center. When SC Dynamo Berlin tried to exercise its right as a sports club to draw talented players from SG Dynamo Schwerin, they put up stern resistance. Erich Mielke and SV Dynamo were conscious of the mass appeal of football and the role of SC Dynamo Berlin in the reputation of the Stasi.[21] The delegation was eventually canceled, but the dispute caused antipathy between the two Dynamo clubs.[25][26][27]

East German football was reorganized in 1965–1966, when some football departments were made independent from their multi-sports clubs to create ten football clubs. These ten football clubs and SG Dynamo Dresden formed the elite of East German football. They were meant to provide stability to the game at the top level and to supply the national team with talent. Promising players would be ordered to play for them. As part of this reorganization, the football department of SC Dynamo Berlin was separated from the sports club in 1966 and reorganized as football club BFC Dynamo.[28][29][3][30][8] The football department of SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen was also disbanded, and joined with BFC Dynamo. The team of SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen was made the reserve team of BFC Dynamo, the BFC Dynamo II.

Founding[edit]

Berliner FC Dynamo was founded on 15 January 1966. The new club was presented by the president of SV Dynamo Erich Mielke in a ceremony before 1,400 guests in the Dynamo-Sporthalle in Hohenschönhausen in Berlin. Manfred Kirste was made club president and Erich Mielke was elected as honorary president.[6][31][32] The last part of the founding motto of the club read: "Berliner Fußballclub Dynamo - Our goal: Top performance - worthy representation of the capital of the GDR".[33] Club president Manfred Kirste was a native of Berlin. He was a graduated sports teacher and held the rank of lieutenant colonel.[34]

The club was formed as an elite club and would be developed inte the figurehead and flagship of East German football. The players were meant to become socialist heroes and the team was destined to compete on European level, boosting East German self-confidence and international prestige.[35][36][37][21] This was to be achieved through concentration of sports performance. The most influential sponsor association behind SV Dynamo was the Stasi.[38] Under the patronage of Erich Mielke and the Stasi, BFC Dynamo would get access to the best training facilities, equipment, coaching staff and talents.[35][39][3]

"Football success will highlight even more clearly the superiority of our socialist order in the area of sport."

Erich Mielke[4]

Delegation of football players and concentration of the best players in one team was common practice in East Germany and the Eastern Bloc.[nb 4] This was part of a sports system where talents and the best players were concentrated in centers of excellence or delegated to focus clubs.[40][35] The upper tier of elite clubs in East Germany had privileged access to talents within designated geographical and administrative areas and were able to establish structured programs for their development in special training centers and sports schools.[3][41] However, BFC Dynamo would be able to draw on talents from all parts of East Germany.[41][3][42]

The backing of a sponsor was crucial to the development of a team.[9] FC Vorwärts Berlin was sponsored by the National People's Army and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig was sponsored by the Deutsche Reichsbahn.[43] 1. FC Union Berlin was sponsored by the large state-owned combine VEB Kabelwerk Oberspree and initially also supported by the state controlled national trade union FDGB.[44][45] BFC Dynamo would receive personal, organizational and financial support from the Stasi.[46]

Football in East Germany was also a contested sphere. Many political leaders took a keen interest in football and used their connections and resources to promote their favorite team and boost the prestige of their region or organization.[47] Teams had been relocated and renamed, and players were delegated from one team to another, in accordance with political criteria, or due to machinations of powerful political leaders or interest groups at regional or central level.[48] FC Hansa Rostock was patronaged by the chairman of the FDGB and Politburo member Harry Tisch.[13][49] SG Dynamo Dresden would be helped to remain a top club by long term SED First secretary in Bezirk Dresden Hans Modrow and the head of the Regional administration of the Stasi in Bezirk Dresden Horst Böhm.[26][25] BFC Dynamo was considered the favorite club of the president of SV Dynamo and the head of the Stasi Erich Mielke.[50][37][51]

BFC Dynamo stood out among other clubs within SV Dynamo. The club was located at the frontline of the Cold war and was a representative of the capital of East Germany. This meant that the club had to be well equipped.[38] Erich Mielke would manage to ensure that some of the most promising talents in East Germany were concentrated in Hohenshönhausen.[40][35][8][51] BFC Dynamo would get access to 38 training centers (TZ) across East Germany, for the recruitment of talents. As a comparison, 1. FC Union Berlin had only access to six training centers, all of which were located in the Berlin area.[52] The club would also get access to a permanent training camp at Uckley in Königs Wusterhausen.[53]

Beginning and rise[edit]

BFC Dynamo finished the 1966-67 season on 13th place and was relegated to the second tier DDR-Liga. A match between SG Dynamo Schwerin and BFC Dynamo in Schwerin during the 1967–68 DDR-Liga season ended with disorder among home fans. Going back to the dispute over player delegations in 1965, feelings between the two clubs had been tense. But the decisive factor causing the riots was perceived manipulation of the game by the referee. BFC Dynamo would win the match narrowly by 2–1. A Stasi investigation revealed that a sense of injustice was shared also by members of the regional Stasi and that some members attending the game had either left the ground or followed the events passively.[21][27][25]

BFC Dynamo would dominate the 1967–68 DDR-Liga and immediately bounce back to the DDR-Oberliga. The club would initially struggle to reach the top of the league, before it finally captured a second place in 1971–72 season. But this period also saw SG Dynamo Dresden return to dominance. SG Dynamo Dresden had been severely weakened by the establishment of SC Dynamo Berlin in 1954 and also suffered relegation the same year. The club managed to return to the DDR-Oberliga in 1962 and won the championship in 1971. SG Dynamo Dresden would become one of the main rivals of BFC Dynamo, and the 1970s would largely belong to SG Dynamo Dresden, followed by 1. FC Magdeburg. But another rival would at the same time disappear when the Stasi outmaneuvered the army and FC Vortwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1971. Erich Mielke regarded FC Vortwärts Berlin as a competitor to BFC Dynamo in the capital, while his fellow Politburo member and SED First Secretary in Bezirk Frankfurt Erich Mückenberger anticipated a boost for the Frankfurt and der Oder region.[2]

BFC Dynamo reached the final of the 1970–71 FDGB-Pokal, but lost 2–1 to SG Dynamo Dresden at the Kurt-Wabbel-Stadion in Halle. The club then made its first appearance in the European Cup Winners' Cup in the following season. BFC Dynamo reached the semi finals of the 1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup, but was eliminated by Dynamo Moscow on a penalty shootout.

Wolf-Rüdiger Netz (center) and Rainer Wroblewski (right) during a match against 1. FC Magdeburg in 1975.

BFC Dynamo finished runners up in the 1971–72 DDR-Oberliga, and qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first time. The club reached the third round of the 1972–73 UEFA Cup, where it faced Liverpool F.C. The team managed a 0–0 draw in front of 20,000 spectators at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum, but suffered a 3–1 defeat at Anfield, with a single goal scored by Wolf-Rüdiger Netz.[54] The club managed only a sixth place in the following two seasons, but captured a second place in the 1975–76 DDR-Oberliga season. The team of BFC Dynamo was the youngest in the league with an average age of only 22,8 years.[55][6] The young team under coach Harry Nippert managed a goal difference of 67-24 during the 1975-76 DDR-Oberliga season.[6] Among the top performers were Reinhard Lauck, an attacking midfielder who had come from the then relegated 1. FC Union Berlin in 1973, and the highly talented Lutz Eigendorf who had moved up from the youth academy.[6] BFC Dynamo qualified for the 1976–77 UEFA Cup but was eliminated by Shakhtar Donetsk in the first round.

BFC Dynamo opened the 1976-77 DDR-Oberliga season away against city rivals 1. FC Union Berlin.[56] The match was played at the Stadion der Weltjugend in front of 45,000 spectators.[57] BFC Dynamo lost the match 0–1. The return match was played on 19 February 1977 and BFC Dynamo once again lost 0–1. These two losses would be the last defeats to 1. FC Union Berlin in the East German era.[56] BFC Dynamo would come to win 19 of the next 21 matches against 1. FC Union Berlin in the DDR-Oberliga and FDGB-Pokal.[58]

Jürgen Bogs became new coach on 1 July 1977. He had a background in the academy of BFC Dynamo and had led the junior team to a second place in the 1974 and 1976 East German junior championships (de).[59] Günter Schröter served as his first assistant coach.[60]

Golden era[edit]

The team of BFC Dynamo with club president Manfred Kirste, seen standing second from the left, after winning its first league title on 6 June 1979.

The 1978-79 DDR-Oberliga marked a change in East German football. BFC Dynamo opened the season with ten consecutive wins and finally captured its first league title in 1979. The title was secured after a 3–1 win against SG Dynamo Dresden in the 24th match day in front of 22,000 spectators at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark.[61] The team had managed an astounding 21 wins, four draws and only one loss. Hans-Jürgen Riediger became second placed league top goal scorer with 20 goals.

During a shopping tour in the city of Gießen in Hesse after a friendly match against 1. FC Kaiserslautern on 20 mars 1979, midfielder Lutz Eigendorf broke away from the rest of the team and defected to West Germany.[62][63] Lutz Eigendorf was one of the most promising players in East German football.[64] He was a product of the elite Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) "Werner Seelenbinder" in East Berlin and had come through the youth academy of BFC Dynamo.[63][65] He was often called "The Beckenbauer of East Germany" and was considered the figurehead and great hope of East German football.[66] Lutz Eigendorf was nicknamed "Iron Foot" by the supporters of BFC Dynamo and was said to be one of the favorite players of Erich Mielke.[67][66] His defection was a slap in the face of the East German regime and allegedly taken personally by Erich Mielke.[66][64][68] Due to his talent and careful upbringing at BFC Dynamo, it was considered a personal defeat of Erich Mielke.[65] Afterwards, his name would disappear from all statistics and annals of East German football.[67] All fan merchandise with the name or image of Lutz Eigendorf were also removed from the market.[64] Lutz Eigendorf would later die in mysterious circumstances in Braunschweig in 1983.[63][69]

Winning the league title in the 1978–79 season, BFC Dynamo qualified for its first appearance in the European Cup. BFC Dynamo eliminated Ruch Chorzów and Servette FC in the first two rounds of the 1979-80 European Cup. The team reached the quarter finals, where it faced Nottingham Forest led by Brian Clough. BFC won the first leg 1–0 away, with a single goal scored by Hans-Jürgen Riediger, but was eliminated on aggregate goals, after a 1–3 loss in front ot 30,000 spectators at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Sportpark.[70] Nottingham Forest would later go on and become champions. The win against Nottingham Forest away, made BFC Dynamo the first German team to defeat an English team in England in the European Cup.[71]

Hans-Jürgen Riediger during the match between BFC Dynamo and Hamburger SV in the 1982–83 European Cup at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark.

The success continued and BFC Dynamo won the league also in the following years. BFC Dynamo was set for a prestigious encounter with the West German champions Hamburger SV in the first round of the 1982-83 European Cup. The first leg was to be played at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Sportpark and many fans were looking forward towards the match. But fearing riots, political demonstrations and spectators expressing sympathies for West German football stars such as Felix Magath, the Stasi imposed restrictions on ticket sales. Only 2,000 tickets were allowed for carefully selected fans. Most seats were instead allocated to Stasi employees, Volkspolizei officers and SED functionaries.[72][73][74] BFC Dynamo managed a draw, but was eliminated after a 0–2 loss in Hamburg.

The players of BFC Dynamo had political training and were held under a strict discipline, demanding both political reliability, obedience and a moral lifestyle. No contacts with the West was allowed.[75][76][77] The players were also under surveillance by the Stasi. They would have their telephones tapped, their rooms at their training camp tapped and be accompanied by personnel from the Stasi during international trips.[78] The Ministry of Interior and the Stasi had employees integrated in the club and it is likely that some individual players were recruited as informants, so called Unofficial collaborators (IM), with the task of collecting information about other players.[79][78] During an away trip to Belgrade for a match against Partizan Belgrade in the second round of the 1983-84 European Cup, players Falko Götz and Dirk Schlegel defected to West Germany. With help from the West German Consulate general in Zagreb, they received false passports and managed to escape to Munich.[80][81][82][83] East German state news agency ADN reported that Falko Götz and Dirk Schlegen had been "wooed by West German managers with large sums of money" and "betrayed their team".[82] Although Falko Götz and Dirk Schlegen were labeled as "sports traitors", their defection had little effect on the team. According to Christian Backs, the team only received more political training, and there were no reprisals.[75] However, the loss of two regular players before the match against Partizan Belgrade was a challenge. Coach Jürgen Bogs decided to give then 18-year old Andreas Thom a chance to make his international debut, in replacement of Falko Götz. Andreas Thom would make a terrific debut.[82][81] BFC Dynamo won the match 2-0 and would eventually advance to the quarter finals.

BFC Dynamo faced Italian champions AS Roma in the quarter finals of the 1983-84 European Cup. Andreas Thom would be selected to the starting eleven in both legs. BFC Dynamo lost the first match 3–0 away at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome. The team came back and won the return leg 2–1 in front of 25,000 spectators at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark. Andreas Thom and Rainer Ernst scored one goal each.[84] However, BFC Dynamo lost the round on aggregate goals and was eliminated.

The team of BFC Dynamo celebrating the title after the 1983–84 season.

BFC Dynamo had a run of 36 league matches without defeat in 1982–1984, including the entire 1982-83 season. Only after one and a half years of dominance did FC Karl-Marx-Stadt manage to defeat the team in the seventh match day of the 1983-84 season. The last defeat had occurred against SG Dynamo Dresden in the 22nd match day of the 1981–82 season. Rainer Ernst became league top goalscorer in the 1983–84 and 1984-85 DDR-Oberliga seasons. BFC Dynamo managed to score 90 goals in total during the 1984–85 season, which stands as a record for the DDR-Oberliga.

BFC Dynamo had the best material conditions in the league and the best team by far.[85] But there had been controversial refereeing decisions in favor of BFC Dynamo in the league, which gave rise to speculations that the dominance of BFC Dynamo was not solely due to athletic performance, but also due to manipulation.[8] Allegations of referee bias was nothing new in East German football, and was not isolated to matches involving BFC Dynamo. Alleged referee bias as a source of unrest was a thread that ran from the very first matches of the DDR-Oberliga, and had caused unrest already back in 1950, when ZSG Horch Zwickau defeated SG Dresden-Friedrichstadt 5–1 in a match which decided the title in the 1949–50 DDR-Oberliga. Another example occurred when ASK Vorwärts Berlin defeated SC Chemie Halle away in Halle in 1960.[86][87][88] The home ground of 1. FC Union Berlin was closed for two match days as a result of crowd trouble over the performance of referee Günther Habermann during a match between 1. FC Union Berlin and FC Vorwärts Frankfurt in 1982. The police had been forced to come to the rescue of referee Günther Habermann.[48] German sports historian Hanns Leske claims that referees throughout the history of East German football had a preference for the teams sponsored by the armed and security organs.[88]

BFC Dynamo and its predecessor, SC Dynamo Berlin, was deeply unpopular in Dresden since the relocation of SG Dynamo Dresden in 1954.[89] And the club came to be widely disliked and even hated around the country for its privileges, and for being a representative of the capital and the Stasi. Because of this, BFC Dynamo was viewed with more suspicion than affection.[90][8] The sense that BFC Dynamo benefited from referee bias did not, as popularly believed, arise first after 1978. It had already existed for years, as shown by the riots among fans of SG Dynamo Schwerin during a match between the two teams in 1968. The disapproval was kept in check as long as the club was relatively unsuccessful, but complaints increased and feelings became inflamed as the club grew successful.[91][92] A turning point was the fractious encounter between BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden at the Dynamo-Stadion in Dresden on 2 December 1978. The match was marked by crowd trouble, with 35 to 38 fans of both teams arrested. BFC Dynamo won the match 3-1 and Hans Modrow, then SED First secretary in Bezirk Dresden, blamed the unrest on "inept officiating".[91][93][89] Fans of SG Dynamo Dresden complained: "We are cheated everywhere, even on the sports field".[48]

The privileges of BFC Dynamo and its overbearing success in the 1980s made fans of opposing teams easily aroused as to what they saw as manipulation by bent referees, especially in Saxon cities such as Dresden and Leipzig.[91] Petitions to authorities were written by citizens, fans of other teams and local members of the SED, claiming referee bias and outright match fixing in favor of BFC Dynamo.[91][94] Animosity towards the club had been growing since its first league titles.[95][96] The team was met at away matches with aggression and shouts such as "Bent champions!" or "Stasi swine!".[89][96] Fans of BFC Dynamo would even be taunted by fans of opposing teams with "Jews Berlin!".[95][50][67]

Complaints due to alleged referee bias accumulated.[85] The scandal surrounding alleged referee bias in East German football had so undermined the credibility of the national competitions by the mid-1980s, that Egon Krenz, the head of the Department of Physical culture and Sport of the SED Central Committee Rudolf Hellmann and the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) Secretariat would be forced to restructure the referee commission and impose penalties on referees for poor performance.[91] The DFV under its General Secretary Karl Zimmermann commissioned a secret study on the problems with referee performance and behavior in relation to the matches involving BFC Dynamo, SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig in the 1984–85 season.[85][97][98][nb 5] The study came to the conclusion that BFC Dynamo was favored and had gained at least 8 points due to clear referee errors during the 26 matches of the season.[99][100][101][102] The study spoke of "targeted influence from other bodies".[99][100][101] It found six referees that were suspected of having favored BFC Dynamo, including Adolf Prokop, Klaus-Dieter Stenzel and Reinhard Purz. It also found referees that were suspected of having disadvantaged SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, including Klaus-Dieter Stenzel, Wolfgang Henning and Klaus Scheurell.[98] The study found a direct advantage of BFC Dynamo in ten matches and a disadvantage of its two closest competitors, SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, in eight matches together.[88][85] The study showed that 45 yellow cards had been handed out to SG Dynamo Dresden and 36 to 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, compared to 16 yellow cards for BFC Dynamo, and that yellow cards had been handed out to key players in SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig prior matches against BFC Dynamo, so that they were banned from the next match.[103][104][85] DFV General Secretary Karl Zimmermann called for a suspension of Adolf Prokop for two international matches and recommended that several referees, including Adolf Prokop, Klaus-Dieter Stenzel and Gehard Demme, should no longer be used in matches involving BFC Dynamo, SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig. Karl Zimmerman also spoke out against the head of the referee commission Heinz Einbeck, who was a sponsoring member of BFC Dynamo.[98] The study even ended end up with Egon Krenz, who by that time was the Secretary for Security, Youth and Sports of the SED Central Committee.[98] Referee Reinhard Purz later received a suspension for the rest of 1985 and linesman Günter Supp received a suspension for three match days for their performance during a controversial match between BFC Dynamo and FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt on 26 October 1985.[105][98][100] Reinhard Purz had allegedly given BFC Dynamo an irregular goal and denied FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt a clear penalty. BFC Dynamo won the match 2–3.[98] A special review was also made of the final between BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden in the 1984–85 FDGB-Pokal.[100] As a result of that review, referee Manfred Roßner received a one-year ban from refereeing matches above second tier and assistant Klaus Scheurell was de-selected from the first round of the next European cup.[106][107][100][108] Manfred Roßner and his two assistants had committed an above-average number of errors during the final. The majority had favoured BFC Dynamo.[108] However, nothing emerged that indicated that Manfred Roßner had been bought by the Stasi. Manfred Roßner had been approached by the incensed DFV vice president Franz Rydz after the match, who took him to task for his performance with the words "You can't always go by the book, but have to officiate in a way that placates the Dresden public".[106]

1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig - BFC Dynamo on 22 March 1986.

