Bernard Pierre Magnan
Magnan started his career as an enlisted soldier of the 66th Line in 1809. Promoted to sergeant in 1810, the next year he entered the officers ranks and was successively promoted 2nd lieutenant, 1st lieutenant and captain. From 1810 to 1813 Magnan took part in the Peninsular War. In January 1814 he was transferred to the Imperial Guard, with which he took part in the French campaign of 1814, being wounded at Craonne. On half pay during the Bourbon Restoration, he rejoined Napoléon's Imperial Guard during the Hundred Days.
After Waterloo and the Second Restoration, he transferred to the 6th regiment of the Royal Guard. In 1820 he was made a battalion commander in the 34th Line, in 1820 he became lieutenant-colonel in the 60th Line. In 1823 he took part in the Spanish campaign. Promoted to colonel of the 49th Line, he took part in the conquest of Algeria.
Magnan joined general officers rank in 1835 when he was made maréchal du camp. From 1832 to 1839 Magnan served in Belgium as part of a French force stationed their to saveguard the newly won Belgian independence. From 1839 to 1845 he was commandre of the department du Nord. In 1845 he was promoted to général de division. In 1848 he commanded at Lyon until he was wounded during the insurrection. In July 1849 he was given command of the 4th military Division in Strasbourg, the same year he became a deputy for the department of the Seine.
In June 1851 he became commander of the army in Paris in which function he was one of the principal organizers of the coup d'État of December 2, 1851. The next year Napoléon III made him a senator and granted him the title of Marshal of France.