The general disillusionment about BFC Dynamo stood at its peak during the 1985-86 season.[109] One of the most controversial situations occurred during a match between 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig and BFC Dynamo on 22 March 1986. 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig led the match 1-0 into extra time, when BFC Dynamo was awarded a penalty by referee Bernd Stumpf in the 94th minute. Frank Pastor converted the penalty and equalized. The episode, which was later known as "The shameful penalty of Leipzig", caused a wave of protests.[97][8] The DFV, under its General Secretary Karl Zimmerman, took action and Bernd Stumpf received a lifetime ban from refereeing. Two SV Dynamo representatives in the referee commission, Heinz Einbeck and Gerhard Kunze, were also replaced. The sanctions against Bernd Stumpf were approved by Erich Honecker and Egon Krenz in the SED Central committee.[110][85][97][88] However, Bernd Stumpf managed to send a new video recording of the match to Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR) in 2000. The video recording had originally been filmed by BFC Dynamo for training purposes and showed the situation from a different angle. The video recording showed that the decision by Bernd Stumpf was correct and that the sanctions against him were unjustified.[111][67]

It was later known that Adolf Prokop had been a Stasi officer, employed as an officer in special service (OibE), and that several referees, including Bernd Stumpf, had been Stasi informants.[100][112][47][91] But there is no proof that referees stood under direct orders from the Stasi and no document has been found in the archives that gave the Stasi a mandate to bribe referees.[47][113][114][93] The benefit of controlling important matches in Western Europe, gift to wives and other forms of patronage, might have put indirect pressure on referees to take preventive action, in so called pre-emptive obedience.[114][113][90][115][88] In order to pursue an international career, a referee would need a travel permit, confirmed by the Stasi.[88][98][116] The German Football Association (DFB) has concluded that "it emerged after the political transition that Dynamo, as the favorite club of Stasi chief Erich Mielke, received many benefits and in case of doubt, mild pressure was applied in its favor".[117] Adolf Prokop protests against having manipulated matches.[98] He was never banned from refereeing.[118] He points out that top teams are viewed with scepticism and claims to have never received threatening letters from angry fans.[98] Adolf Prokop was still invited to nostalgia matches for the East German national football team in the 2010s.[98]

"I can imagine there was referee manipulation due to the immense pressure from the government and Ministry for State Security. That could have made some referees nervous and influenced their decisions. But we were the strongest team at the time. We didn't need their help."

Falko Götz[35]

The picture that the success of BFC Dynamo relied upon referee bias has been challenged by ex-coach Jürgen Bogs, ex-goalkeeper Bodo Rudwaleit, ex-forward Andreas Thom and others associated with the club. Some of them admit that there might have been cases of referee bias. But they insist that it was the thoroughness of their youth work and the quality of their play that earned them their titles.[108][8][119][120] Jörn Lenz said in an interview with CNN: "Maybe we had a small bonus in the back of referees' minds, in terms of them taking decisions in a more relaxed way in some situations than if they'd been somewhere else, but one can't say it was all manipulated. You can't manipulate 10 league titles. We had the best team in terms of skill, fitness and mentality. We had exceptional players".[35] Also former referee Bernd Heynemann, who has testified that he was once greeted in person by Erich Mielke in the locker room at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion, said in an interview with the Leipziger Volkszeitung in 2017: "The BFC is not ten times champions because the referees only whistled for Dynamo. They were already strong as a bear".[121][122][123]

Although speculations on manipulation in favor of BFC Dynamo could never be completely eliminated, it is a fact that BFC Dynamo achieved its sporting success much on the basis of its successful youth work.[124][93][51][125] Its youth work during the East German era is still recognized today.[125] Its top performers of the 1980s came mainly from its own youth academy and junior team, such as Andreas Thom, Frank Rohde, Rainer Ernst, Bernd Schulz, Christian Backs, Bodo Rudwaleit and Artur Ullrich. These players would influence the team for years. BFC Dynamo recruited fewer established players from the other teams in the DDR-Oberliga than what other clubs did, such as SG Dynamo Dresden and FC Carl Zeiss Jena.[126] The only major transfers to BFC Dynamo from other clubs during its most successful period in the 1980s, were Frank Pastor from then relegated HFC Chemie in 1984 and Thomas Doll from then relegated FC Hansa Rostock in 1986.[40][127][128] These transfers would often be labeled delegations by fans of other teams, but Thomas Doll left Hansa Rostock to ensure a chance to play for the national team, and had the opportunity to choose between BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden, but wanted to go to Berlin to be able to stay close to his family and because he already knew players in BFC Dynamo from the national youth teams.[129]

Andreas Thom during a match against SG Dynamo Dresden on 6 April 1988.

BFC Dynamo won its tenth league title in a row in the 1987–88 season. The club also reached the final of the 1987–88 FDGB-Pokal and defeated FC Carl Zeiss Jena 2–0 in front of 40,000 spectators at the Stadion der Weltjugend, securing the double and winning its first cup title since SC Dynamo Berlin captured the title in 1959. The duo Andreas Thom and Thomas Doll, paired with sweeper Frank Rohde, were one of the most effective goal scorers in the late 1980s of East German football. Andreas Thom became league top goalscorer during the 1987–88 season.

The club was drawn against West German champions Werder Bremen in the first round of 1988–89 European Cup. BFC Dynamo won a surprising 3–0 victory home at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in the first leg, but was eliminated after an equally surprising 5–0 loss in Bremen. The return match would be known in West Germany as the "Second miracle at the Weser".

It has been rumoured that doping might explain the surprising results in the meeting. Researcher Giselher Spitzer claims that players of BFC Dynamo had been given amphetamies before the first leg.[130][51] The Stasi allegedly did not want to take this risk in the return leg in Bremen for fear of controls.[51] However, a more likely explanation for the surprising loss in Bremen is that the players of BFC Dynamo could not cope with the tremendous media pressure following their home win.[130] Roles had changed during the five weeks long break before the return leg. BFC Dynamo was pushed into the role of favorites, while Werder Bremen was given enough time to build motivation.[78][131] The match had high political significance. Erich Mielke had made it clear to the team before the return leg that "this was about beating the class enemy".[132] Players of BFC Dynamo had also been distracted from their match-day preparations by shopping opportunities.[130]

Coach Jürgen Bogs wanted to travel to Bremen two days in advance. This was denied by the Stasi and the player bus was only allowed to leve East Berlin on Monday morning.[131][132] The player bus then got stuck in West German morning traffic.[132][131] Instead of arriving at around 12:00 PM, the bus arrived at 3:00 PM in Bremen. The schedule of Jürgen Bogs could no longer be held, so the planned shopping tour was cancelled.[131][132] Werder Bremen General Manager Willi Lemke stopped by the hotel and instead offered a shopping tour for the next day, where players of BFC Dynano were given the opportunity to buy West German consumer goods at a "Werder discount".[131][133][134][135][136][137] Some sources suggest that he actually organized a sale at the player hotel were all kinds of goods were sold.[130][132] According to Jürgen Bogs, the player bus was completely stocked up with home appliances, televisions and consumer electronics when it arrived at the Weser-Stadion 90 minutes before kick-off.[131][132] There are allegations that this was purposely done by Willi Lemke for players of BFC Dynamo to lose their concentration.[133][136] Jürgen Bogs was forced to justify himself to the DFV the day after the defeat and would receive a reprimand. BFC Dynamo won the next match 5–1 against FC Karl-Marx-Stadt.[131]

Average home attendance fell from 15,000 to 9,000 during the 1980s.[85] Many fans grew disillusioned by the alleged Stasi involvement. Notably aggravating were the restrictions on tickets sales imposed by the Stasi at international matches, were only a small number of tickets were allowed for ordinary fans, with the vast majority instead allocated to a politically handpicked audience.[138] BFC Dynamo saw the emergence of a well organized hooligan scene during the 1980s, which came to be increasingly associated with skinheads and far-right tendencies in the middle of the 1980s.[95][8][67]

The new BFC Dynamo coach Helmut Jäschke, with team captain Frank Rohde on the right, during a match on 12 August 1989

BFC Dynamo saw a decline in the 1988-89 DDR-Oberliga season. The Central Auditing Commission of the Central Management Office (German: Büro der Zentralen Leitung) (BdZL) of SV Dynamo was authoritized by Erich Mielke to investigate the club. The Central Management Office had been aggrieved that the special position of the club had enabled it to escape its control. The commission now used the inquiry as an opportunity to cut the overmighty organization down to size.[21]

The commission was critical of inefficient use of resources, materialism, low motivation and lack of political-ideological education of players. As a solution, the Central Management Office assumed full responsibility over the material, political and financial management of the club in mid-1989.[21] Jürgen Bogs was removed as coach at the end of the 1988–89 season and replaced by Helmut Jäschke.[21][139] Helmut Jäschke had previously served as coach of the reserve team. Jürgen Bogs was instead given a role as head coach, which was a role equivalent to manager.[139] Former player Michael Noack would later complain that the BFC Dynamo had suffered from a triple management: the DFV, the Central Management Office of SV Dynamo and the Stasi, whereby a minority had ruled over the club.[140]

BFC Dynamo finished the 1988-89 DDR Oberliga as runners-up behind SG Dynamo Dresden. The team reached the final of the 1988-89 FDGB-Pokal, after eliminating 1. FC Union Berlin in the quarter-finals and FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt in the semi-finals. The team defeated FC Karl-Marx-Stadt 1–0 in front of 35,000 spectators at the Stadion der Weltjugend and secured its third cup title. As cup winners, BFC Dynamo was set to play the DFV-Supercup against league champions SG Dynamo Dresden. The DFV-Supercup was played on 5 August 1989 at the Stadion der Freundschaft in Cottbus. BFC Dynamo defeated SG Dynamo Dresden 4–1, with two goals scored by Thomas Doll, and won the title.

German reunification and insolvency[edit]

Starting with Andreas Thom being transferred to Bayer Leverkusen in December 1989, BFC Dynamo lost its best players to West German sides in the course of 1990–91. In 1990, the side was renamed FC Berlin in an attempt to distance it from its past. In the early 1990s a number of Dynamo clubs across East Germany, such as the professional ice hockey club SC Dynamo Berlin (today Eisbären Berlin) in 1992, eliminated its Dynamo names. However, due to the supporters' desire, in 1999 the club again took up its traditional name BFC Dynamo. Having lost financial and political support as well as its best players, the side fell to tier III play and later to IV or V division leagues. BFC Dynamo had to file for insolvency in 2001 but was eventually rescued by its supporters. The insolvency proceedings were successfully closed in 2004.

Consolidation and rise[edit]

Historical chart of BFC Dynamo league performance

Following its insolvency, BFC recovered to win the Verbandsliga Berlin (V) championship in 2004 and return to fourth division play in the Oberliga Nordost-Nord (IV, now V) where they settled in as upper-table side.

On 12 June 2013, BFC Dynamo won the Berlin Cup (Berlin Pokal) for a third time, beating SV Lichtenberg 47 1–0, thus qualifying for the national cup of the DFB, the DFB-Pokal.[141] The crowd of 6,381 set a new record for a Berlin Cup final.

The subsequent DFB-Pokal match against VfB Stuttgart took place on 4 August 2013 in front of 9,227 spectators. The stadium capacity of the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark had been limited and ticket prices had been increased due to requirements by the DFB. While Dynamo's Christoph Köhne came close after hitting the inner post in the 31st minute, Vedad Ibišević won the game for Stuttgart with goals in the 40th and 75th minutes (a penalty), resulting in a 0–2 defeat.

In the 2013–14 Oberliga season, BFC Dynamo won 15 out of the initial 16 games (while drawing against SV Lichtenberg 47). After 21 season matches, the streak was extended to 20 wins and one draw, effectively securing promotion to Regionalliga Nordost with a 25-point lead.[142] The club subsequently extended contracts with its key players and announced to move back to the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark for its Regionalliga matches starting with the 2014–15 season.[143]

Following promotion, BFC Dynamo finished the 2014–15 Regionalliga season in fifth place. During the season, coach Volkan Uluc was replaced by former Hamburger SV player and coach of SSV Jahn Regensburg, Thomas Stratos. Under Stratos, BFC Dynamo secured yet another Berlin Cup trophy, thus qualifying again for the DFB-Pokal. The crowd of 6,914 spectators during the 2015 cup final against Tasmania Berlin (1–0 victory) at the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark set another record for a Berlin Cup final.

The 2014–15 season marked the return of the club to live television (the DFB-Pokal cup matches against 1. FC Kaiserslautern in 2011 and VfB Stuttgart in 2013 were shown by German pay TV) with its Regionalliga matches against Carl Zeiss Jena and 1. FC Magdeburg being broadcast by Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk television.

The 2015 DFB-Pokal match was lost 0:2 against 2. Bundesliga side FSV Frankfurt. Rockenbach da Silva missed a penalty for BFC.[144]

René Rydlewicz, a former Bundesliga player who had started his career at the club, took over as BFC coach in May 2016. The Regionalliga seasons 2015–16 and 2016–17 brought mixed results. However, BFC secured another Berlin Cup trophy in 2017, thus qualifying for DFB-Pokal season 2017–18. FC Schalke 04 was drawn as first-round opponent for the match scheduled 14 August 2017. 14,117 spectators watched a 0–2 loss against Schalke 04.

BFC Dynamo finished the Regionalliga season 2017–18 4th and once again qualified for the DFB-Pokal. The club was drawn to play 1. FC Köln in the first round. Due to the loss of key players such as Kai Pröger, Denis Srbeny and Rufat Dadashov in 2017 and 2018 the BFC squad was significantly weakened and eventually lost 1–9.

In January 2019, Matthias Maucksch replaced coach René Rydlewicz but stepped down after the end of the 2018–19 season. He was replaced by Christian Benbennek.

Colours and crest[edit]

The traditional colours of BFC Dynamo are claret and white.[145] The colours were inherited from SC Dynamo Berlin and followed the claret colour scheme of SV Dynamo. BFC Dynamo has been playing in claret and white since the its founding, with the exception of a period in the 1990s. The home kit has traditionally been a claret shirt, paired with claret or white shorts and socks. The team is occasionally nicknamed "die Weinroten", which means "the Clarets".[146][147]

The club was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990 and subsequently adopted a new red and white colour scheme in the 1990-91 season. The club played in red and white home kits for most of the FC Berlin era, but wore a black and red striped home shirt, paired with black shorts and black socks from the 1996-97 season through the 1998-99 season. The club reverted to its original name on 3 May 1999 and consequently also later returned to its traditional colour scheme.[148]

The crest of BFC Dynamo during the East German era featured a stylized "D" for SV Dynamo and the lettering "BFC" in red and yellow on a white background, surrounded by a yellow wreath.[149][150] BFC Dynamo abandoned its East German crest when it was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990.[151][152][149] The club used two different crests during the FC Berlin era. The first crest featured a stylized image of the roof of the Brandenburg Gate with the lettering "FCB" underneath and the club name "Fussballclub Berlin" in white on a red background. It was only used during the spring of 1990. The second crest featured a stylized image of a football with the Brandenburg Gate on top and the lettering "FCB" and the club name "FC Berlin" in red on a white background.

BFC Dynamo reclaimed its East German crest when the club reverted to its original name on 3 May 1999.[152] But the club found out that it was no longer in possession to the crest.[152] The club had neglected to seek legal protection for its East German crest after German reunification. The neglect was likely due to managerial inexperience. Protection of trademarks was neither necessary nor common in East Germany.[149] The crest was now owned by Peter Klaus-Dieter Mager, commonly known as "Pepe". Pepe Mager was a famous fan of Hertha BSC and fan souvenir trader.[153] The club tried to recover the crest from Peper Mager though court action, without success.[152][149] The ownership of the crest was instead passed on to Rayk Bernt and his company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH.[154][155][156]

BFC Dynamo continued to use the disputed crest on its kits and webpage. But the club would have to ask the owner of the crest every time it wanted to have a pennant made and was unable to exploit the commercial value of the crest for its own benefit.[154][157] The legal situation around the crest would also have caused problems in the event of an advance to the Regionalliga, as the German football Association (DFB) required clubs to own their crests.[158] In order establish independence, the club finally decided to adopt a new crest in 2009.[159]

The new crest abandoned the traditional stylized "D" and the lettering "BFC", as they would have met legal challenges.[156] The new crest featured a black Berlin bear on claret and white stripes, together with the club name and the founding year.[156] The first version of the new crest sparked controversy. The word "fußball" in the club name had been written in lower case with a double "s" instead of the graphene "ß".[156] This was contrary to German spelling rules, where it is only permissible to write "fußball" with a double "s" when the word is written in upper case. Club president Norbert Uhlig ensured that there was absolutely no ulterior motive behind the spelling and claimed that the word had always been spelled like that on pennants and scarfes.[156] The chairman of the Economic Council Peter Meyer later claimed that the spelling was a deliberate marketing ploy, in order to have new crest immediately known across Germany.[156] A second version of the crest was soon made public, where the club name was written in upper case. The new crest has been used by BFC Dynamo since the 2009–10 season.[157]

Ownership of the former crest[edit]

Many clubs in East Germany rushed to drop their East German names during the Peaceful revolution. BFC Dynamo was among the clubs to do so, in an attempt to distance the club from the Stasi.[152][160] The club was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990 and consequently abandoned its East German crest.

Pepe Mager was a famous fan of Hertha BSC and fan souvenir trader.[153] He had organized away trips for the fans Hertha BSC already in the early 1960s, was one of the founders of the notorious supporter group "Hertha-Frösche" and sold his own fan merchandise from a mobile stand outside the Olympiastadion.[153][161][162] Pepe Mager inquired with the register of associations in Charlottenburg in 1991 about all deleted names of East German clubs.[153] He immediately found BFC Dynamo and saw business opportunities.[153][152] Pepe Mager claimed that he secured the former crest of BFC Dynamo for 80 Marks in 1992.[148][156]

The name FC Berlin never became popular with the fans.[160] Fans continued to identify themselves with the former name and crest.[152] An overwhelming majority voted for the club to revert to its original name at the general meeting on 3 May 1999.[148] BFC Dynamo thus reclaimed its East German crest, but found out that the rights now belonged to Pepe Mager.[152] Pepe Mager had registered the crest in his name at the German Patent and Trademark Office on 13 May 1997.[152][163][149]

BFC Dynamo contacted Pepe Mager for a co-operation, but an agreement could not be reached.[153][163] Pepe Mager held the opinion that the club should buy its merchandise from him, or simply buy the rights to the crest.[152] He later informed the club that he had received interest from foreign buyers and offered the club to buy the rights.[163] He claimed that the crest was worth 200,000 Marks.[152] BFC Dynamo on the other hand claimed that the crest should legally belong to the club and sued Pepe Mager in court, but eventually lost the case.[152][149] Pepe Mager was repeatedly exposed to minor threats from the environment around BFC Dynamo and eventually sold the crest to Rayk Bernt and his company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH in 2002 for a price of 50,000 Marks.[154][155][158][164]

Rayk Bernt was a close associate of André Sommer.[165] Both were long time fans of BFC Dynamo.[166][154][155] The duo was controversial for their connections to Hells Angels.[166][165] André Sommer and Rayk Bernt had assisted the club during the insolvency crisis in 2001-2002.[165][167][154] The duo no longer had much to say in the club by 2003.[168] However, André Sommer had his own child in the club and continued to sponsor the club for a few years, with personal financial contributions and minor sponsorship deals through his various establishments.[169][170] One such minor sponsor was the shop Odins Klinge, which belonged to the restaurant Germanenhof in Neu-Hohenschönhausen.[169] BFC Dynamo ended these sponsorship deals in 2006.[167]

Rayk Bernt and André Sommer were almost as restrictive towards the club when it came to the crest as Pepe Mager had been. Rayk Bernt organized the production of fan merchandise in his own regime.[155] The club would have to ask his company every time it wanted to have a pennant made.[154] Rayk Bernt and André Sommer usually agreed, manufactured the pennant and then sold it at their own fan merchandise stand at the stadium.[154] BFC Dynamo would at times be given ten percent of the revenues from the sales.[167][154][155][156] The club eventually offered 5,000 Euros for the crest, but was turned down.[167] Rayk Bernt demanded a seven-digit sum, according to former club president Mario Weinkauf.[167]

Rayk Bernt sold parts of the rights to the former crest to Thomas Thiel in 2007. The price was allegedly a six-digit sum.[154][156] Thomas Thiel was the owner of company Treasure AG and had been presented as a possible new major sponsor by then club president Mario Weinkauf.[154] However, Mario Weinkauf was ultimately rejected by club members in a vote of no-confidence at the general meeting on 23 June 2007.[171] He became club president at Tennis Borussia Berlin and Treasure AG instead became a sponsor of that club.[172]

Thomas Thiel sold his rights to the crest back to Rayk Bernt in 2009. The rights to the old crest are now fully held by the company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH as of 2021.[173][174] The company is controlled by Rayk Bernt, who sells occasional items with the former crest at his own webpage. BFC Dynamo sells its official fan merchandise with the new crest at its official fan shop.

Championship star[edit]

The German Football League (DFL) introduced a system of championship stars in the 2004–05 season. The system was meant to honor the most successful teams in the Bundesliga by allowing teams to display stars on their shirts for the championships they have won. The system awarded one star for three titles, two stars for five titles, and three stars for ten titles.[175] However, the system only counted titles won in the Bundesliga since the 1963-64 season.[176][53][177]

BFC Dynamo submitted an application to the DFL and the DFB on 9 August 2004 to receive three stars for it ten titles in the DDR-Oberliga. The club asked for equal rights and argued that the DFB had absorbed the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) with all its statistics, international matches and goal scores.[175][178][179][176] BFC Dynamo received support from SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Magdeburg in its attempts to achieve recognition for East German titles.[178][176]

The DFL responded that it was not the responsible body, but the DFB remained silent for a long time.[53] The DFB eventually declared itself responsible and recommended BFC Dynamo to submit a formal application for a new title symbol in accordance with a relevant paragraph.[176][53] BFC Dynamo sent a new letter to the DFB in January 2005. The DFB announced that the application of BFC Dynamo was going to be negotiated in the DFB executive committee.[53] The DFB presidium decided on 18 March 2005 that all titles won in East Germany, as well all others titles won in Germany since the first recognized championship in 1903, should qualify for stars.[180] However, there was not yet any final decision in the DFB executive committee.[181][182][183]

BFC Dynamo is allowed to wear one star inscribed with the number ten for its ten East German championships.

BFC Dynamo took matters in its own hands and unilaterally emblazoned its shirts with three stars.[181] The team displayed the three stars for first time in the match against FC Energie Cottbus II on 25 March 2005.[181] The claim by BFC Dynamo was controversial because the club had been the favorite club of Erich Mielke and had a connection to the Stasi during the East German era.[181][182][101][177] Critics in the DFB environment pointed to politically influenced championships in East Germany. BFC Dynamo had been sponsored by the Stasi and was given advantages.[53] The club had privileged access to talents and a permanent training camp at Uckley in Königs Wusterhausen. However, also other clubs in East Germany had enjoyed similar advantages, which put the DFB in a difficult situation.[53]

The DFL rejected the application from the DFB and recommended the DFB to only honor clubs that were champions in the Bundesliga.[184] However, the DFB chose to not follow the recommendation. The DFB presidium instead decided on a compromise solution on 19 July 2005 and adopted a new regulation for the 2005–06 season which gave all clubs the right to wear one single star for the championships they have won in the former East Germany and in Germany since 1903. Clubs were also allowed to indicate the number of championships they have won in the center of the star.[185][186][187] The regulation only applies to clubs playing in a league under the DFB umbrella. It does not apply to clubs playing in the 2. Bundesliga and Bundesliga, which are organized by the DFL.[186]

The new regulation meant that BFC Dynamo was finally allowed to emblazon its shirts with a championship star. The regulation also affected other former East German teams including SG Dynamo Dresden with its eight titles, 1. FC Frankfurt with its six titles and 1. FC Magdeburg with its three titles in the DDR-Oberliga.[53][187] BFC Dynamo has since then used the championship star in accordance with DFB graphic standards, displaying a star inscribed with the number ten for its ten East German titles.[188]

Stadiums[edit]

The long-time home and training area of BFC Dynamo is the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in Alt-Hohenschönhausen in Lichtenberg in Berlin. The Sportforum Hohenschönhausen is the location of the club offices and the base of the youth teams.[150] It is considered the spiritual home of the club.[150]

The Sportforum Hohenschönhausen was known as the Dynamo-Sportforum during the East German era. The sports complex was built as a training center for elite sport and was home to sports club SC Dynamo Berlin with its many sports, disciplines and squads.[189][190] Development began in 1954 and expansion continued into the 1980s.[191] The Sportforum Hohenschönhausen is still unique as of today.[192] The sports complex covers an area of 45 to 50 hectares and comprises 35 sports facilities as of 2020.[189][192][193][194]

A match between SC Dynamo Berlin and SC Turbine Erfurt at the Walter-Ulbricht-Stadion in 1959.

SC Dynamo Berlin played its first seasons at the Walter-Ulbricht-Stadion in Mitte.[6] The team moved its home matches to the football stadium in the Dynamo-Sportforum after the construction of the Berlin wall in the autumn of 1961.[6] The football stadium in the Dynamo-Sportforum was opened in 1959 and held a capacity of 20,000 spectators.[195][nb 6] The team drew average attendances between 3,000 and 6,000 spectators in the Dynamo-Sportforum in the 1960s.[208]

BFC Dynamo moved to the larger and more centrally located Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in Prenzlauer Berg at the beginning of 1972.[199] The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion had become vacant when FC Vorwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder on 31 July 1971.[209] The Dynamo-Sportforum would primarily serve as a training facility from then and the football stadium would be used mostly by the reserve team, the BFC Dynamo II. Neverless, BFC Dynamo played its home matches in the 1972-73 UEFA Cup at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum. The attendance of 20,000 spectators during the match against Liverpool F.C. on 29 November 1972 is still a record attendance for the stadium.[199]

A match between BFC Dynamo and BSG Chemie Leipzig in the Dynamo-Sportforum in 1966.

A permanent training camp for BFC Dynamo was built in Uckley in the Zernsdorf district of Königs Wusterhausen in Bezirk Potsdam in the late 1960s.[210] It was located in the woods and completely sealed off from the surroundings.[210][211] The training camp covered an area of around 10 hectares.[211] The complex was equipped with a boarding school, several football pitches, a sports hall, a swimming pool, a fitness area and a sauna.[212][213][214][211][215] The team would gather in Uckley days before its European matches.[6] The players would have access to catering facilities, a nearby lake, a bowling alley, a cinema and pinball machines, among other things.[214][215]

The team of BFC Dynamo at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion in 1987.

The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion was built in 1951 and had a capacity of 30,000 spectators at the time.[199] The team celebrated nine of its ten DDR-Oberliga titles in the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadium and played most of its home matches in the European competitions at the stadium. BFC Dynamo hosted teams such as FC Dynamo Moscow, Red Star Belgrade, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa, AS Roma and FC Aberdeen at the stadium in the 1970s and 1980s. The average home attendance of 16,538 spectators for BFC Dynamo at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion in the 1975-76 DDR-Oberliga was the highest average league attendance in club history.[6][216] However, all matches against local rival 1. FC Union Berlin was played at the neutral Stadion der Weltjugend from 1976, for security reasons.[217][218][48][87] BFC Dynamo also played its home matches in the 1986-87 DDR-Oberliga and the 1986-87 European Cup at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum, as the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion was under renovation during the 1986–87 season.[199] The current grandstand and the floodlights of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion dates from this time.[199]

FC Berlin returned to the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen for the 1992-93 season.[199] However, the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion would occasionally still be used for larger matches. The capacity of the Stadion im Sportforum is now reduced to 10,000 standing places and 2,000 seated places, of which 400 are roofed.[198] FC Berlin made plans to buy and redevelop the stadium in 1998 under club president Volkmar Wanski, but the plans did not materialize for a lack of funds.[219] The club also made plans to build a new modern stadium for 10,000–15,000 spectators in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in 2006 under club president Mario Weinkauf, but these plans did not materialize either.[220] The Stadion im Sportforum was refurbished during the 2005–06 season to increase security. The refurbishment included new fences and player tunnels.[221] Active supporters of BFC Dynamo are found on the Nordwall stand and in the Block D of the ”Gegengerade” at the Stadion im Sportforum.[216]

A match between BFC Dynamo and SV Babelsberg 03 on 23 April 2017.

BFC Dynamo moved its home matches to the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark following its advance to the Regionalliga Nordost in 2014.[199][222] The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion has a capacity of 19,708 spectators as of 2020.[223] Active supporters of BFC Dynamo are found on the grandstand and on the so-called "Gegengerade", which is the side opposite the grandstand.[216] BFC Dynamo had to play matches in the Stadion Im Sportforum in 2019 due to safety issues relating to the dilapidated floodlights at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion.[224] The move was greeted by some supporters as a move to the true home of the club.[225] And the club is set to return to the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in the 2020-21 season as the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion is planned to be demolished for a complete redevelopment.[150] The team will be able to continue play in the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion until 31 December 2020.[226]

Then German Football Association (DFB) has classified the Stadion im Sportforum as suitable for third division play, if only a few requirements are met.[199][227] But the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen suffers from a large investment backlog.[228] BFC Dynamo is cooperating with those responsible for the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen and the Berlin Football Association (BFV) to find common solutions for the most urgently needed construction work.[228] The Senate of Berlin is planning to invest €3 million in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen as of 2020.[227] The money is part of the budget for the demolition of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion.[227] Work began to equip the Stadion im Sportforum with a floodlight system in March 2021.[229] The club officially announced on 21 March 2021 that it has now returned to the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen, as the operating permit for the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion expired on 31 December 2020.[230]

Future stadium[edit]

The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion is planned to be demolished during the 2020–21 season for a complete redevelopment.[231] BFC Dynamo is planned to become one of the main tentants of the new stadium. The new Fredrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark is going to be multi-sports facility with 20,000 seats. The stadium will be designed as an inclusive sports facility and offer second division fit.[232][233] The new Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion is planned to be opened in 2025.[234]

Supporters[edit]

East German era[edit]

BFC Dynamo played only a minor role in football in Berlin until the relocation of FC Vorwärts Berlin to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1971.[216] The club initially had modest support. But with its growing successes in the 1970s, the club began to attract young fans, primarily from the central areas around the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, such as Prenzlauer Berg and Mitte.[8] Many came from working class families in Prenzlauer Berg.[235] One of the first big supporter groups of BFC Dynamo was Black Eagles. The fan club was founded in 1972 and was one of the earliest fan clubs in East German football. Fans of BFC Dynamo were the first to sew their embroidered fan club badges on their jackets. This was a novelty among football supporters in East Germany in the 1970s.[236]

The supporter scene became a focal point for various subcultures in the late 1970s and beginning of the 1980s.[237][238][239] There were punks, rockers, hippies and a few early skinheads.[237][216][240][241][74] Some were left-leaning and others were right-leaning.[237][241] Football and stadium life offered free spaces that were difficult for the authorities to control.[74] For some fans, being part of the supporter scene was an opportunity to rebel against the East German regime.[237] Most supporters of BFC Dynamo had little to do with the state. It was more important for them to protest, do their own thing and break out from everyday life.[216] Despite cheering for a club associated the Stasi, supporters of BFC Dynamo were not true to the line.[237] Many active fans in the 1980s were against the regime.[50][241]

"We provoked with chants and slogans. We were right, left, punk, hippie, skinhead. We were direct and provocative, kind and evil, in love, or drunk. Cool words were always well received. Right or left, I don't want to classify one. We were all in our fan group against the GDR, rebellion!"

- A fan of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s[242]

Young people were gradually attracted by the provocative image of the club: its reputation as a Stasi club, its successes and the hatred of opposing fans.[238][239] Some fans of BFC Dynamo found delight in the unpopularity of their club and took pride in the hatred they met.[241][243][31] One fan recalled that that 1980s "were my greatest years, as we always had glorious success in provoking other fans" and another one that "we were really hated by everyone".[243] Fans of BFC Dynamo would sometimes respond to the hatred they met by singing chants in praise of Erich Mielke as a provocation.[25] They could also throw tropical fruits that were only available in East Berlin, at home fans during away matches in Saxony.[67][240]

BFC Dynamo came to be associated with areas such as Prenzlauer Berg, Pankow, Weißensee, Hohenschönhausen and certain cafés and restaurants in vicinity of Alexanderplatz.[244] The supporter scene included groups such as Black Eagles, Norbert Trieloff, Bobbys, Iron Fist, Die Ratten and Berliner Wölfe in the 1980s. Fashion played a big role in the BFC Dynamo supporter scene.[31][241]

Football related violence spread in East Germany in the 1970s.[74][245] The supporter scene of BFC Dynamo was still young at the time, while clubs such 1. FC Union Berlin and BSG Chemie Leipzig had large followings.[31] A trip to Leipzig or Dresden was a difficult task.[216] Supporters of BFC Dynamo responded to the hostile environment, and learned to compensate their smaller numbers, by being more aggressive and better organized.[246][8][31][247] One fan of BFC Dynamo recalled: "It was really rumbling at away trips, and only then you felt your own strength. When we went with 200 people against 1,000 Unioners and you noticed: If you stick together, you have an incredible amount of violence."[248] Supporters of BFC Dynamo would eventually gain a reputation for being particularly violent and organized.[8] One fan of 1. FC Union Berlin recalled: "There was hardly an enemy mob against us, we were just too many. But the people who stood in the way of the violence-seeking BFC:ers were very few. The BFC:ers were completely organized. These hundred and fifty people, everyone knew each other. They stood as a block like a wall." [249] A saying among the supporters of BFC Dynamo was "We are few, but awesome!".[31]

The development in the supporter scene would eventually catch the attention of the authorities. The Stasi assigned a group of two full-time officers from the district administration to the supporter scene during 1982-83 season.[250] From then, supporters were accompanied, observed and documented.[251] This was a measure that had previously also been applied to the supporter scene of 1. FC Union Berlin.[67] The authorities had allegedly been particularly alarmed when supporters of BFC Dynamo unfurled a poster in memory of Lutz Eigendorf with the text "Iron Foot, we mourn you!" during a match at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in April 1983.[252][251][8] Supporters had also started a fan club in honour of Lutz Eigendorf.[240] The Stasi would try to control the supporter scene with a broad catalogue of measures: persistent talks, intimidation attempts, reporting requirements and arrests.[216][237] It would also attempt to infiltrate the fan clubs by unofficial collaborators (IM).[250] All football fan clubs in East Germany had to undergo registration.[74] According to Stasi information, BFC Dynamo had six registered fan clubs and 22 unauthorized fan clubs in 1986. Unauthorized fan clubs were those that were unregistered or did not meet DFV guidelines.[253]

The supporter scene of BFC Dynamo came to be increasingly associated with skinheads and far-right tendencies from the mid-1980s.[8] More and more supporters of BFC Dynamo began to embrace skinhead fashion in the early 1980s.[237][216] Skinhead fashion was now considered the most provocative outfit.[237] The club had become particularly popular in the growing skinhead movement by the mid-1980s.[31][nb 7] The reputation of BFC Dynamo as the hated Stasi club attracted skinheads, who used the club as a stage for their provocations.[238] Nationalist chants and Nazi slogans were considered the most challenging provocations, as anti-fascism was state doctrine and Nazism officially did not exist in East Germany.[259][74][8][237][260][150] For young people, being a Nazi was sometimes considered the sharpest form of opposition.[261] However, instances of Nazi provocations did not necessarily reflect genuine political convictions. At least some part of the "drift to the right" among East German youth during the 1980s was rooted in a desire to position oneself wherever the state was not.[262] One fan of BFC Dynamo said: "None of us really knew anything about politics. But to raise your arm in front of the Volkspolizei was a real kick. You did that and for some of them, their whole world just fell apart".[263][216][8]

A group of 100 to 150 skinheads and hooligans of BFC Dynamo marched through Pankow to the Stadion der Weltjugend for the match against FC Carl Zeiss Jena in the final of the 1987-88 FDGB-Pokal. They chanted fascist slogans and clashed with other supporters.[264] A group of 300 supporters of BFC Dynamo then attempted to invade the pitch during the victory ceremony. They caused extensive damage to 60 seats and 34 supporters were arrested.[262] The dislike against BFC Dynamo in stadiums around the country and the hatred of opposing fans welded its supporters together.[265] A unique hooligan scene with groups, structures and training rooms would emerge at the end of the 1980s.[247] A group of 500 hooligans of BFC Dynamo raided a gas station in Jena and attacked the Volkspolizei in connection to an away match in November 1989.[266][267][268] The disorder at the stadium would not cease and the match was eventually interrupted.[31] The riots in Jena caught rare attention by East German state media, which until then had been relatively silent about football related disorder.[31][237]

German reunification and hooliganism[edit]

Stadium attendance collapsed in 1990. Average attendance had dropped from 8,385 in the 1988-89 season to 1,076 in the 1990-91 season.[269][270][271] Many supporters stopped attending matches after the Peaceful revolution, as the best players were sold off to clubs in West Germany, sports performance slumped, tickets prices rose, mass unemployment spread and hooligans had come to dominate the stands.[67][272][150][273] Some shifted their focus to ice hockey instead.[274] Only young supporters remained in the stadium in the beginning of the 1990s.[67] The average league attendance of the 1990–91 NOFV-Oberliga was by far the lowest in the league history.[272]

Hooligans who had left East Germany for different reasons in recent years returned to East Berlin after the opening of the Berlin Wall and rejoined the hooligan scene.[275][276] Some were former skinheads who had been deported by the Stasi to West Germany in the late 1980s. Now they chanted "Mielke, we love you!" and "Who should be our Führer? Erich Mielke!" as a provocative fun, to the dismay of the club.[275][277] Supporters who returned from West Germany also brought back a new fashion based on designer clothing labels and expensive sportswear, which was adopted by the supporter scene.[275][265] While combat boots and bomber jackets were now common at many places in East Germany, some supporters of BFC Dynamo wanted to differentiate themselves. Expensive sneakers was now the new fashion.[216][276]

A wave of football hooliganism swept through East Germany in 1990.[67] The collapse of the East German regime resulted in a security vacuum.[278][272][279] The Volkspolizei was overwhelmed by the amount of disorder and often reluctant to use enough force, due to the political situation.[67][277][280] Supporters of FC Berlin, the name of BFC Dynamo since February 1990, rioted in central Jena before an away match against FC Carl Zeiss Jena on 8 April 1990. They smashed shop windows and windscreens of police vehicles with stones, and left a trail of destruction in the city center.[281] Supporters of FC Berlin stormed the opposing block armed with clubs and hunted down fans of 1. FC Union Berlin during a match at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 23 September 1990.[282]

Supporters of FC Berlin during an away match against FC Carl Zeiss Jena on 8 April 1990.

The situation peaked during a match between FC Sachsen Leipzig and FC Berlin on 3 November 1990. Supporters of FC Berlin travelled in large numbers to Leipzig for the match.[279] There were clashes at the Leipzig main railway station, with one police officer injured and 50 supporters taken into custody.[280][283] A first group of around 100 supporters of FC Berlin entered the Georg-Schwarz-Sportpark in time for kick-off.[279] Supporters of both teams tried to attack each other in the stadium and the Volkspolizei had difficulties in maintaining a buffer zone.[280] A second group of around 400 supporters of FC Berlin arrived later at the nearby Leipzig-Leutzsch S-Bahn station at Am Ritterschlößchen street.[279][280] Fireworks were fired as they made their way to the stadium.[284] The group was blocked from entering the stadium by police equipped with helmets and shields, despite showing valid tickets.[285][286][275] They were then pushed back by the police using tear gas and truncheons.[279][280][285] The group returned to the S-Bahn station and made an attempt to reach the stadium from the Pettenkofer Straße instead.[279] They were again blocked by police who immediately used truncheons.[279][284]

Riots broke out at the S-Bahn station.[279] The station building was vandalized and numerous cars were smashed or burned, including at least one W 50 police truck and one police car.[279][280][284][283] The police was allegedly outnumbered, although the high number of supporters of FC Berlin at the scene claimed by the police has been disputed.[284] Cobblestones were thrown at the police waiting at the Pettenkofer Straße.[279] The Volkpolizei now decided to use their firearms.[279] 18-year old supporter Mike Polley (de) from the locality of Malchow in Berlin was hit by several bullets and instantly killed.[275][276] Several others were injured and at least another three people were seriously injured.[272][280][285] One supporter of FC Berlin was hit in the head and suffered critical injuries, but survived.[275] Reports and sources vary on what happened on the scene and how the situation was.[280] The Volkspolizei had fired between 50 and 100 shots in about a minute, from 11 different police pistols.[280][285] Shots had been fired from distances as long as 30–40 meters.[280][284] The Volkspolizei had also fired at fleeing supporters.[284] Not every injured had come with the supporters of FC Berlin. Also an uninvolved woman was shot in the leg.[280]

After the shootings, some supporters of FC Berlin left the S-Bahn station by train.[287] Many were shaken, but other wanted to take revenge.[284] A group of supporters stopped a tram, kicked the driver out and maneuvered it down town.[275][279] Riots now continued in central Leipzig, where policed presence was low.[284] The riots in central Leipzig continued for several hours and the damage was extensive.[275][279][254] Supporters of FC Berlin devastated entire streets.[287] All shop windows on the Nikolaistraße opposite the main railway station were smashed.[283] There was rampage at the Park Hotel.[288][289] The ground floor of a department store on Brühl was destroyed.[289] Numerous cars were demolished and up to 31 shops were smashed and looted.[289][287][280] Supporters clashed with transport police at the main railway station. New shots were fired by the police, but no one was injured.[287][275][280]

Supporters of FC Berlin commemorate Mike Polley at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, during a match against HFC Chemie on 10 November 1990.

Mike Polley was considered a beginner in the supporter scene.[287] A demonstration against police violence with 1,000 participants was arranged in Prenzlauer Berg by supporters of FC Berlin after the match against HFC Chemie on 10 November 1990.[31][280][254] The demonstration was supported by the recently founded Fanprojekt Berlin.[280] The friendly match between East Germany and West Germany that was planned to be held on the Zentralstadion in Leipzig on 21 November 1990 was cancelled for security reasons and due to the tense situation among football supporters after the shootings.[275][280] An investigation against ten police officers was opened, but closed in April 1992.[280][254] The exact circumstances around the death of Mike Polley were never fully clarified.[286][290]

Matches involving FC Berlin were all security matches and the violent faction of FC Berlin would come to shape the entire 1990–91 season.[280][275] A group of 500-600 supporters of FC Berlin travelled with a special train to Rostock for an away match against F.C. Hansa Rostock in March 1991.[275][291] The police did not manage to control the situation despite a record strong presence of more than 600 officers.[291][292] Riots broke out in central Rostock, where supporters smashed shops, demolished cars and attacked people.[275][265][291] Supporters without tickets stormed the Ostseestadion and there were fights with supporters of F.C. Hansa Rostock around the stadium.[291] Riots at the train station after the match had to be suppressed with tear gas and water cannons.[291][275] The damage was again extensive. Up to 17 shops at the Wismarischen Straße were smashed and looted, the train station was devastated and the special train was vandalized.[292] Two police officers were injured in the turmoil.[291]

The hooligans of FC Berlin were the most notorious for years in Germany.[67] The youth television programme Elf99 on Deutscher Fernsehfunk (DFF) ran a special story on the hooligans of FC Berlin in August 1991. The story was called "Elf-Spezial: Das randalierende Rätsel – Der Berliner Hooligans zwischen Wahn und Scham?" and can be found on YouTube as of 2020.[293] An asylum shelter in Greifswald was attacked during an away match against Greifswalder SC 1926 on 3 November 1991.[267][294] This caused SV Hafen Rostock 61 to postpone its upcoming match at home against FC Berlin for security reasons.[295][294] Playing for meager crowds in regional leagues, the club also became a meeting place for individuals from the Berlin far-right, hooligan and criminal underground.[150][296] One of those involved in the assault on French policeman Daniel Nivel during the 1998 FIFA World Cup had connections to the hooligan scene of FC Berlin.[150]

BFC Dynamo had the highest number of violent supporters in Germany in 2005.[297] Police made a controversial razzia against the discotheque Jeton in Friedrichshain where supporters of BFC Dynamo and other people had gathered to celebrate in connection to a fan tournament in memory of Mike Polley on the night of 20 August 2005. The fan tournament had been visited by numerous teams, including teams from FC St. Pauli and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig.[298][299] The large-scale police operation involved 300 officers, including 100 members of the SEK.[300][301][302] 158 persons were arrested. Among the detainees were 19 Category C-supporters and 22 Category B-supporters.[303][301] Supporter filed numerous complaints against the police for the use of excessive violence.[304] 39 people at the discotheque were injured.[305] Also bystanders were affected.[305] Police initially claimed they had been pelted with bottles and furnishings, but later corrected their statement and admitted that there had been no resistance.[300][305][303]

Police stated that the razzia was a preventative measure on short notice to prevent hooligans from organizing for the upcoming match against 1. FC Union Berlin on 21 August 2005.[305][301] There were speculations that police also took revenge for riots during the match between BFC Dynamo and SV Yeşilyurt at the opening of the season, when supporters of BFC Dynamo had attacked the police with 13 police officers injured.[305][303] More than 1,000 police offiers were deployed to the derby and the match was played without crowd trouble.[301][302] The second match between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union in the 2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga season was played at the Stadion im Sportforum on 13 May 2006. The standing was 1-1 when supporters of BFC Dynamo invaded the pitch in an attempt to storm the block of 1. FC Union Berlin around the 75th minute. The match was abandoned and 1. FC Union Berlin was awarded a 2–0 win.[306][307]

BFC Dynamo has also attracted hooligans who are otherwise not affiliated to the club or active in the supporter scene to special matches.[238][308][309] Polish fans of Pogoń Szczecin were allegedly linked to riots during a match against Berliner AK 07 in the final of the 2009-10 Berlin Cup.[310][308] Stewards and players of BFC Dynamo threw themselves in to prevent further riots. Goalkeeper Nico Thomaschewski later received an award from the Berlin Football Association (BFV) for his actions.[308] Large scale riots occurred during a match between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Kaiserslautern in the 2011-12 DFB-Pokal on 3 July 2011, when supporters of BFC Dynamo stormed the block of 1. FC Kaiserslautern at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark.[311][312] Club officials openly expressed their embarrassment and disappointment over the behavior of some of its supporters and publicly apologized.[309] While the police stated that most of those arrested were from Berlin, the club claimed it had never seen most of them before.[238]

The contemporary supporter scene[edit]

The contemporary supporter scene contains various subcultures and categories of supporters. It ranges from older supporters to younger ultras.[235] Older supporters constitute an essential part of the supporter scene.[239] Many are active in the supporter group 79er.[308] The group is credited for its commitment to the club, notably the youth teams. Its members have been supporters of BFC Dynamo since the late 1970s.[308][216] But new groups of younger ultra-oriented supporters have emerged in the 2000s.[308][216] The contemporary supporter scene includes groups such as 79er, Mythos BFC, Fraktion H, Piefkes, Ultras BFC, East Company, Riot Sport, Black Boys Dynamo, Bärenbande and Gegengerade.[308][313][216][314] Gegengerade is a left wing-oriented fan club.[314]

The supporter scene played an important part in saving the club from bankruptcy in 2001. Supporters threw parties and organized collections, made donations and travelled to countries such as Austria and Switzerland to convince creditors to accept smaller pay-offs. This remains a defining moment for older supporters.[150] The supporter scene annually arranges the Mike-Polley-Gedenkturnier, which is a football fan tournament in memory of Mike Polley.[286][315] A march in memory of Mike Polley in Leipzig in 2018 was attended by 850 supporters of BFC Dynamo.[316]

BFC Dynamo is affiliated with Fanprojekt Berlin, which is an independent organization that engages in socio-pedagogical fan work.[239][317] Fanprojekt Berlin supports young fans in various aspects of life and aims at promoting a positive supporter culture.[317] BFC Dynamo engages in active fan work and has taken measures to control violent elements, exclude known violators and to distance itself from radical supporters.[239][309][318] Far-right symbols and slogans are not tolerated by the club.[239] A large number of stadium bans has been issued by the club since the mid-2000s.[319][309] 40 stadium bans was issued only in 2006.[319] The last riot occurred in 2011.[239]

Supporter group Fraktion H was founded in 2006 by younger supporters who wanted to create more atmosphere in the stadium.[308][216] A minor ultras scene then emerged with the founding of Ultras BFC in 2011. The ultras of BFC Dynamo have initiated campaigns such as "Brown is not Claret" and have also engaged in football tournaments for refugees.[296][216][318] The club has encouraged the new groups of younger supporters and club management has taken a stand against racism and right-wing extremism.[320][318]

BFC Dynamo had 100 Category C-supporters and 190 Category-B supporters in 2019.[321] Younger hooligans of BFC Dynamo have contacts with supporter group Kaliber 030 at Hertha BSC.[150][322] 20-25 supporters of BFC Dynamo joined Hertha BSC in the guest block of the Stadion an der Alten Försterei during the derby between 1. FC Union Berlin and Hertha BSC on 2 November 2019.[323]

One of the most well-known books in Germany about the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo is "Der BFC ist schuld am Mauerbau" by German author, and fan of BFC Dynamo, Andreas Gläser (de). The book was first published in 2002 and describes the supporter scene from the late 1970s and forward. The club, its reputation and supporter scene, was also the theme of stage play "Dynamoland" by Gudrun Herrbold. The play was set up in 2007 and involved young football players from BFC Dynamo as well as Andreas Gläser.[260][238][324]

Musicians from German rock band Klaus Renft Combo composed the anthem "Auf, Dynamo!" for BFC Dynamo in 1999.[325] German rap musician Joe Rilla (Hagen Stoll) (de) has also dedicated a song to BFC Dynamo. The song is called "Heb die Faust Hoch (BFC Dynamo Straßenhymne)" and was released in 2008. The clothing store Hoolywood on Schönhauser Allée in Prenzlauer Berg, founded in the beginning of the 1990s, is associated with the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo.[239][324][326]

Rivalries[edit]

SG Dynamo Dresden[edit]

The oldest rival of BFC Dynamo is SG Dynamo Dresden. The rivalry dates back to 1954 when the team of SG Dynamo Dresden and its place in the DDR-Oberliga was transferred to SC Dynamo Berlin. The relocation aroused a sense of victimhood among the fans of SG Dynamo Dresden which would later be compounded by the successes of BFC Dynamo.[25] Matters were exacerbated when additional players of SG Dynamo Dresden were delegated to SC Dynamo Berlin by the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) following the relegation of SG Dynamo Dresden after the 1962-63 season.[21]

A match between SG Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo in the FDGB-Pokal at the Dynamo-Stadion in Dresden in 1974.

The antagonism between the two clubs was underpinned by a historical German rivalry between Prussian Berlin and Saxony.[48][327] It was fueled by contemporary resentment in Dresden at the better provision of housing and consumer goods in the East German capital.[48] East Berliners were generally unpopular outside the city limits, especially in the southern districts of East Germany. They were considered arrogant and clearly preferred.[237] Fans of BFC Dynamo would be met by immense hostility during away matches in Dresden and could throw tropical fruits, that were only available in East Berlin, at home fans as a provocation.[25][67][240][237][nb 8]

SG Dynamo Dresden recovered from the relocation and was declared a regional center of excellence (German: Leistungszentren) by the district board of the DTSB on 5 August 1968.[329][330] The team re-established itself in the DDR-Oberliga and once again became campions in the 1970-71 season. SG Dynamo Dresden managed to capture a third league title in a row at the end of the 1977–78 season. What happened after is subject to various rumors. Formal title celebrations took place in June 1978 at the hotel and restaurant Bastein at Prager Straße in Dresden. Erich Mielke paid a visit as the president of SV Dynamo to congratulate the team to the title, and SG Dynamo Dresden player Reinhard Häfner recalls how Erich Mielke held a speech where he said that he would be happier if BFC Dynamo was champions. And according to other versions of the same event, he proclaimed that everything will be done so that in the coming year, the champion will come from Berlin, and that it was now the turn of the BFC Dynamo.[331][332][333][334][nb 9]

Thomas Doll and defending Matthias Döschner of SG Dynamo Dresden during a match between SG Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo in 1987.

BFC Dynamo benefited from a nation-wide scouting system, supported by numerous training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo across East Germany.[336][42] The team embarked on a period of unparalleled success in the 1978-79 season under coach Jürgen Bogs. SG Dynamo Dresden had been the dominant team in East German football until then. BFC Dynamo would now be its main obstacle to success. A meeting between the two clubs at the Dynamo-Stadion in Dresden on 2 December 1978 was marked by crowd trouble, with numerous fans of both teams arrested.[3] BFC Dynamo had won the match 3-1 and there were accusations in Dresden that the match had been manipulated by the referee in favor of BFC Dynamo.[3][91][93] This alleged manipulation was cited as yet another example of discrimination suffered by the Saxon city in comparison to East Berlin.[3][91]

Both clubs were affiliated to SV Dynamo, the sports association of the Volkspolizei, Stasi and customs. While BFC Dynamo was generally associated with the Stasi, SG Dynamo Dresden was associated with the Volkspolizei.[337] However, also SG Dynamo Dresden had its supporters in the Stasi.[338] The club was supported Stasi Major General Horst Böhm (de), who was the head of the District Administration of the Stasi in Bezirk Dresden.[26][25][338] Horst Böhm was a committed local patriot when it came to SG Dynamo Dresden.[26] And the rivalry between the two clubs also spread to the Stasi Guards Regiment "Felix E. Dzerzhinsky".[48][3] The behavior of members the Dresden unit during a match between the two teams in 1985 was likened to that of "rioting fans" by another Stasi officer.[48]

BFC Dynamo midfielder Bernd Schulz celebrates a goal against SG Dynamo Dresden in the DFV-Supercup.

Resentment in Dresden over the rise of BFC Dynamo was worsened when three top players of SG Dynamo Dresden, Gerd Weber, Peter Kotte and Matthias Müller, were arrested on suspicion of planning to defect to West Germany in 1981.[339][3] Gerd Weber had solicited plans to defect, but the other two had not.[340] Gerd Weber received a prison sentence and a lifetime ban from playing football at any level in East Germany, while Peter Kotte and Matthias Müller received lifetime bans from playing in the top two tiers for alleged complicity.[339][3][341] Neither would return to the DDR-Oberliga. The punishment against the three players led to rumors and protests in Dresden.[339] They also fueled local patriotism and anti-Berlin sentiments in Dresden. Supporters of SG Dynamo Dresden saw the lifetime bans as "an order from Erich Mielke" designed to weaken SG Dynamo Dresden.[339] Also Peter Kotte has claimed they were part of a delibate plan by Erich Mielke to weaken SG Dynamo Dresden.[342] However, such claims are doubtful.[342] The three players had been reported by an unofficial collaborator (IM) and Erich Mielke was convinced that all three were originally prepared to defect.[340][342] Peter Kotte was not an isolated case. The great fear of footballers, fans and officials who had fled East Germany was omnipresent at the Stasi.[343] Peter Kotte and Matthias Müller knew about the intentions of Gerd Weber.[339] Their failure to inform authorities was critical.[339] Matthias Müller said in an interview with Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten in 2011 that he "knew one hundred percent" that the uncompromising actions against the three players were a deliberate attempt by the Stasi to weaken SG Dynamo Dresden in order to secure the supremacy of BFC Dynamo.[344]

BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden would be the two main contenders for titles in East German football during the 1980s. Disturbances by spectators was a regular occurrence at matches between the two teams.[25] While BFC Dynamo dominated the DDR-Oberliga and won several consecutive titles, SG Dynamo Dresden had major success in the FDGB-Pokal. The two teams met in three finals of the FDGB-Pokal during the 1980s. SG Dynamo Dresden won all three meetings. BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden then met in the first ever DFV-Supercup in 1989. BFC Dynamo won the match 4-0 and became the only winner of the DFV-Supercup in the history of East German football.

BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden met 60 times in the DDR-Oberliga, FDGB-Pokal and DFV-Supercup between 1966 and 1991. BFC Dynamo won 21 matches and SG Dynamo Dresden won 27 matches. BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden also met 10 times in the Regionalliga Nordost between 1995 and 2000. BFC Dynamo won 3 matches and SG Dynamo Dresden won 5 matches. The last meeting ended 1-1 and occurred in the 1999-00 Regionalliga Nordost on 26 April 2000.

1. FC Union Berlin[edit]

BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin were founded only a few days apart. Both clubs were formed during the reorganization of East German football in December 1965 and January 1966 when ten football departments were reorganized into dedicated football clubs.[345] However, 1. FC Union Berlin was not part of the original plan. Two football clubs had already been planned for East Berlin. They were to be formed from the football departments of SC Dynamo Berlin and ASK Vorwärts Berlin.[346] In addition, TSC Berlin played only in the second tier DDR-Liga at the time.[345][346] The founding of. 1 FC Union Berlin probably owed much to the intervention of the powerful Herbert Warnke.[345][347][348] Herbert Warnke was the chairman of the national state trade union FDGB and a member of the SED Politburo.[345] SC Dynamo Berlin and ASK Vorwärts Berlin were both associated with the armed and security organs.[346] Herbert Warnke therefore argued for the formation of a civilian club for the working people of East Berlin.[345][346] Herbert Warnke would be a passionate fan of 1. FC Union Berlin.[349]

Both BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin belonged to the elite in East German football.[347][350] The new football clubs were intended as centers of excellence, with the right to draw on talents within designated geographical areas.[3][346] BFC Dynamo was supported by the Stasi, while 1. FC Union Berlin was supported by the FDGB.[44][351] However, 1. FC Union Berlin was able to trace its origins back to FC Olympia Oberschöneweide in 1906.[240] BFC Dynamo had no history before East Germany. The supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin therefore considered their club to be a genuine football club, unlike BFC Dynamo.[347] But for all its being a civilian club, 1. FC Union Berlin was also part of the sports political system.[50][352][353] The founding of the club was organized by the then SED First Secretary in Köpenick Hans Modrow.[354] Like Herbert Warnke, Hans Modrow would be a sponsoring member of the club.[44][354] The most important positions on the board of 1. FC Union Berlin were exclusively held by directors of state-owned factories or SED representatives.[353] 1.FC Union Berlin was state-funded and all decisions in club had to be reported to the all-powerful central sports agency DTSB.[352] The DTSB stood in turn under direct control of the SED Central Committee.[355]

The rivalry between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Began in the mid-1960s. It was initially based on the geographical proximity to each other.[356] BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union were two clubs from East Berlin in the DDR-Oberliga.[356] BFC Dynamo struggled during the 1966-67 season and was threatened with relegation. The fued between the two clubs began when fans of 1. FC Union Berlin mocked BFC Dynamo with a banner saying "We greet the relegated" during a match at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 26 April 1967.[357][351] 1. FC Union Berlin won the match by 3-0 and BFC Dynamo was relegated to the DDR-Liga.[357] BFC Dynamo immediately bounced back and managed to establish itself in the DDR-Oberliga. However, 1. FC Union Berlin would be the stronger of the two teams until the 1970s.[358] 1. FC Union Berlin surprisingly won the 1967-68 FDGB-Pokal but was also relegated to the DDR-Liga after the 1968-69 season.[347]

The rivalry between the two clubs intensified in the early 1970s.[356] The player of 1. FC Union Berlin Klaus Korn was suspended from all sports after a heated derby at Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum on 28 October 1970.[356][357] The performance of the referees had been "catastrophic" according to private notes from the then vice club secretary of 1. FC Union Berlin Günter Mielis and the match ended with riots.[356][359] Klaus Korn had insulted players in BFC Dynamo with slurs such as "Stasi-pig". The DFV Legal commission imposed a one-year ban on Klaus Korn after a circumstantial trial.[360][361] The DFV Legal commission also demanded that 1. FC Union Berlin considered his exclusion from the club. Klaus Korn was then excluded from the club and would never play in the DDR-Oberliga again.[360][361][356][357] Unrest broke out again at a derby in Hohenschönhausen one year later. Eight spectators were arrested after the match between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum on 28 December 1971.[362]

The football landscape in East Berlin changed before the 1971-72 season. FC Vorwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder on 31 July 1971. BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin were from now on the only major football clubs in East Berlin.[363] The relocation meant that BFC Dynamo could now take over the role of the dominant team for the armed and security organs in East Berlin. The team would have the opportunity to move into the larger and more centrally located Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, which led to increased interest in the club and growing attendance numbers.[356] The districts in East Berlin had previously been divided between BFC Dynamo, FC Vorwärts Berlin and 1. FC Union Berlin. Each club was able to recruit young players from training centers (TZ) in their districts.[346][353] All training centers that had previously belonged to FC Vorwärts Berlin were now given to BFC Dynamo.[346][353] The DSTB allegedly saw more potential in BFC Dynamo.[346] BFC Dynamo now had access to two thirds of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin.[353][364] This meant that BFC Dynamo had gained a much stronger position in East Berlin than 1. FC Union when it came to recruiting young players.[358] FC Vorwärts Frankfurt was given Bezirk Potsdam as a catchment area, in addition to Bezirk Frankfurt. Bezirk Potsdam had previously been assigned to 1. FC Union Berlin and thus had to be handed over to FC Vorwärts Frankfurt.[346][353][nb 10]

1. FC Union Berlin was relegated to the DDR-Liga after the 1972-73 season. The 1. FC Union Berlin star Reinhard Lauck was transferred to BFC Dynamo after the relegation.[365] The loss of Reinhard Lauck was a hard blow for the team. Reinard Lauck had contributed greatly to the victory in the 1968 FDGB-Pokal final and was well-liked among the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin.[365] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin are said to have gathered outside his apartment, to appeal to him to stay in the team and play in the second tier.[366][367] But Reinard Lauck had already decided to change team.[366][368] The DFV had allegedly advised him to switch to BFC Dynamo in order to continue playing in the national team.[365] Reinhard Lauck would make a successful appearance for East Germany in the 1974 FIFA World Cup and would win gold with East Germany in the 1976 Summer Olympics.[365][367] He would later also win two league titles with BFC Dynamo before ending his career due to a knee injury.[367][369]

1. FC Union Berlin would remain in the DDR-Liga for several seasons. The club would also suffer more blows which further weakened its position in relation to BFC Dynamo. Herbert Warnke died in 1975 and was replaced as chairman of the FDGB by Harry Tisch.[44] Harry Tisch had begun his political career in Rostock and chose instead to give the support of the FDGB to F.C. Hansa Rostock.[44] 1. FC Union Berlin thus lost the support of the FDGB and also no longer had any support in the top of the political hierarchy.[370] DTSB and DFV would continue their efforts to concentrate resources on a few clubs during the 1970s.[371] A number of football clubs were now designated as specially promoted so-called "focus clubs" (German: Schwerpunktclubs) through the football resolution (German: Fußballbeschluss) of 1970.[372][373][nb 11] The focus clubs would receive additional financial support from DTSB and other benefits.[376][377][372][373] They would have the right to delegate twice as many young players to their affiliated elite Children and Youth Sports School (KSJ) each year and would receive expanded catchment areas through the football resolution of 1976.[376][378][379] BFC Dynamo would be appointed as the focus club in East Berlin.[376][375][371][nb 12] This meant that 1. FC Union Berlin would have to delegate some of its best young players to BFC Dynamo.[358] One example was the talented Detlef Helms, who was delegated to BFC Dynamo in 1977.[353][350]

1. FC Union Berlin returned to the DDR-Oberliga in the 1976–77 season. Stadion an der Alten Försterei was a small football stadium without cinder tracks where the crowd stood close to the pitch.[347][368] 1. FC Union Berlin had become the focus of hooligan attention.[48] Matches at the Stadion an der Alten Föresterei had regularly been interrupted by spectators throwing objects on the pitch.[380] The derby between BFC Dynamo 1. FC Union Berlin was now such as heated affair that the matches were moved by the DFV to the neutral Stadion der Weltjugend in Mitte.[381] It was considered that safety could not be guaranteed with the larger number of spectators.[382][383][48][347] The Stadion an der Alten Försterei was known for its atmosphere and the Stadion der Weltjugend was located only a few minutes away from the home district of BFC Dynamo.[368][356] The move was therefore seen as a major disadvantage by the fans to 1. FC Union Berlin and further diluted their aversion to BFC Dynamo.[357][356][nb 13] 1. FC Union defeated BFC Dynamo 1–0 in front of 45,000 spectators at the Stadion der Weltjugend in the first meeting of the 1976–77 season on 4 September 1976.[57][217][56] 1. FC Union Berlin also won the return match on 19 February 1977.[56] The two wins against BFC Dynamo during the 1976–77 season cemented the reputation of 1. FC Union Berlin as a cult club and crowd puller.[385]

BFC Dynamo established itself as one of the top teams in the DDR-Oberliga from the mid-1970s. 1. FC Union Berlin would come to play second fiddle in East Berlin from now on and never finish higher than seventh place in the DDR-Oberliga.[386] In the shadow of BFC Dynamo, 1. FC Union Berlin would no longer have any major sporting significance.[387] 1. FC Union Berlin would become an elevator team that hovered between the DDR-Oberliga and the DDR-Liga.[386] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin saw BFC Dynamo as the highest representative of the security organs and the police, with privileges in player recruitment and financial support as well as the political clout of Erich Mielke.[347] This was supposedly in contrast to their own club, which they regarded as an underdog rooted in the working class.[347][48][388][240] BFC Dynamo would be disliked all over East Germany for its successes and its connection to the Stasi.[21][74][46] This was also reflected in the derby between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin.[74] The supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin were seen as oppositional.[74] This is illustrated in the famous sentence of the editor-in-chief of the satirical magazine Eulenspiegel: "Not all Union fans are enemies of the state, but all enemies of the state are Union fans."[74][389] But the fact that people supported 1. FC Union Berlin did not automatically mean that they were against the state.[50] 1. FC Union Berlin got a lot of sympathy as the weaker club.[50][390] There was a simple rule in East German football, where the least privileged club got the most sympathy.[67] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin cultivated the image of their club as the eternal underdog.[347][391]

Clashes between the supporters of the two teams became increasingly common in the 1970s. 1. FC Union Berlin had one of the most notorious followings East Germany at this time.[31] The supporters of. 1. FC Union Berlin often went to away matches in large numbers.[31] Fights were initially won by the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin. They were in the clear majority and could chase the supporters of BFC Dynamo from the streets.[351] A punch in the face and a stolen scarf was an experience for many young supporters of BFC Dynamo at this time.[368] But BFC Dynamo gained more and more young supporters with its growing successes in the late 1970s.[8] Many came from working-class families in Prenzlauer Berg.[235] The supporters of BFC Dynamo eventually began to appear extremely well organized and began to fight back in the early 1980s.[351][31] The tide now turned.[351] The supporters of BFC Dynamo would win all fights between the supporters of the two teams from now on.[368] Derbies at the Stadion der Weltjugend usually ended with a couple of hundred supporters of BFC Dynamo chasing the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin along Chausseestraße down towards the Friedrichsstrasse S-Bahn station.[392][31][393] The fights often continued on the side streets of Friedrichstraße.[393]

1. FC Union Berlin is often portrayed as an opponent of the system and matches between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin during the East German era are often hyped up as some kind of domestic political showdown.[394] But in fact, 1. FC Union Berlin was mostly a football club that struggled against unfavorable conditions.[394] The club would be disadvantaged by the state sports politics compared to BFC Dynamo.[394] Honorary president of 1. FC Union Berlin Günter Mielis has said: "Union was not a club of resistance fighters, but we had to fight against a lot of political and economic resistance over and over again. We got strength from our fans".[395]

1. FC Union Berlin would become known for a supporter scene that was anti-establishment, where people could vent their disdain for the system in the anonymity of a crowd.[386] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin also saw themselves as stubborn and non-conformist, but this should not be confused with actual resistance.[46] Provocation was part of football in East Germany and people shouted out anything, because it was possible to get away with it.[396] A critical attitude to the system was something that football supporters across East Germany had in common in the 1970s and 1980s.[397] Supporters of 1. FC Berlin from the era concede that it is an exaggeration to call the club a "resistance club".[398][350] A supporter of 1. FC Union has said: "With the best of intentions, Union fans did not contribute to the overthrow of the GDR. No way, we were interested in football. There is the cliche about the club for the enemies of the state, but that wasn't us".[399] There were no political groups among the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin.[400] For some supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin, the dissident reputation of 1. FC Union Berlin is a legend that was created after Die Wende.[398]

Most supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin were just normal football supporters.[396] Politics was not in the foreground.[350] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin from the era have testified that their support for the club had nothing to do with politics.[401] The club was the most important thing and the identification with 1. FC Union Berlin had primarily to do with Köpenick.[401][402] The rivalry with BFC Dynamo was fueled by local pride.[403] However, the political dimension was also there.[386] BFC Dynamo was supported by the Stasi, who were disliked by many.[386] But above all, it was the political instrumentalization of football that irritated.[404] The political favoritism of BFC Dynamo greatly contributed to the enthusiasm of the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin.[351] Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin embraced the image of the underdog fighting the odds.[381] An expression of the supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin was: "Better to be a loser than a stupid Stasi pig".[387]

The derby between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin was first and foremost a local football derby.[386] Both clubs had supporters who were not true to the line.[400][405][237] Also supporters of BFC Dynamo were observed by the Stasi during the 1980s.[406] East Berlin was divided into two. BFC Dynamo was more strongly represented in some parts, and 1. FC Union Berlin was more strongly represented in other parts.[351] Which team you supported was very much a question of where you lived.[31] BFC Dynamo was the local team if you grew up in Prenzlauer Berg.[407] If you lived in Mitte, you were more likely to be a supporter BFC Dynamo, as the home stadium was only a stone's throw away along Schönhauser Allee.[31] But Mitte was a contested area.[244] The border ran at Alexanderplatz, where many fights between the supporters of the two teams were fought.[351] The home districts of the two clubs, Hohenschönhausen and Köpenick respectively, were always dangerous territory for supporters of the other team.[351]

BFC Dynamo midfielder Bernd Schulz celebrating together with team captain Frank Rohde after scoring a goal against 1. FC Union Berlin at the Stadion der Weltjugend on 18 March 1989.

BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin met a total of 35 times in the DDR-Oberliga and FDGB-Pokal. BFC Dynamo won 22 meetings and 1. FC Union Berlin won 6 meetings. Matches against 1. FC Union Berlin was often won with big numbers in the late 1970s and 1980s.[357][120] BFC Dynamo defeated 1. FC Union Berlin with 1-8 and then 7–1 in the third round of the 1978-79 FDGB-Pokal.[357] Hans-Jürgen Riediger scored a hat-trick in both legs.[408][409] BFC Dynamo also defeated 1. FC Union Berlin 8–1 in the DDR-Oberliga on 13 September 1986. Andreas Thom, Frank Pastor and Christian Backs scored two goals each.[410] The 1980s was a crushing win for BFC Dynamo. Former BFC Dynamo midfielder Falko Götz concluded that: "Union was no opponent to us".[392] The two teams met 13 times in the DDR-Oberliga and FDGB-Pokal during the 1980s. BFC Dynamo won 11 matches and two matches ended in a draw. The matches between the two local rivals were hard-fought on the pitch.[217] Former BFC Dynamo midfielder Frank Terletzki has said that the victories against 1. FC Union Berlin were always the best.[120] But despite the rivalry between the clubs, it happened that players hung out outside of football.[411] Former BFC Dynamo defender Frank Rohde has said that players of BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin often gathered to have a beer together after matches.[217]

There were several transfers between the two clubs. BFC Dynamo recruited some of the best players of 1. FC Union Berlin, such as Reinard Lauck in 1973, Detlef Helms in 1977 and Waldemar Ksienzyk in 1984.[357][350] But there were also transfers in the other direction. 1. FC Union Berlin recruited several players from BFC Dynamo, such as Rainer Rohde in 1975, Olaf Seier in 1983, Ralf Sträßer in 1984, Olaf Hirsch in 1986, Norbert Trieloff in 1987 and Mario Maek in 1988.[56][350][217] 1. FC Union Berlin recruited a couple of players from BFC Dynamo in the 1980s who did some of their best seasons at 1. FC Union Berlin.[126][368] Olaf Seier became the team captain of 1. FC Union Berlin and Ralf Sträßer became first and only player in 1. FC Union Berlin to ever become league top goal scorer during the East German era.[353] Mario Maek saved 1. FC Union Berlin from relegation with a late 3-2 goal against FC Karl-Marx-Stadt in the final round of the 1987-88 DDR-Oberliga.[350][412] As many as three former players from BFC Dynamo were involved in the winning goal for 1. FC Union Berlin.[412]

Supporters of FC Berlin during a match against 1. FC Union Berlin at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 23 September 1990.

1. FC Union Berlin played in the DDR-Liga in the 1989–90 season. FC Berlin and 1. FC Union Berlin met in the FDGB-Pokal on 23 September 1990. It was the first match between the teams since the fall of the Berlin Wall. BFC Dynamo, now named FC Berlin, had lost most of its former top-performers to the West German Bundesliga.[413][282] 1. FC Union Berlin won the match 2–1 on extra time and hooligans from FC Berlin stormed the home stands at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei.[282] FC Berlin and 1. FC Union Berlin then met in the promotion round to the 2. Bundesliga in the 1990-91 and 1991-92 season. FC Berlin won three matches and 1. FC Union Berlin won one match. The teams met 12 times in Regionalliga Nordost between 1995 and 2000. BFC Dynamo won one match and 1. FC Union Berlin won eight matches. The most recent meetings between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin occurred in the 2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord. The first meeting was played at Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 21 August 2015. More than 1,000 police officers were deployed to the match.[392] BFC Dynamo lost 8–0.[350] German police and members of the SEK had carried out a controversial razzia against supporters of BFC Dynamo the night before the match.[305] Club management initially considered withdrawing from the match. The players had voted on whether or not to play the match against 1. FC Union Berlin.[300] The second meeting was played at Stadion im Sportforum on 13 May 2006. The score was 1-1 when supporters of BFC Dynamo stormed the pitch to attack supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin. The match was abandoned and 1. FC Union Berlin was awarded a 2–0 victory.[306][307] The teams has not met since then.

BFC Dynamo met the reserve team of 1. FC Union Berlin, the 1. FC Union Berlin II, 6 times in the NOFV-Oberliga Nord and Regionalliga Nordost between 2010 and 2015. 1. FC Union Berlin II won the first five matches. The last match was played on 15 March 2015. BFC Dynamo defeated 1. FC Union Berlin II 1–0 in front of 8,169 spectators at Stadion an der Alten Försterei. The game was interrupted when supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin tried to the attack the guest supporters.[414][415][357] 112 police officers were injured in the turmoil and 175 supporters were arrested.[414][357] The reserve team 1. FC Union Berlin II was dissolved after the season. There have been several cases of violence between the supporters of the two teams during the 2010s.[416] Around a hundred hooligans from 1. FC Union Berlin tried to attack a senior tournament organized by BFC Dynamo in the Dynamo-Sporthalle on 30 January 2010.[417][418][419][308] Also women and children got in the way of the attack.[419] Around 30 partially masked supporters from 1. FC Union Berlin attacked players and a small group of supporters of BFC Dynamo in connection with a senior match between 1. FC Union and BFC Dynamo on Hämmerlingstraße in Köpenick on 27 March 2015.[420][357][416] One player of BFC Dynamo and two guest spectators were injured.[357] A number of supporters of BFC Dynamo joined Hertha BSC on the guest block of the Stadion an der Alten Försterei during the derby between 1. FC Union Berlin and Hertha BSC on 2 November 2019.[323]

Organization[edit]

Current board and management[edit]

As of 27 July 2020 [421][422][423]
Berliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V.
Presidium
Member Position
Norbert Uhlig President
Karsten Valentin Vice president
Sven Radicke Treasurer
Economic Council
Member Position
Peter Meyer Chairman
Falk Stoltmann Member
Dennis Wisbar Member
Other officials
Name Position
Rainer Lüdtke Fan representative
Sebastian Stauch Representative for fans with disabilities
Sven Franke Head of youth department
Mike Fidorra Security officer
Martin Richter Spokesperson

Presidential history[edit]

No. Name Period Notes
1 East Germany Manfred Kirste 1966-1988 [nb 14]
2 East Germany Herbert Krafft 1988-1990
3 East Germany Jürgen Bogs 1990-1990 [nb 15]
4 East Germany Dr. Klaus Janz 1990-1990 [nb 16]
5 Germany Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich 1990-1994 [nb 17]
6 Germany Eberhard Landmann 1994-1995 [nb 18]
7 Germany Klaus Bittroff 1995-1995 [nb 19]
8 Germany Volkmar Wanski 1995-2000 [nb 20]
9 Germany Hans Reker 2000-2000 [nb 21]
10 Germany Karin Halsch 2000-2001 [nb 22]
11 Germany Hans Reker 2001-2001 [nb 23]
12 Germany André Sommer 2001-2002 [nb 24]
13 Germany Mike Peters 2002-2004 [nb 25]
14 Germany Mario Weinkauf 2004-2007 [nb 26]
15 Germany Frank Berton 2007-2008 [nb 27]
16 Germany Norbert Uhlig 2008- [nb 28]

Players[edit]

Current squad[edit]

As of 9 January 2021[447]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Germany GER Damian Schobert
2 DF Germany GER Tyson Richter
4 DF Germany GER Michael Blum
5 MF Germany GER Marcel Stutter
7 MF Germany GER Philip Schulz
8 MF Germany GER Andreas Pollasch
10 MF Germany GER Ronny Garbuschewski
11 FW Kosovo KVX Valentin Zalli
13 DF Germany GER Chris Reher
14 MF Germany GER Joey Breitfeld
17 DF Germany GER Marvin Kleihs
No. Pos. Nation Player
18 MF Germany GER Alexander Siebeck
19 MF Kosovo KVX Erolind Krasniqi
23 FW Germany GER Benjamin Förster
24 MF Germany GER Jonas Zickert
27 FW Hungary HUN Andor Bolyki
37 FW Germany GER Matthias Steinborn
79 GK Germany GER Kevin Sommer

Notable past players[edit]

Goalkeeper Bodo Rudwaleit played 313 professional league matches for BFC Dynamo between 1976 and 1990.

Many players of BFC Dynamo of the 1970s and 1980s played for the East German national football team. Some would later become players or coaches in the Bundesliga and play for German national football team.

The list includes players with 100 appearances for SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo at professional level and who have also played for the national team. The flag inficates the national team they last played for. The players are sorted chronologically.

Coaches[edit]

Current staff[edit]

As of 29 August 2020[448][449]
Coaching staff
Germany Christian Benbennek Head coach
Germany Christof Reimann Assistant coach
Germany Thorsten Wiese Goalkeeping coach
Medical department
Germany Adrian Marklowski Physiotherapist
Sport management and organisation
Germany Jörn Lenz Team manager
Germany Frank Radicke Kit manager
Germany Stefan Malchow Kit manager
Germany Thomas Hayn Kit manager

Coach history[edit]

Jürgen Bogs was coach from 1 July 1977 to 30 June 1989 and led BFC Dynamo to ten consecutive league titles.

SC Dynamo Berlin had six different coaches until the founding of BFC Dynamo in 1966. The first coach was Helmut Petzold, who was delegated along with the team of SG Dynamo Dresden to SC Dynamo Berlin and took office on 21 November 1954. Other coaches of SC Dynamo Berlin were Istvan Orczifalvi, Fritz Bachmann, János Gyarmati and Fritz Gödicke. Fritz Bachmann served as coach of SC Dynamo Berlin during the successful 1959 season.

No. Coach Period Notes
1 East Germany Karl Schäffner 1965-1966
2 Hungary Bela Volentik 1966-1967
3 East Germany Karl Schäffner 1967-1969
4 East Germany Hans Geitel 1969-1971
5 East Germany Günter Schröter 1972-1973
6 East Germany Harry Nippert 1973-1977
7 East Germany Jürgen Bogs 1977-1989
8 East Germany Helmut Jäschke 1989-1990
9 East Germany Peter Rohde 1990-1990
10 Germany Jürgen Bogs 1990-1993
11 Germany Helmut Koch 1993-1995
12 Germany Dr. Dieter Fuchs 1995-1996[450] [a]
13 Germany Werner Voigt 1995-1998
14 Germany Ingo Rentzsch 1998-1998
15 Germany Henry Häusler 1998-1999
16 Germany Ingo Rentzsch 1999-1999 [a]
17 Germany Norbert Paepke 1999-1999 [a]
18 Germany Klaus Goldbach 1999-1999
19 Germany Jürgen Bogs 1999-2001
20 Germany Mario Maek 2001-2002
21 Germany Dirk Vollmar 2002-2003
22 Germany Sven Orbanke 2002-2004
23 Germany Christian Backs 2004-2005
24 Germany Rajko Fijalek 2005-2005 [a][b]
24 Germany Bodo Rudwaleit 2005-2005 [a][b]
25 Germany Jürgen Piepenburg 2005-2005
26 Germany Rajko Fijalek 2005-2005 [a][b]
26 Germany Bodo Rudwaleit 2005-2005 [a][b]
27 Germany Rajko Fijalek 2006-2006
28 Germany Nico Thomaschewski 2006-2006 [a][b][c]
28 Germany Jörn Lenz 2006-2006 [a][b][c]
29 Germany Ingo Rentzsch 2006-2007
30 Germany Nico Thomaschewski 2007-2007 [a][b][c]
30 Germany Jörn Lenz 2007-2007 [a][b][c]
31 Turkey Volkan Uluç 2007-2009
32 Turkey Hakan Pinar 2009-2009
33 Germany Christian Backs 2009-2010
34 Germany Heiko Bonan 2010-2011
35 Germany René Gritschke 2011-2011
36 Bosnia and Herzegovina Igor Lazić 2011-2011
37 Germany René Gritschke 2011-2012
38 Turkey Volkan Uluç 2012-2014
39 Germany Thomas Stratos 2014-2016
40 Germany René Rydlewicz 2016-2018
41 Germany Matthias Maucksch 2019-2019
42 Germany Christian Benbennek 2019-
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Interim coach.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Co-head coach
  3. ^ a b c d Player-coach.

Honours[edit]

The team celebrating the victory in the 1989 DFV-Supercup together with fans. Heiko Bonan is holding the trophy.

BFC Dynamo was the most successful club in the DDR-Oberliga, winning ten championships. And those ten titles came consecutively, which is a feat no other team in East Germany has matched. The DDR-Oberliga was dissolved after the German Reunification and replaced by the Bundesliga, as East Germany joined West Germany to form the reunited Germany.

Domestic[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Won by SC Dynamo Berlin.
  2. ^ The Fuwo-Pokal was only arranged in 1972. All teams in the 1971-72 DDR-Oberliga took part in the cup.

International[edit]

Double[edit]

Regional[edit]

Seasons in East Germany[edit]

SC Dynamo Berlin[edit]

Year Division Level Position
1954-55 DDR-Oberliga I 7th
1955 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1956 DDR-Oberliga I 13th
1957 DDR-Liga II 1st
1958 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1959 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1960 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1961-62 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1962-63 DDR-Oberliga I 10th
1963-64 DDR-Oberliga I 8th
1963-65 DDR-Oberliga I 12th

BFC Dynamo[edit]

Year Division Level Position
1965–66 DDR-Oberliga I 9th
1966–67 DDR-Oberliga I 13th
1967–68 DDR-Liga II 1st
1968–69 DDR-Oberliga I 10th
1969–70 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1970–71 DDR-Oberliga I 9th
1971–72 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1972–73 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1973–74 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1974–75 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1975–76 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1976–77 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1977–78 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1978–79 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1979–80 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1980–81 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1981–82 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1982–83 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1983–84 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1984–85 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1985–86 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1986–87 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1987–88 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1988–89 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1989–90 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1990–91 NOFV-Oberliga I 11th

Seasons since 1991[edit]

Year Division Level Position
1991–92 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 1st
1992–93 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 4th
1993–94 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 4th
1994–95 Regionalliga Nordost III 11th
1995–96 Regionalliga Nordost III 13th
1996–97 Regionalliga Nordost III 13th
1997–98 Regionalliga Nordost III 11th
1998–99 Regionalliga Nordost III 8th
1999–00 Regionalliga Nordost III 17th
2000–01 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 1st
2001–02 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 17th
2002–03 Verbandsliga Berlin V 3rd
2003–04 Verbandsliga Berlin V 1st ↑
2004–05 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 6th
2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 6th
2006–07 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 10th
2007–08 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 5th
2008–09 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 2nd
2009–10 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 2nd
2010–11 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 7th
2011–12 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 13th
2012–13 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 3rd
2013–14 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 1st
2014–15 Regionalliga Nordost IV 5th
2015–16 Regionalliga Nordost IV 4th
2016–17 Regionalliga Nordost IV 15th
2017–18 Regionalliga Nordost IV 4th
2018–19 Regionalliga Nordost IV 12th
2019–20 Regionalliga Nordost IV 6th
2020–21 Regionalliga Nordost IV 6th

European competitions[edit]

Season Competition Round Country Club Score
1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup First round Wales Cardiff City 1–1, 1–1, 6–5 (p)
Second round Belgium K. Beerschot V.A.C. 3–1, 3–1
Quarter-finals Sweden Åtvidabergs FF 2–0, 2–2
Semi-finals Soviet Union Dynamo Moscow 1–1, 1–1, 1–4 (p)
1972-73 UEFA Cup First round France Angers 1–1, 2–1
Second round Bulgaria Levski-Spartak Sofia 3–0, 0–2
Third round England Liverpool 0–0, 1–3
1976-77 UEFA Cup First round Soviet Union Shakhtar Donetsk 0–3, 1–1
1978-79 UEFA Cup First round Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Red Star Belgrade 5–2, 1–4
1979-80 European Cup First round Poland Ruch Chorzów 4–1, 0–0
Second round Switzerland Servette 2–1, 2–2
Quarter-finals England Nottingham Forest 1–0, 1–3
1980-81 European Cup First round Cyprus APOEL 3–0, 1–2
Second round Czech Republic Baník Ostrava 0–0, 1–1
1981-82 European Cup Qualification France Saint-Étienne 1-1, 2-0
First round Switzerland Zürich 2–0, 1–3
Second round England Aston Villa 1–2, 1–0
1982-83 European Cup First round Germany Hamburger SV 1–1, 0–2
1983-84 European Cup First round Luxembourg Jeunesse Esch 4–1, 2–0
Second round Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Partizan 2–0, 0–1
Quarter-finals Italy Roma 0–3, 2–1
1984-85 European Cup First round Scotland Aberdeen 1–2, 2–1, 5–4 (p)
Second round Austria Austria Wien 3–3, 1–2
1985-86 European Cup First round Austria Austria Wien 0–2, 1–2
1986-87 European Cup First round Sweden Örgryte IS 3–2, 4–1
Second round Denmark Brøndby 1–2, 1–1
1987-88 European Cup First round France Bordeaux 0–2, 0–2
1988-89 European Cup First round Germany Werder Bremen 3–0, 0–5
1989-90 European Cup Winners' Cup First round Iceland Valur 2–1, 2–1
Second round France Monaco 0–0, 1–1

European record[edit]

Competition Record
G W D L Win %
European Cup 38 15 8 15 039.47
UEFA Cup 10 3 3 4 030.00
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 12 5 7 0 041.67
Total 60 23 18 19 038.33

Youth department[edit]

BFC Dynamo has 20 youth teams in the 2020–21 season.[451][146] The youth teams range from U8 to U19 teams. The U17 team competes in the third tier B-Junior Verbandsliga Berlin and the U19 team competes in second tier A-Junior Regionalliga Nordost.[451] The youth teams are based in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen.[150] There were more than 800 children and youth players in the club as of 2019.[452] Many children in the club comes from immigrant backgrounds or socially disadvantaged families.[150][453][146][240]

The club launched the so-called "Kita-projekt" in 2003.[150] The Kita-projekt is a day care project that gives boys and girls aged 3 to 6 the opportunity to participate in sports on a regular basis.[150][454] The Kita-projekt involves approximately 200 children from 16 day care centers in Berlin as of 2020.[453] The majority of the children come from the nearby localities or former boroughts of Lichtenberg, Hohenschönhausen, Karlshorst, Mitte, Weißensee and Pankow.[454] The Kita-projekt was the first of its kind in Germany and has received several awards for its work with children.[150][455][456] The former professional player of BFC Dynamo Jörn Lenz is the head of the Kita-projekt as of 2020.[456]

The so-called "Jugendförderverein" was founded in 2004. It is a registered voluntary association that aims to promote youth sports at BFC Dynamo. The Jugendförderverein has supported youth teams with equipment, covered costs for trips to tournaments and helped youth trainers to be able to obtain their trainer license. The Jugendförderverein relies on donations and voluntary work.[457]

Youth academy[edit]

BFC Dynamo had a very successful youth academy during the East German era.[392][8][93] The youth department had full-time trainers available for all youth classes and access to the best material conditions in the Dynamo-Sportforum.[51] Youth coaches were highly qualified and training in the Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) was extensive.[458][459] The youth work at BFC Dynamo during the East German era was described as "absolutely leading" by former coach Jürgen Bogs, who had a background as coach of the junior team.[51]

The upper tier of elite clubs in East Germany had privileged access to talents within designated geographical and administrative areas.[3][41] However, BFC Dynamo was able to recruit its talents from training centers (TZ) in all parts of East Germany, except those in Bezirk Dresden.[51][3][460] The club benefited from a nation-wide scouting system, which included 33 training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo and a partnership with Bezirk Cottbus.[461][462][336] In total, BFC Dynamo had access to 38 training centers (TZ) across East Germany for the recruitment of talents. As a comparison, 1. FC Union Berlin had only access to 6 training centers (TZ), all of which were located in the Berlin area.[52]

As a focus club (German: Schwerpunktclub), BFC Dynamo had the privilege to accommodate twelve students in the district Children and Youth Sports Schools (KJS) every year.[460][378] The elite Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) "Werner Seelenbinder" provided boarding and schooling for talented players in the Dynamo-Sportforum.[65][463][464] The Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) "Werner Seelenbinder" was affiliated to sports club SC Dynamo Berlin.[465] Non-focus football clubs only had the right to delegate six students to their respective Children and Youth Sports School (KJS).

Several former players of SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo became youth trainers in the club after ending their playing careers, such as Herbert Schoen, Günter Schröter, Hartmut Pelka and Hans-Jürgen Riediger.[127][466][467] The youth academy produced stars such as Lutz Eigendorf, Falko Götz and Andreas Thom.[65][392][458][239] Most of the top performers of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s came through the club's own youth academy or junior team, including Norbert Trieloff, Bodo Rudwaleit, Ralf Sträßer, Artur Ullrich, Rainer Ernst, Bernd Schulz, Christian Backs, Frank Rohde, Jan Voß, Andreas Thom, Jörg Fügner, Hendrik Herzog and Marco Köller.[127][40][128]

Honours[edit]

  • East German Junior Championship (de)[a]
    • Winners: (4) 1960,[b] 1978, 1979, 1987
    • Runners-up (6): 1967, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1988, 1989
  • Junior Oberliga of the NOFV (de)[a]
    • Winners: 1991[c]
  • East German Youth Championship (de)[d]
    • Winners: (4) 1967, 1972, 1975, 1987
    • Runners-up: 1983, 1989
  • East German Junior Cup (Junge Welt-Pokal) (de)[a]
    • Winners: (3) 1966, 1967, 1989
  • East German Youth Cup (Youth FDGB-Pokal)[d]
    • Winners: (5) 1965,[b] 1968, 1971, 1972, 1976 (record)
  1. ^ a b c Corresponds to U19 level.
  2. ^ a b Won by SC Dynamo Berlin.
  3. ^ Won as FC Berlin.
  4. ^ a b Corresponds to U17 level.

Affiliated clubs[edit]

The following East German sports communities have been affiliated with SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo:

Further reading[edit]

  • Bertram, Marco (2015). BFC Dynamo Fußballfibel (in German), Berlin: CULTURCON medien. ISBN 978-3-944068-38-1.
  • Gläser, Andreas (2002). Der BFC ist schuld am Mauerbau: Ein stolzer Sohn des Proletariats erzählt (in German). Berlin: Aufbau Verlag. ISBN 3-7466-1861-4.
  • Karas, Steffen (2020). 66 Jahre BFC Dynamo - Auswärts mit 'nem Bus (in German), Berlin: CULTURCON Medien. ISBN 978-3-944068-95-4.
  • Leske, Hanns (2004). Erich Mielke, die Stasi und das runde Leder: Der Einfluß der SED und des Ministeriums für Staatssicherheit auf den Fußballsport in der DDR (in German). Göttingen: Werkstatt. ISBN 3895334480.
  • Luther, Jörn; Willmann, Frank (2003). BFC Dynamo – Der Meisterclub (in German). Berlin: Das Neue Berlin. ISBN 3-360-01227-5.
  • MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  • Schramm, Jochen (1995). Riot boys! (in German) Cologne: KRASH-Verlag. ISBN 978-3930559220.
  • Willmann, Frank (2007). Stadionpartisanen - Fans und Hooligans in der DDR (in German). Berlin: Neues Leben. ISBN 3355017442.
  • Willmann, Frank; Hauswald, Harald (2008). Ultras Kutten Hooligans: Fußballfans in Ost-Berlin (in German). Berlin: Jaron Verlag. ISBN 3897735881.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The founding of SC Dynamo Berlin was part of general reorganization of sport in East Germany in the middle of the 1950s, in which 21 sports clubs (SC) were set up under different sports associations (SV), such as SV Dynamo and SV Lokomotive, entirely separate from the older enterprise sports community system, the so called Betriebssportgemeinschaft (BSG) system. The sports clubs were envisioned as centers of excellence (German: Leistungszentren) for the promotion of elite sport. Membership in any of these designated sports clubs was only possible through delegation by the appropriate sports association.[2][3]
  2. ^ This was not the first and last relocation of entire football teams in East Germany. Among several examples: SV Vorwärts der KVP Leipzig was relocated to East Berlin in 1953 to play as SV Vorwärts der KVP Berlin (later known as ASK Vorwärts Berlin and finally FC Vorwärts Berlin), which was then relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1971 to play as FC Vorwärts Frankfurt.[9][3][10][11] The successful team of BSG Empor Lauter was relocated to Rostock in 1954, to play for SC Empor Rostock, which later became FC Hansa Rostock.[12] Then SED First Secretary in Bezirk Rostock Karl Mewis and SED funcionary Harry Tisch were instrumental in the relocation of BSG Empor Lauter to Rostock.[13][12]
  3. ^ SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden had existed since October 1948.[16] When SG Friedrichstadt was dissolved after the 1949-50 DDR-Oberliga season, the playing right in the DDR-Oberliga was transferred to SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden.[16] SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden was thus able to enter DDR-Oberliga without having to progress through divisions.[15] In order to put together a strong team for SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden to the 1950-51 DDR-Oberliga, the 40 best players of the various Volkspolizei teams in East Germany were brought together for a training session in Forst in July 1950. Coaches Fritz Sack and Paul Döring picked out 17 players from 11 different cities who were delegated to Dresden to form the team.[17][18][16] SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Potsdam lost five players.[15] SV Deutsche Volkspolizei Potsdam was severely weakened by the delegations to Dresden.[6]
  4. ^ Examples: Five players from SG Volkspolizei Potsdam were delegated to Dresden in 1950 to play for SG Volkspolizei Dresden, which later became SG Dynamo Dresden.[7][12] Seven players from BSG Chemie Leipzig were delegated to SV Vorwärts der Kasernierten Volkspolizei (KVP) Leipzig in 1952, which later became ASK Vorwärts Berlin.[7]
  5. ^ DFV, 3 May 1985: "Zusammenstellung von Informationen zur Problematik mit der Schiedsrichterleistungen und Verhaltensweisen in Zusammenhang mit den Spielen des BFC Dynamo, der SG Dynamo Dresden und dem 1. FC Lok Leipzig in der Saison 1984/85", SAPMO (BArch) DY 30/IV 2/2.039/247
  6. ^ Sources vary on the history of the stadium. A few sources state that the stadium was constructed in 1954 and then refurbished in 1973.[190][196] A centrally located football stadium is depicted in the early plans for the Dynamo-Sportforum by architects Walter Schmidt and Heinz Scharlipp.[197] Other sources suggest that the stadium was completed in its current form in 1970.[198][193][199]
  7. ^ The skinhead movement in East Germany grew out of the punk subculture, and was characterized as an aggressive form of protest.[254][255] It was radicalized in the middle of the 1980s, by a hybrid of ultranationalism, xenophobia and anti-communism.[255] East Berlin was the epicenter of the East German skinhead movement, with BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin as its two football magnets.[255][256] The Stasi concluded that about 30-40 skinheads were associated to the two clubs in December 1985. Many were attached to fan cub Anale Berlin at BFC Dynamo.[255] Anale Berlin became infamous for its violence capital and glorification of fascism.[255][256] There were around 300-400 skinheads in East Berlin in December 1987.[257][216] Many were fans of BFC Dynamo.[216] Reports noted a group of roughly 100 skinheads that regularly attended the away matches of BFC Dynamo in 1988.[27] And the Stasi estimated that there were about 30 skinheads among the followers of 1. FC Union Berlin in July 1988.[3][27] Despite the fierce rivalry between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin, there were contacts between skinheads of the two clubs.[31] Far-right skinheads were attached to fan clubs Borussen and Die Löwen at 1. FC Union Berlin.[250][258]
  8. ^ Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin used the same provocation at away matches in Saxony, despite their cultivation of their club's underdog image. A supporter of 1. FC Union Berlin has testified that they brought Cuban organges and rotten bananas to an away match against FC Karl-Marx-Stadt, fully aware that these were symbols of their privileges as East Berliners.[328]
  9. ^ Another legend tells that Erich Mielke made a remark about bringing the title to Berlin after a fractious encounter between SG Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo on 2 December 1978, when he allegedly walked into the locker room of SG Dynamo Dresden and told the players that "You must understand, the capital city needs a champion!".[39] However, according to another version, he instead made this remark when the players of SG Dynamo Dresden celebrated their title in 1978 and he allegedly ghosted into their locker room to inform them that BFC Dynamo will be champions next year.[335] And according to yet another version, this happened instead after BFC Dynamo had won its second title in 1980, when Erich Mielke allegedly told the players of SG Dynamo Dresden that "One must understand, the capital city needs a champion."[67]
  10. ^ The football clubs had been assigned one or to districts in East Germany as catchment areas since their founding. 1. FC Union Berlin had been assigned Bezirk Potsdam and one third of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. BFC Dynamo had been assigned Bezirk Cottbus and one third of training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. BFC Dynamo now had access to Bezirk Cottbus and two thirds of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. 1. FC Union Berlin on the other hand had to make do with its training centers (TZ) in East Berlin.[364][350]
  11. ^ The football resolution of 1970 was approved in 1969 but came into effect in the summer of 1970. It is therefore sometimes also named the football resolution of 1969.[374][375]
  12. ^ FC Vorwärts Berlin was initially the focus club in East Berlin.[375] The only major club in East Berlin that was never appointed as focus club was 1. FC Union Berlin.[372] FC Vorwärts Berlin continued to be part of the group of focus clubs after its relocation to Frankfurt an der Oder.[375]
  13. ^ The club leadership of 1. FC Union Berlin seriously considered moving all matches to Stadion der Weltjugend after a stormy encounter with BSG Wismut Aue in 1976.[384]
  14. ^ Manfred Kirste was the first president and is the longest serving president, as of 2021. He served as club president from 15 January 1966 to 30 August 1988.
  15. ^ Served briefly as an interim president, from 20 February 1990 to 27 May 1990.[424]
  16. ^ Dr. Klaus Janz served until 15 October 1990. He asked to be relieved from the office due to professional stress as a lawyer, but continued as vice president.[425]
  17. ^ Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich was elected on 15 October 1990 and had a background as a club doctor for SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo.[426][425] The presidium under Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich was replaced by a new presidium under Eberhard Landmann in May 1994.[427][428]
  18. ^ Eberhard Landmann was a former insurance salesman. He only served as club president for nine months.[427][428][429]
  19. ^ Klaus Bittroff was elected as the new president on 10 February 1995. Volkmar Wanski was elected as one of two vice presidents alongside re-elected Lutz Hoff.[430][429]
  20. ^ Resigned on 29 June 2000.[431][429][432]
  21. ^ Sports director Hans Reker was appointed acting president by the Economic council following the resignation of Volkmar Wanski on 29 June 2000.[431][432] Karin Seidel-Kalmutzki took office as new president on 27 September 2000.[433]
  22. ^ Karin Halsch was known as Karin Seidel-Kalmutzki during the era. Served from 27 September 2000 to 25 June 2001.[433][434]
  23. ^ Sports director Hans Reker succeeded Karin Halsch as president on 25 June 2000.[434][435] Hans Reker had previously served as vice president.[436][437] Resigned together with the entire presidium on 30 October 2001.[438] An emergency board formed by André Sommer, Rayk Bernt and press spokesman Holger Zimmermann took office until the extaordinary general meeting on 26 November 2001.[438][439]
  24. ^ André Sommer and Rayk Bernt served briefly in the presidium at the opening of the invsolvency proceedings, from 26 November 2001 to 31 May 2002.[440]
  25. ^ Elected on an extraordinary general meeting on 31 May 2002.[441]
  26. ^ Mario Weinkauf resigned on a meeting with the presidium on 22 June 2007. He was then dismissed in a vote of no-confidence on an extra-ordinary general meeting on 23 June 2007. Mario Weinkauf was succeeded by Volkmar Wanski as interim president. Volkmar Wanski had been co-opted into the presidium and elected as the provisional successor to Mario Weinkauf on the meeting with the presidium on 22 June 2007. However the interim presidency of Volkmar Wanski was controversial. It was put into question whether his election was compliant with club statutes. Volkmar Wanski resigned after only six days.[442][443][444]
  27. ^ Frank Berton was appointed as interim president by the Economic council under Peter Meyer.[445]
  28. ^ Norbert Uhlig is the second longest serving president after Manfred Kirste. Norbert Ulhig has been president since 11 October 2008.[446]

References[edit]

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  290. ^ "Gedenken an Mike Polley: BFC plant Fanmarsch zum Gastspiel bei Chemie Leipzig". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  291. ^ a b c d e f "Hooligans wüteten in Rostock: Plünderungen und Straßenschlachten". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. 18 March 1991. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
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  293. ^ Hogg, Emmanuel (2016). "Kicking Through the Wall: Football, Division, and Entanglement in Postwar Berlin" (PDF). Ottawa: Carleton University: 206. doi:10.22215/etd/2017-11830. Retrieved 13 December 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  294. ^ a b MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  295. ^ Hautop, Christian (23 November 1991). "SV Hafen Rostock ließ Oberliga-Spiel gegen FC Berlin platzen - Krawall-Angst!". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH.
  296. ^ a b Scwermer, Alina (25 May 2016). "Rassismus beim BFC Dynamo: Ultralangsam aus der rechten Ecke". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  297. ^ "Toter BFC-Fan wird von den Hooligans als Märtyrer verehrt". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2020. Berlin gilt als Hauptstadt der Hools. Bei der "Einsatzgruppe Hooligans" der Polizei sind rund 1000 Personen erfaßt. Sie werden der "Kategorie B" (gewaltgeneigt) und "C" (gewaltsuchend) zugeordnet. Der BFC Dynamo hat bundesweit die gewalttätigsten Anhänger. Etwa 150 werden in der Kategorie C eingestuft, bei Union sind es 40.
  298. ^ Willmamnn, Frank (22 August 2005). "Blendgranaten und Schüsse". Junge Welt (in German). Berlin: Linke Presse Verlags- Förderungs- und Beteiligungsgenossenschaft junge Welt e.G. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  299. ^ Willmamnn, Frank (22 August 2005). "Blendgranaten und Schüsse". Junge Welt (in German). Berlin: Linke Presse Verlags- Förderungs- und Beteiligungsgenossenschaft junge Welt e.G. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  300. ^ a b c "Razzia in Berlin: 180 Fußball-Anhänger festgenommen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH. 21 August 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  301. ^ a b c d Behrendt, Michael; Schlichting, Sebastian (24 August 2005). "Polizei nach Hooligan-Razzia unter Druck". Die Welt (in German). Berlin: WeltN24 GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  302. ^ a b "Heult doch, ihr Hools!". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  303. ^ a b c Hasselmann, Jörn (25 August 2005). "Dynamo-Fans sprechen von Racheakt". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  304. ^ Koch, Matthias; Funke, Rainr (26 August 2005). "Anzeigenflut gegen die Polizei". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  305. ^ a b c d e f Plutonia, Plarre (30 August 2005). "Polizeipräsident verteidigt Razzia". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  306. ^ a b "BFC-Hooligans , Krawalle beim Derby gegen Union". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  307. ^ a b Koch, Matthias (23 May 2006). "Sportgericht bestraft BFC Dynamo". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  308. ^ a b c d e f g h i Raack, Axel (11 February 2011). "'Stadtderby mit Schwachköpfen'". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  309. ^ a b c d Raack, Axel (2 August 2011). "'Ich schäme mich für unsere Fans'". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  310. ^ "BFC-Randale nach Sieg von Ankaraspor". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  311. ^ "BFC Dynamo vs. Kaiserslautern: Hunderte Hooligans stürmen Gästeblock". Spiegel (in German). Hamburg: DER SPIEGEL GmbH & Co. KG. 30 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  312. ^ Völker, Markus (31 July 2011). "Hooliganattacken bei BFC Dynamo - Lautern: Auf die Fresse!". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  313. ^ "BFC Dynamo-Fans treffen sich am Alexanderplatz". Faszination Fankurve (in German). Brühl: Faszination Fankurve, Sole trader: Johannes Mäling. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  314. ^ a b Glaser, Joakim (2015). Fotboll från Mielke till Merkel – Kontinuitet, brott och förändring i supporterkultur i östra Tyskland [Football from Mielke to Merkel] (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Malmö: Arx Förlag AB. p. 98. ISBN 978-91-87043-61-1.
  315. ^ "Vor 28 Jahren wurde Mike Polley erschossen". Faszination Fankurve (in German). Brühl: Faszination Fankurve, Sole trader: Johannes Mäling. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  316. ^ "850 BFC-Fans gedenken Mike Polley". Die Welt (in German). Berlin: WeltN24 GmbH. 15 April 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  317. ^ a b "FanProjekt Berlin: Aufsuchende pädagogische Arbeit mit jugendlichen Fußballfans". sportjugend-berlin.de (in German). Berlin: Landessportbund Berlin e.V. n.d. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  318. ^ a b c Bock, Andreas (31 March 2015). "'Das hat eine neue Qualität'". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  319. ^ a b "BFC DYNAMO: Nach dem drohenden Spielverbot schlägt Fan-Beauftragter Rainer Lüdtke im B.Z.-Interview Alarm". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  320. ^ Willmann, Frank (26 September 2012). "Willmanns Kolumne: Arthur aus Marzahn". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  321. ^ Lier, Axel (6 August 2019). "Hertha hat die meisten 'Problem-Fans'". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  322. ^ Füchsel, Katja (23 November 2019). "Seit 25 Jahren fast jedes Wochenende im Stadion: Uwe Storm jagt Hools in seiner Friezeit". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  323. ^ a b Füchsel, Katja (23 November 2019). "Uwe Storm jagt Hools in seiner Friezeit". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  324. ^ a b Görke, André (20 October 2007). "Nazikinder! Sasi-Schweine!". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  325. ^ Wolf, Matthias (2 October 1999). "Mit Musik zum Derby: Eine Hymne für den BFC Dynamo". Berliner Zeitung. Berlin.
  326. ^ Lorenz, Mirko (4 July 2016). "Wie die orangene Bomberjacke ihr Nazi-Image ablegte". Vice (in German). Berlin: VICE Media GmbH. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  327. ^ MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  328. ^ Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8. Moreover, for all their cultivation of the club's underdog image, Union fans were not averse to basking in the glow of their superiority as Berliners over provincial rivals. One fan, "PID", boast that they took Cuban oranges and rotten bananas to Karl-Marx-Stadt, aware that these symbols of privilege would annoy the locals. Insult was added when the Berliners showed their disdain for the poor-quality fruit by using it as missiles.
  329. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Christopher Links Verlag GmbH. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4. Mit Beschluss des DTSB-Bezirksvorstandes vom 5. August 1968 wird Dynamo zum Fußball-Leistungszentrum im Berizk Dresden, das damit in der gesamten Region auf Spielersuche gehen kann.
  330. ^ "Jubiläumswelle im Osten: Beschluss der Sport-Führung war Auslöser". Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Rundschau GmbH. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  331. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2001). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Die "Bearbeitung" der Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden durch das MfS 1979–1989 (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Chrisopher Links Verlag (LinksDruck GmbH). p. 278. ISBN 3-86153-235-2. In den Redetexten zu den folgenden BFC-Meisterfeiern verloren sich die Worten a die 'Freunde aus Dresden'. Im Jahr der Wende musste Mielke zur Meisterfeier wieder einmal an die Elbe reisen. Der volretzte DDR-Meisterteitel von Dynamo Dresden wurde auf der Bastei im Elbsandsteingebirge gefeiert. Reinhard Häfner erinnert sich: 'Mielke sagte, ihm wäre es zwar lieber, wenn die BFC Meister ist, aber da es ja auch Dynamo st, bleibt es sozysagen in der Familie, und das ist aucht gut.'
  332. ^ Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
  333. ^ Klein, Daniel (11 April 2018). "Der Rivale aus Berlin". Sächsische.de (in German). Dresden: DDV Mediengruppe GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 8 June 2019. Im Juni 1978 kam Erich Mielke nach Dresden. Es war ein nicht so angenehmer Termin für den Stasi- Chef und ersten Vorsitzender der Sportvereinigung Dynamo. Im Hotel und Restaurant Bastei auf der Prager Straße musste er den Dresdnern zur gewonnenen Meisterschaft gratulieren, was ihm als obersten Fan des BFC Dynamo schwergefallen sein dürfte. Seine Rede vor der Mannschaft war an Deutlichkeit nicht zu überbieten. 'Hört zu Genossen', begann er. 'Es ist schön, dass Ihr aus unserer Sportvereinigung nun schon zum dritten Mal in Folge den Fußballmeistertitel für Dynamo errungen habt. Herzlichen Glückwunsch, auch von mir. (...) Aber wir werden alles tun, damit im kommenden Jahr der Meister aus der Hauptstadt Berlin kommt und Ihr als Speerspitze den zweiten Platz belegen werdet.'
  334. ^ "Interview: Mythos Dynamo – was steckt dahinter?". mdr.de (in German). Leipzig: Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  335. ^ Buckley, Will (22 October 2009). "The forgotten story of ... East Germany's DDR-Oberliga". The Guardian. London: Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  336. ^ a b Friedemann, Horst (1991). Sparwasser und Mauerblümchen: Die Geschichte des Fussballs in der DDR, 1949-1991 (in German) (1st ed.). Essen: Klartext Verlag. p. 128. ISBN 978-3884744628. Das DDR-weite Sichtungssystem mit 33 Trainingszentren der SV Dynamo sowie im Partnerbezirk Cottbus hat den Talentenachschub nie abreiß en lassen.
  337. ^ "Armee, Polizei und Stasi: Fußball-Sponsoring der anderen Art". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). München: Süddeutsche Zeitung Digitale Medien GmbH. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  338. ^ a b Pleil, Ingolf (11 June 2018). "Was der Geheimdienst der DDR mit dem Sport zu tun hatte". Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten (in German). Hannover: Verlagsgesellschaft Madsack GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  339. ^ a b c d e f MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–139. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  340. ^ a b Schwarz, Jürgen (8 December 2014). "Der Ausgestoßene". Sächsische Zeitung (in German). Dresden: Sächsische Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  341. ^ Riemer, Thomas (17 December 2018). "Anzeige in der Zeitung sorgt für Gerüchte". Sächsische Zeitung (in German). Dresden: Sächsische Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  342. ^ a b c Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 1348. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  343. ^ Boeger, Peter; Catrain, Elise, eds. (2016). "Stasi in Dresden- Die Geheimpolizei im DDR-Bezirk" (PDF) (in German). Berlin: Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic. ISBN 978-3-946572-02-2. Retrieved 11 April 2021. Ist der Fall Kotte ein Einzelfall in der DDR oder doch ein Beispiel für eine systematische Einflussnahme des MfS auf den Fußball? Die große Furcht des MfS vor republikflüchtigen Fußballern, Fans und Funktionären war allgegenwärtig. Solche »Sportverräter« durfte es nicht geben. Die Angst der SED vor politischen Schäden und erheblichen negativen Auswirkungen auf den Leistungssport bestimmte das Handeln des MfS. Deshalb waren Spieler und Anhänger der Fußballclubs ständig im Fadenkreuz der Stasi. Der Fall Kotte ist kein Einzelfall. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  344. ^ Leimert, Jochen (24 January 2021). ""Kann sich heute keiner mehr vorstellen": Ex-Dynamo Müller erinnert sich an sein ungeplantes Karriereaus". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021. Glauben Sie, dass der dem BFC zugetane Minister für Staatssicherheit mit seinem kompromisslosen Vorgehen gegen drei Dresdner Spieler bewusst die Dynamo-Konkurrenz aus Elbflorenz schwächen wollte, um seinem Lieblingsclub die Vormachtstellung zu sichern? Das glaube ich nicht nur, das weiß ich zu 100 Prozent.
  345. ^ a b c d e Stier, Sebastian (18 January 2016). "1. FC Union, FC Vorwärts, BFC Dynamo: Als die DDR ihren Fußballbetrieb revolutionierte". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  346. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 12. Retrieved 4 April 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  347. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8.
  348. ^ Benedikter, Roland; Wojtaszyn, Dariusz (2020). Football Politics in Central Europe and Eastern Europe: A Study on the Geopolitical Area’s Tribal, Imaginal, and Contextual Politics (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Lexington Books (The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.). p. 126. ISBN 978-1793622471.
  349. ^ MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  350. ^ a b c d e f g h i Koch, Matthuas (28 November 2019). "Vom Mauerblümchen zum Fußball-Leuchtturm". bpb.de (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  351. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 38–39. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  352. ^ a b Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 43. Retrieved 5 April 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  353. ^ a b c d e f g h Japke, Josephine (2017). Written at Königs Wusterhausen. "Die gesellschaftspolitische Stellung des 1. FC Union Berlin zu Zeiten der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 35–37. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  354. ^ a b Ludewig, Alexander (12 February 2016). "Der 1. FC Union als Hauptstadtklub im geteilten Berlin". Neues Deutschland (in German). Berlin: Neues Deutschland Druckerei und Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  355. ^ Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 16. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  356. ^ a b c d e f g h i Japke, Josephine (2017). Written at Königs Wusterhausen. "Die gesellschaftspolitische Stellung des 1. FC Union Berlin zu Zeiten der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 38–40. Retrieved 4 April 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  357. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Karkos, Sebastian; Koch, Matthias (30 March 2015). "Nach Sturm des Spielfelds: Berlins Fußball-Boss fordert Stadion-Verbote". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  358. ^ a b c Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 45–46. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  359. ^ Willmann, Frank (2007). Stadionpartisanen - Fans und Hooligans in der DDR (2nd ed.). Berlin: Neues Leben. p. 192. ISBN 3355017442. Herr Mielis liest mir aus seinem privaten Fußball-Tagebuch vor, von Ereignissen, die er als Ursprung für das Verhalten heutiger Fan-Generationen sieht: "Am 28. Oktober 1970 hatte das Spiel gegen den BFC Dynamo, das 1:1 endete in Hohenschönhausen unter einer katastrophalen Leitung des Schiedsrichters, für den 1. FC Union böse Folgen.
  360. ^ a b Koch, Matthias (2013). »Immer weiter - ganz nach vorn«: Die Geschichte des 1. FC Union Berlin (1st ed.). Göttingen: Die Werkstatt. pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-3-7307-0049-5.
  361. ^ a b Luther, Jörn; Willmann, Frank (2000). Und niemals vergessen - Eisern Union! (1st ed.). Berlin: BasisDruck. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-3-86163-106-4.
  362. ^ Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 58. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
  363. ^ Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. "Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR" (PDF) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida: 13. Retrieved 4 April 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  364. ^ a b Luther, Jörn; Willmann, Frank (2000). Und niemals vergessen - Eisern Union! (1st ed.). Berlin: BasisDruck. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-3-86163-106-4. Aber der Reihe nach: Die Fußballclubs hatten bei ihrer Gründung einen oder zwei Bezirke zugewiesen bekommen , aus deren Trainingszentren sie ihren Nachwuchs rekrutierten . Bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt verfügte Union über ein Drittel der Berliner Leistungszentren und den Bezirk Potsdam als Einzugsgebiet. Als der FC Vorwärts jedoch nach Frankfurt umgesiedelt wurde, bekam er als Talentequelle neben dem nun "eigenen" Bezirk Frankfurt/Oder auch noch Potsdam zugewiesen. Und der BFC übernamn das Drittel der Berliner Nachwuchsschmieden, das vordem die Armeesportler inne hatten. Damit verfügten die Dynamos über das Einzugsgebiet Cottbus plus zwei Drittel Berlins
  365. ^ a b c d Schulz, Torsten (20 October 2007). "Eine Erinnerung an den vor zehn Jahren verstorbenen Fußballer Reinhard Lauck: Das Trikot". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  366. ^ a b "1. FC Union Berlin: Die bewegende Geschichte des "Eisernen Mäcki" Reinhard Lauck". ran.de (in German). Unterföhring: Seven.One Sports GmbH. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  367. ^ a b c Bock, Andreas (22 October 2017). "Der weiche Mäcki". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  368. ^ a b c d e f Gläser, Andreas (21 August 2005). "Willkommen in der Zone". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  369. ^ Fiebrig, Sebastian (3 June 2014). "Reinhard "Mäcki" Lauck – Tragödie eines vergessenen Helden". Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Berlin: Berliner Morgenpost GmbH. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  370. ^